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Encyclopedia > Photocopying
A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library.

Photocopying is a process which makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process using heat. (Copiers can also use other output technologies such as ink jet, but xerography is standard for office copying.) A small, much-used Xerox copier in a library (GlenOak High School, Canton, Ohio, USA). ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a library (GlenOak High School, Canton, Ohio, USA). ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Main article: Secondary education High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory education. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ...


Xerographic office photocopying was introduced by Xerox in the 1960s, and over the following 20 years it gradually replaced copies made by Verifax, Photostat, carbon paper, mimeograph machines, and other duplicating machines. The prevalence of its use is one of the factors that prevented the development of the paperless office heralded early in the digital revolution. Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... A sheet of carbon paper, coating side down. ... Mimeograph machine The mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to mimeo) or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ... Duplicating machines were the predecessors of modern document-reproduction technology. ... Office types Class A office space Back office Front office Mobile office Paperless office Serviced office Small office/home office Virtual office The paperless office was a visionary or publicists slogan, supposed to apply to the office of the future. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Photocopying is widely used in business, education, and government. There have been many predictions that photocopiers will eventually become obsolete as information workers continue to increase their digital document creation and distribution and rely less on distributing actual pieces of paper. However, photocopiers are undeniably more convenient than computers for the very common task of creating a copy of a piece of paper.

Contents

How a photocopier works (using xerography)

Schematic overview of the xerographic photocopying process (step 1-4)
  1. Charging: The surface of a cylindrical drum is given an electrostatic charge by either a high voltage wire called a corona wire or a charge roller. The drum is coated with a photoconductive material, such as selenium. A photoconductor is a semiconductor that becomes conductive when exposed to light.
  2. Exposure: A bright lamp illuminates the original document, and the white areas of the original document reflect the light onto the surface of the photoconductive drum. The areas of the drum that are exposed to light (those areas that correspond to white areas of the original document) become conductive and therefore discharge to ground. The area of the drum not exposed to light (those areas that correspond to black portions of the original document) remain negatively charged. The result is a latent electrical image on the surface of the drum.
  3. Developing: The toner is positively charged. When it is applied to the drum to develop the image, it is attracted and sticks to the areas that are negativly charged (black areas), just as paper sticks to a toy balloon with a static charge.
  4. Transfer: The resulting toner image on the surface of the drum is transferred from the drum onto a piece of paper with a higher negative charge than the drum.
  5. Fusing: The toner is melted and bonded to the paper by high-heat and high-pressure rollers.
  6. Cleaning: The drum is wiped clean with a rubber blade and completely discharged by light before beginning the process again.

This example is of a negatively charged drum and paper, and positively charged toner. Some copiers employ the opposite: a positively charged drum and paper, and negatively charged toner. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (780x1530, 162 KB) Schematic drawing of the xeroxgraphic photocopying process. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (780x1530, 162 KB) Schematic drawing of the xeroxgraphic photocopying process. ... Se redirects here. ... Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more conductive due to the absorption of electro-magnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, or gamma radiation. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...


Invention

In 1937 Bulgarian physicist Georgi Nadjakov found that when placed into electric field and exposed to light, some dielectrics acquire permanent electric polarization in the exposed areas.[1] That polarization persists in the dark and is destroyed in light. Chester Carlson, the inventor of photocopying, was originally a patent attorney and part-time researcher and inventor. His job at the patent office in New York required him to make a large number of copies of important papers. Carlson, who was arthritic, found this a painful and tedious process. This prompted him to conduct experiments with photoconductivity. Carlson experimented with "electrophotography" in his kitchen and in 1938, applied for a patent for the process. He made the first "photocopy" using a zinc plate covered with sulfur. The words "10-22-38 Astoria" were written on a microscope slide, which was placed on top of more sulfur and under a bright light. After the slide was removed, a mirror image of the words remained. Carlson tried to sell his invention to some companies, but because the process was still underdeveloped he failed. At the time multiple copies were made using carbon paper or duplicating machines and people did not feel the need for an electronic machine. Between 1939 and 1944, Carlson was turned down by over 20 companies, including IBM and GE, neither of which believed there was a significant market for copiers. 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Articles with similar titles include physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Georgi Nadjakov is a famous Bulgarian physicist. ... Chester Carlson Chester F. Carlson (February 8, 1906 - September 19, 1968) was an American physicist, inventor, and patent attorney born in Seattle, Washington. ... A patent attorney is an attorney who has the specialized qualifications necessary for representing clients in obtaining patents and acting in all matters and procedures relating to patent law and practice, such as filing an opposition. ... NY redirects here. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more conductive due to the absorption of electro-magnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, or gamma radiation. ... Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson (Born Feb 8 1906 - Died Sep 19 1968) in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... GE redirects here. ...


In 1944, the Battelle Memorial Institute, a non-profit organization in Columbus, Ohio, contracted with Carlson to refine his new process. Over the next five years, the institute conducted experiments to improve the process of electrophotography. In 1947 Haloid Corporation (a small New York-based manufacturer and seller of photographic paper) approached Battelle to obtain a license to develop and market a copying machine based on this technology. The Battelle Memorial Institute is a private, not-for-profit applied science and technology deveopment company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Haloid felt that the word "electrophotography" was too complicated and did not have good recall value. After consulting a professor of classical language at Ohio State University, Haloid and Carlson changed the name of the process to "Xerography," derived from Greek words which meant "dry writing." Haloid called the new copier machines "Xerox Machines" and in 1948, the word Xerox was trademarked. Halloid eventually changed its name to Xerox Corporation The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is the worlds largest supplier of toner-based (dry ink) photocopier machines and associated supplies. ...


In the early 1950s, RCA (Radio Corporation of America) introduced a variation on the process called Electrofax where images are formed directly on specially coated paper and rendered with a toner dispersed in a liquid. An electrofax is an electrostatic printer and copier technology where the image is formed directly on the paper, instead of first on a drum (and then transferred to paper) as it would be in Xerography. ...


Use

In 1949, the Xerox introduced the first xerographic copier called the Model A. Xerox became so successful that photocopying came to be popularly known as "Xeroxing," a situation that Xerox has very actively fought in order to prevent "xerox" from becoming a genericized trademark. "Xerox" has been found in some dictionaries as the synonym of photocopying, leading to letters and ads from the Xerox Corporation asking that the entries be modified, and that people not use the term "Xerox" in this way. However, this is mainly only true for North America—for example, in the United Kingdom the term "photocopying" is far more common than "Xeroxing." "Photostat" is an outdated term for a photocopy, which some in the United Kingdom still use. Some languages use hybrid terms, such as the widely used Polish term kserokopia ("xerocopy"), even despite relatively low percentage of the copying machines available being branded Xerox. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Prior to the widespread adoption of xerographic copiers, photo-direct copies produced by machines such as Kodak's Verifax were used. A primary obstacle associated with the pre-xerographic copying technologies was the high cost of supplies: a Verifax print required supplies costing USD $0.15 in 1969, when a Xerox print could be made for USD $0.03 including paper and labor. At that period, Thermofax photocopying machines in libraries would make letter-sized copies for $0.25 or more, when the minimum wage for a US worker was USD $1.65.


Xerographic copier manufacturers took advantage of the high perceived-value situation of the 1960s and early 1970s and marketed paper that was "specially designed" for xerographic output. By the end of the 1970s paper producers had made xerographic "runability" one of the requirements for most of their office paper brands.


Advances allowed for color photocopies and the area of xerox art developed in the 1970s and 1980s. Xerox art (sometimes, more generically, called electrostatic art or copy art) is created by putting objects on the glass, or image area, of a copying machine, and by pressing start, making an image. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, In the Western world, the focus shifted from the social activism of the sixties to social activities for ones own pleasure, save for environmentalism, which continued in a very visible way. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Some devices sold as photocopiers have replaced the drum-based process with inkjet or transfer film technology. Ink jet printers are the most common type of computer printer; and industry and commerce also use them extensively for special-purpose applications. ...


Among the key advantages of photocopiers over earlier copying technologies (some gradually adopted) are:

  • their ability to use plain (untreated) office paper.
  • duplex or two-sided printing.
  • the ability to sort and/or staple output.

Duplex printing is a feature of computer printers that allows the automatic printing of a sheet of paper on both sides. ... A packet of staples commonly used in the home or office A staple is a type of two-pronged, usually metal fastener for joining or binding materials together. ...

Digital technology

In recent years, all new photocopiers have adopted digital technology, replacing the older analog technology. With digital copying, the copier effectively consists of an integrated scanner and laser printer. This design has several advantages, such as automatic image quality enhancement and the ability to "build jobs" or scan page images independently of the process of printing them. Some digital copiers can function as high-speed scanners; such models typically have the ability to send documents via email or make them available on a local area network. A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... An analog or analogue signal is an allergy continuous in both time and amplitude. ... In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes an image (such as a photograph, printed text, or handwriting) or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ...


The greatest advantage of a digital copier is "automatic digital collation." When copying a set of twenty pages twenty times, for example, a digital copier scans each page only once, then uses the stored information to produce twenty sets. In an analog copier, either each page is scanned twenty times (a total of 400 scans), making one set at a time, or twenty separate output trays are used for the twenty sets. Alphabetical redirects here. ...


Low-end copiers also use digital technology, but they tend to consist of a standard PC scanner coupled to an inkjet or low-end laser printer, both of which are far slower than their counterparts in high-end copiers. However, low-end scanner inkjets can provide color copying at a far lower cost than a traditional color copier. The cost of electronics is such that combined scanner-printers sometimes have built-in fax machines. (See Multifunction printer.) A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product/Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AiO), or mopier (Multiple Optical coPIER) or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo...


Color photocopiers

Colored toner became available in the 1950s, although full-color copiers were not commercially available until 3M released the Color-in-Color copier in 1968, which used a dye sublimation process rather than the normal electrostatic technology. The first electrostatic color copier was released by Canon in 1973. This does not cite its references or sources. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM; formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002) is an American corporation with a worldwide presence that produces over 55,000 products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, passive fire protection, dental products, electrical materials, electronic circuits, optical films and supply chain management software. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... Canon Inc. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Color photocopying is a concern to governments since it makes counterfeiting currency much simpler. Some countries have introduced anti-counterfeiting technologies into their currency specifically to make it harder to use a color photocopier to counterfeit. These technologies include watermarks, microprinting, holograms, tiny security strips made of plastic, or other material, and ink that appears to change color as the currency is viewed at an angle. Some photocopying machines contain special software that will prevent the copying of currency that contains a special pattern. A counterfeit is an imitation that is made with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins. ... Holography (from the Greek, Όλος-holos whole + γραφή-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The small circles or dots constituting the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes. ...


Copyright issues

Photocopying material which is subject to copyright (such as books or scientific papers) is subject to restrictions in most countries. It is common practice, especially by students, as the cost of purchasing a book for the sake of one article or a few pages may be excessive. The principle of fair use (in the United States) or fair dealing (in other Berne Convention countries) allows this type of copying for research purposes. Articles with similar titles include copywrite. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Fair dealing is a doctrine of limitations and exceptions to copyright which is found in many of the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, sometimes called the Berne Union or Berne Convention, adopted at Berne in 1986, first established the recognition of copyrights between sovereign nations. ...


In some countries, such as Canada, some universities pay royalties from each photocopy made at university copy machines and copy centers to copyright collectives out of the revenues from the photocopying and these collectives distribute these funds to various scholarly publishers. In the United States, photocopied compilations of articles, handouts, graphics, and other information called readers are often required texts for college classes. Either the instructor or the copy center is responsible for clearing copyright for every article in the reader and attribution information is included in the front of the reader. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency or collecting society) is a body created by private agreements or by copyright law that collects royalty payments from various individuals and groups for copyright holders. ...


Health Issues

Ultraviolet exposure does remain a concern. In the early days of photocopiers, the sensitizing light source was filtered green to match the optimal sensitivity of the photoconductive surface. This filtering conveniently removed all ultraviolet [2]. Today a variety of light sources may be used. As glass transmits ultraviolet rays between 325 and 400 nanometers, copiers with ultraviolet-producing lights such as fluorescent, tungsten halogen or xenon flash will expose documents to some ultraviolet [3]. Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ...


Forensic identification

Similar to forensic identification of typewriters, computer printers and copiers can be traced by imperfections in their output. The mechanical tolerances of the toner and paper feed mechanisms cause banding, which contain information about the individual device's mechanical properties. It is usually possible to identify the manufacturer and brand, but in some cases the individual printer can be identified from a set of known printers by comparing their outputs. [4] [5] Forensic identification is the application of forensic science and technology to identify specific objects from the traces they leave, often at a crime scene. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Banding is the procedure where rubber bands are tied around the veins which are bleeding, thereby cutting off the bleeding at those points. ...


In 2005, some high-quality color printers and copiers were demonstrated to steganographically embed their identification code in the printed pages as fine and almost invisible patterns of yellow dots. This reportedly had been done by top-of-the-line copiers for several years. The sources identify Xerox and Canon as firms engaging in this practice. [6] [7] The US government has been reported to have asked these companies to implement such a tracking scheme so counterfeiting could be traced. Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Canon Inc. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ...


Current copier brands

Canon Inc. ... Fuji Xerox is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. ... The Gestetner, named for its inventor David Gestetner, is a duplicating machine. ... Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc. ... Kyocera Corporation ) (TYO: 6971 , NYSE: KYO) is a Japanese company based in Kyoto, Japan. ... Oki Electric Industry Co. ... Océ NV is Netherlands-based company that manufactures and sells production printing and copying hardware and related software. ... Imagistics international incorporated, or IGI as a stock market symbol, is a distributor of office supplies such as copiers and fax machines. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Ricoh Company, Ltd. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 ) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ...

Literature

  • R. Schaffert: Electrophotography. Focal Press, 1975
  • David Owen, Copies in seconds : how a lone inventor and an unknown company created the biggest communication breakthrough since Gutenberg: Chester Carlson and the birth of the Xerox machine. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004).

See also

This is a partial list of duplicating processes used in business and government from the Industrial Revolution forward. ... A multifunctional printer An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product), multifunctional, all-in-one, or mopier, is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo market segment), or to provide better... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... A negative photocopy inverts the the colors of the document when creating the photocopy resulting in letters to appear white on a black background instead of black on a white background. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
General Interpretations & Information Regarding Copyright & Photocopied Reserve Materials (799 words)
The WSU Libraries accept photocopied copyrighted materials for reserve purposes according to copyright fair use guidelines.
Photocopying for educational use must be of a limited nature, determined by the brevity of the photocopied material, and the spontaneity and cumulative effect of its creation.
The inspiration and the decision to use the photocopied material and the moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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