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Encyclopedia > Phosphorus
15 siliconphosphorussulfur
N

P

As
General
Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15
Chemical series nonmetals
Group, period, block 153, p
Appearance waxy white/ red/
black/ colorless
Standard atomic weight 30.973762(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 5
Density (near r.t.) (white) 1.823 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (red) 2.34 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (black) 2.69 g·cm−3
Melting point (white) 317.3 K
(44.2 °C, 111.6 °F)
Boiling point 550 K
(277 °C, 531 °F)
Heat of fusion (white) 0.66 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 12.4 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (white)
23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (white)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 279 307 342 388 453 549
Vapor pressure (red)
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 455 489 529 576 635 704
Oxidation states ±3, 5, 4
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1011.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1907 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2914.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 100 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 98 pm
Covalent radius 106 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Thermal conductivity (300 K) (white)
0.236 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 11 GPa
CAS registry number 7723-14-0
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of phosphorus
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
31P 100% P is stable with 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β- 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β- 0.249 33S
References
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Phosphorus, (IPA: /ˈfɒsfərəs/, Greek: phôs meaning "light", and phoros meaning "bearer"), is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus is commonly found in inorganic phosphate rocks. Not to be confused with Silicone. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Phosphorus table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 24, 2003, 23:32 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Phosphorus User:Femto/elements e2 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The group 15 elements(a. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Phosphorus sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Phosphorus (P) Standard atomic mass: 30. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, valency is the power of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms measured by the number of electrons which an atom will give, take, or share to form a chemical bond. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... Nitrogen is the 7th element in the Periodic Table. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature. One form of phosphorus (white phosphorus) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen (hence its Greek derivation and the Latin 'light-bearer', meaning the planet Venus as Hesperus or "Morning Star"). General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Hesperos (Greek (The Evening Star), sometimes Latinized as Hesperus) and (H)eosphoros (Morning Star) Latinized as Eosphorus (see Lucifer) are sons of the dawn goddess Eos (Roman Aurora). ...


Phosphorus is a component of DNA and RNA and an essential element for all living cells. The most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Left: An RNA strand, with its nitrogenous bases. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Phosphorus compounds are also widely used in explosives, nerve agents, friction matches, fireworks, pesticides, toothpaste, and detergents. Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in animals. ... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...

Contents

Characteristics and allotropes

Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, most commonly white, red and black. Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ...


White phosphorus (P4) exists as individual molecules made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement, resulting in very high ring strain and instability. It contains 6 single bonds. This article is about the chemical element. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... Ring strain is an organic chemistry term that describes the destabilization of a cyclic molecule—such as a cycloalkane—due to the non-favorable high energy spatial orientations of its atoms. ...

White phosphorus is a yellow, waxy transparent solid. For this reason it is also called yellow phosphorus. It glows greenish in the dark (when exposed to oxygen), is highly flammable and pyrophoric (self-igniting) upon contact with air as well as toxic (causing severe liver damage on ingestion). The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white "(di)phosphorus pentoxide", which consists of P4O10 tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices. White phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 642 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (723 × 675 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I drew it using the literature to guide me as to where to place the atoms I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Plutonium pyrophoricity can cause it to look like a glowing ember under certain conditions. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


The white allotrope can be produced using several different methods. In one process, calcium phosphate, which is derived from phosphate rock, is heated in an electric or fuel-fired furnace in the presence of carbon and silica[1]. Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid. This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ...


Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250°C (482°F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. Phosphorus after this treatment exists as an amorphous network of atoms which reduces strain and gives greater stability; further heating results in the red phosphorus becoming crystalline. Red phosphorus does not catch fire in air at temperatures below 240°C, whereas white phosphorus ignites at about 30°C. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ...


In 1865 Hittorf discovered that when phosphorus was recrystallized from molten lead, a red/purple form is obtained. This purple form is sometimes known as "Hittorf's phosphorus." In addition, a fibrous form exists with similar phosphorus cages. Below is shown a chain of phosphorus atoms which exhibits both the purple and fibrous forms. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (March 27, 1824 – November 28, 1914) was a German physicist. ... This article is about the metal. ...


Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 192 pixels Full resolution (979 × 235 pixel, file size: 37 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I drew it using literature data to tell me where to put the atoms I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the...


One of the forms of red/black phosphorus is a cubic solid.[2] Cubic can mean several things: cubic polynomial, a polynomial with a degree of at most three. ...


Black phosphorus has an orthorhombic structure (Cmca) and is the least reactive allotrope, it consists of many six-membered rings which are interlinked. Each atom is bonded to three other atoms.[3][4] A recent synthesis of black phosphorus using metal salts as catalysts has been reported.[5] In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 704 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (811 × 691 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I drew it using literature data. ...

Glow

The glow from phosphorus was the attraction of its discovery around 1669, but the mechanism for that glow was not fully described until 1974.[6] It was known from early times that the glow would persist for a time in a stoppered jar but then cease. Robert Boyle in the 1680s ascribed it to "debilitation" of the air; in fact it is oxygen being consumed. By the 18th century it was known that in pure oxygen phosphorus does not glow at all,[7] there is only a range of partial pressure where it does. Heat can be applied to drive the reaction at higher pressures.[8] Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...


In 1974 the glow was explained by R. J. van Zee and A. U. Khan.[6] A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) phosphorus, forming the short-lived molecules HPO and P2O2 that both emit visible light. The reaction is slow and only very little of the intermediates is required to produce the luminescence, hence the extended time the glow continues in a stoppered jar.


Although the term phosphorescence is derived from phosphorus, the reaction which gives phosphorus its glow is properly called luminescence (glowing by its own reaction, in this case chemoluminescence), not phosphorescence (re-emitting light that previously fell on it). Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ... Lightsticks Chemoluminescence (sometimes chemiluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence) as the result of a chemical reaction. ...


Applications

Concentrated phosphoric acids, which can consist of 70% to 75% P2O5 are very important to agriculture and farm production in the form of fertilisers. Global demand for fertilizers led to large increases in phosphate (PO43-) production in the second half of the 20th century. Other uses; A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...

This article is about the material. ... A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Porcelain is a type of hard semi-translucent ceramic generally fired at a higher temperature than glazed earthenware, or stoneware pottery. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Trisodium phosphate (TSP), available at most hardware stores in white powder form, is a cleaning agent and degreaser, commonly used to prepare household surfaces for painting. ... A water softener reduces calcium or magnesium concentration in hard water. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon phosphorus bonds. ... Phosphorus trichloride Phosphorus pentachloride (gas phase structure) Phosphorus oxychloride[1] Several phosphorus chlorides are known. ... Phosphorus pentasulfide, also called phosphorus sulfide, sulfur phosphide, diphosphorus pentasulfide and phosphorus persulfide, is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and sulfur. ... Phosphorus sesquisulfide, also called phosphorus trisulfide, tetraphosphorus trisulfide or phosphorus sulfide, is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and sulfur. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... Socks made from flame retardant cotton. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3. ... This article is about the military applications of white phosphorus. ... hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... Home made smoke powder burning Smoke bombs are a firework designed to produce colored smoke upon ignition. ... Tracers from M16 rifles on U.S. Army firing range Tracer ammunition (tracers) use special bullets that are modified to accept a small pyrotechnic charge in their base. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Cap gun This is a display of Nichols Industries cap guns, inclusing some of the rarest models. ... A dopant, also called doping agent and dope, is an impurity element added to a semiconductor lattice in low concentrations in order to alter the optical/electrical properties of the semiconductor. ... An N-type semiconductor is obtained by carrying out a process of doping, that is adding a certain type of atoms to the semiconductor in order to increase the number of free (in this case negative) charge carriers. ...

Biological role

Phosphorus is a key element in all known forms of life. Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43- plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules. Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


An average adult human contains a little less than 1 kg of phosphorus, about 85% of which is present in bones and teeth in the form of apatite, and the remainder inside cells in soft tissues. A well-fed adult in the industrialized world consumes and excretes about 1-3 g of phosphorus per day in the form of phosphate. Only about 0.1% of body phosphate circulates in the blood, but this amount reflects the amount of phosphate available to soft tissue cells. Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ...


In medicine, low phosphate syndromes are caused by malnutrition, by failure to absorb phosphate, and by metabolic syndromes which draw phosphate from the blood or pass too much of it into the urine. All are characterized by hypophosphatemia (see article for medical details). Symptoms of low phosphate include muscle and neurological dysfunction, and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to lack of ATP. Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally depleted level of phosphate in the blood. ...


Phosphorus is an essential macromineral for plants, which is studied extensively in soil conservation in order to understand plant uptake from soil systems. In ecological terms, phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient in many environments; i.e. the availability of phosphorus governs the rate of growth of many organisms. In ecosystems an excess of phosphorus can be problematic, especially in aquatic systems, see eutrophication and algal blooms. Macrominerals (also known as macroelements or bulk minerals) are macronutrients that are chemical elements. ... Sheep pasture with macroscale erosion, Australia Soil Conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ...


History

Phosphorus (Greek phosphoros was the ancient name for the planet Venus, but in Greek mythology, Hesperus and Eosphorus could be confused with Phosphorus) was discovered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669 through a preparation from urine, which contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates from normal metabolism. Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to distill some salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark and burned brilliantly. Since that time, phosphorescence has been used to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning. (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone (1771) by Joseph Wright depicting Hennig Brand discovering phosphorus (the glow shown is exaggerated) Hennig Brand(t) (c. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ...


Phosphorus was first made commercially, for the match industry, in the 19th century, by distilling off phosphorus vapor from precipitated phosphates heated in a retort[1]. The precipitated phosphates were made from ground-up bones that had been de-greased and treated with strong acids[1]. This process became obsolete in the late 1890s when the electric arc furnace was adapted to reduce phosphate rock[1]. A beautiful retort. ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ...


Early matches used white phosphorus in their composition, which was dangerous due to its toxicity. Murders, suicides and accidental poisonings resulted from its use. (An apocryphal tale tells of a woman attempting to murder her husband with white phosphorus in his food, which was detected by the stew giving off luminous steam.)[6] In addition, exposure to the vapours gave match workers a necrosis of the bones of the jaw, the infamous "phossy jaw." When a safe process for manufacturing red phosphorus was discovered, with its far lower flammability and toxicity, laws were enacted, under a Berne Convention, requiring its adoption as a safer alternative for match manufacture. For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Phossy-jaw is a deadly occupational hazard for those who work with white phosphorus in an environment without proper safeguards. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ...


The electric furnace method allowed production to increase to the point where phosphorus could be used in weapons of war.[6][1] In World War I it was used in incendiaries, smoke screens and tracer bullets[1]. A special incendiary bullet was developed to shoot at hydrogen-filled Zeppelins over Britain (hydrogen being highly inflammable if it can be ignited)[1]. During World War II, Molotov cocktails of benzene and phosphorus were distributed in Britain to specially selected civilians within the British resistance operation, for defence; and phosphorus incendiary bombs were used in war on a large scale. Burning phosphorus is difficult to extinguish and if it splashes onto human skin it has horrific effects (see precautions below). People covered in it have been known to commit suicide due to the torment. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Zeppelins are a type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... For other uses see fire (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ...


Today phosphorus production is larger than ever. It is used as a precursor for various chemicals,[9] in particular the herbicide glyphosate sold under the brand name Roundup. Production of white phosphorus takes place at large facilities and it is transported heated in liquid form. Some major accidents have occurred during transportation, train derailments at Brownston, Nebraska and Miamisburg, Ohio led to large fires. The worst accident in recent times was an environmental one in 1968 when phosphorus spilled into the sea from a plant at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... Nickname: Motto: Ohios Star City Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded 1797 Incorporated 1818 Government  - Mayor Dick Church, Jr. ... Placentia Bay and the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland and Labrador Placentia is a town on the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland and Labrador, consisting of the amalgamated communities of Jerseyside, Freshwater, Dunville and Placentia. ...


Occurrence

Due to its reactivity with air and many other oxygen-containing substances, phosphorus is not found free in nature but it is widely distributed in many different minerals. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Phosphate rock, which is partially made of apatite (an impure tri-calcium phosphate mineral), is an important commercial source of this element. Large deposits of apatite are located in China, Russia, Morocco, Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Utah, and elsewhere. Albright and Wilson in the United Kingdom and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Connetable, Tennessee and Florida; by 1950 they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa[1]. In the early 1990s Albright and Wilson's purified wet phosphoric acid business was being affected by phosphate rock sales by China and the entry of their long standing Moroccan phosphate suppliers into the purified wet phosphoric acid business.[10] Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and phosphorus for the match industry. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. ...


See also Phosphate minerals.


Precautions

Organic compounds of phosphorus form a wide class of materials, some of which are extremely toxic. Fluorophosphate esters are among the most potent neurotoxins known. A wide range of organophosphorus compounds are used for their toxicity to certain organisms as pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) and weaponized as nerve agents. Most inorganic phosphates are relatively nontoxic and essential nutrients. For environmentally adverse effects of phosphates see eutrophication and algal blooms. Image File history File links Hazard_F.svg‎ Summary Description: Source: Converted from EPS file at http://forum. ... Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ...


The white phosphorus allotrope should be kept under water at all times as it presents a significant fire hazard due to its extreme reactivity with atmospheric oxygen, and it should only be manipulated with forceps since contact with skin can cause severe burns. Chronic white phosphorus poisoning leads to necrosis of the jaw called "phossy jaw". Ingestion of white phosphorus may cause a medical condition known as "Smoking Stool Syndrome". [11] For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... Phossy-jaw is a deadly occupational hazard for those who work with white phosphorus in an environment without proper safeguards. ...


When the white form is exposed to sunlight or when it is heated in its own vapour to 250°C, it is transmuted to the red form, which does not phosphoresce in air. The red allotrope does not spontaneously ignite in air and is not as dangerous as the white form. Nevertheless, it should be handled with care because it reverts to white phosphorus in some temperature ranges and it also emits highly toxic fumes that consist of phosphorus oxides when it is heated. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ...


Upon exposure to elemental phosphorus, in the past it was suggested to wash the affected area with 2% copper sulfate solution to form harmless compounds that can be washed away. According to the recent US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries, "Cupric (copper(II)) sulfate has been used by U.S. personnel in the past and is still being used by some nations. However, copper sulfate is toxic and its use will be discontinued. Copper sulfate may produce kidney and cerebral toxicity as well as intravascular hemolysis."[12] Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) is the most common copper salt, made by the action of sulfuric acid on the base copper oxide. ...


The manual suggests instead "a bicarbonate solution to neutralize phosphoric acid, which will then allow removal of visible WP. Particles often can be located by their emission of smoke when air strikes them, or by their phosphorescence in the dark. In dark surroundings, fragments are seen as luminescent spots." Then, "Promptly debride the burn if the patient's condition will permit removal of bits of WP which might be absorbed later and possibly produce systemic poisoning. DO NOT apply oily-based ointments until it is certain that all WP has been removed. Following complete removal of the particles, treat the lesions as thermal burns." As white phosphorus readily mixes with oils, any oily substances or ointments are not recommended until the area is thoroughly cleaned and all white phosphorus removed.


Further warnings of toxic effects and recommendations for treatment can be found in the Emergency War Surgery NATO Handbook: Part I: Types of Wounds and Injuries: Chapter III: Burn Injury: Chemical Burns And White Phosphorus injury.[13]


DEA List I status

Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine.[14] For this reason, two allotropes of elemental phosphorus—red phosphorus and white phosphorus—were designated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as List I precursor chemicals under 21 CFR 1310.02 effective November 17, 2001.[15] As a result, in the United States, handlers of red phosphorus or white phosphorus are subject to stringent regulatory controls pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act in order to reduce diversion of these substances for use in clandestine production of controlled substances.[15][16][17] For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) maintains lists regarding not only the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules). ... The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


As an exception to the octet rule

For more details on this topic, see Octet rule.

The simple Lewis structure for the trigonal bipyramidal PCl5 molecule contains five covalent bonds, implying a hypervalent molecule with ten valence electrons contrary to the octet rule. The bonding in carbon dioxide The octet rule is a simple chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, similar to the electronic configuration of a noble gas. ... G. N. Lewis Lewis structures, also called electron-dot structures or electron-dot diagrams, are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule, and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule [1] [2]. A Lewis structure can be drawn for any covalently-bonded molecule... In chemistry a trigonal bipyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the center and 5 more at the corners of a Triangular dipyramid. ... Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more typical elements (group 1, 2, 13-18) formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. ... The bonding in carbon dioxide The octet rule is a simple chemical rule of thumb that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, similar to the electronic configuration of a noble gas. ...


An alternate description of the bonding, however, respects the octet rule by using 3-center-4-electron (3c-4e) bonds. In this model the octet on the P atom corresponds to six electrons which form three Lewis (2c-2e) bonds to the three equatorial Cl atoms, plus the two electrons in the 3-centre Cl-P-Cl bonding molecular orbital for the two axial Cl electrons. The two electrons in the corresponding nonbonding molecular orbital are not included because this orbital is localized on the two Cl atoms and does not contribute to the electron density on P. 3-center-4-electron bond is a term for the axial bonds on a trigonal bypyramidal or octahedral molecule such as Phosphorous V Chloride. ... Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location. ...


Isotopes

For more details on this topic, see Isotopes of phosphorus.

Radioactive isotopes of phosphorus include Phosphorus (P) Standard atomic mass: 30. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ...

Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioisotopic labelling is a technique for tracking the passage of a sample of substance through a system. ... Look up probe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression. ... A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology to check for the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... A white coat or laboratory coat is a knee-length overcoat worn by professionals in the medical field or by those involved in significant laboratory work to protect their street clothes. ... A PVC glove A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... Watersport goggles Blowtorching goggles and safety helmet Goggles are a form of protective eyewear that usually enclose the eye area to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. ... To monitor or monitoring may mean: to observe a situation for any changes which may occur over time, using a monitor or measuring device of some sort: Baby monitor, medical monitor, Heart rate monitor Biomonitoring Condition monitoring Network monitoring Election monitoring to observe the behaviour or communications of individuals or... Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. ... This article is about the metal. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... (help· info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, braking radiation), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... Bremsstrahlung, German for braking radiation, is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. ... Structure of PMMA: (C5O2H8)n Structure of methyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polymethyl-2-methylpropanoate is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Structure of PMMA: (C5O2H8)n Structure of methyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polymethyl-2-methylpropanoate is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

Spelling

According to the Oxford English Dictionary the correct spelling of the element is phosphorus. The word phosphorous is the adjectival form for the P3+ valency: so, just as sulfur forms sulfurous and sulfuric compounds, phosphorus forms phosphorous and phosphoric compounds. This article is about the chemical element. ...


Compounds

See also Phosphorus compounds Ammonium phosphate. ... Tricalcium phosphate is a compound with formula Ca3(PO4)2. ... Tripelsuperfosfaat (46% P2O5) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (also called mono-calcium orthophosphate) Ca(H2PO4)2 is a chemical compound. ... Calcium phosphide is a chemical that has uses in incendiary bombs. ... A sample of (FePO4)2·5H2O Iron(III) phosphate, also ferric orthophosphate, or ferric phosphate, FePO4, is a phosphate of iron. ... Ferrous phosphate, also iron(II) phosphate, Fe3(PO4)2, is a phosphate of iron. ... Gallium phosphide (GaP), a phosphide of gallium, is a compound semiconductor material with an indirect band gap of 2. ... Hypophosphorous acid is a phosphorus oxoacid and a powerful reducing agent. ... Lawessons reagent or LR is a chemical compound used in organic synthesis as a thiation agent. ... // Properties and uses Parathion, or diethyl parathion, is a very potent insecticide and acaricide. ... This article is about the chemical. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Phosphorus pentabromide is a yellow solid of formula PBr5, which has the structure PBr4+ Br− in the solid state. ... Phosphorus pentasulfide, also called phosphorus sulfide, sulfur phosphide, diphosphorus pentasulfide and phosphorus persulfide, is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and sulfur. ... Phosphorus pentoxide, perhaps more accurately diphosphorus pentoxide, is so called because of its empirical formula P2O5, as should be expected of any element in oxidation number +5. ... Phosphorus sesquisulfide, also called phosphorus trisulfide, tetraphosphorus trisulfide or phosphorus sulfide, is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and sulfur. ... Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3. ... Phosphorus trichloride (formula PCl3) is the most important of the three phosphorus chlorides. ... Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an unstable red solid which reacts violently with water. ... For other uses, see Sarin (disambiguation). ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... Triphenyl phosphine is a cheap and air stable phosphine which has three phenyl groups attached to a phosphorus atom in the centre of the molecule. ... Monopotassium phosphate (also potassium dihydrogen phosphate, KDP, or monobasic potassium phosphate, MKP) -- KH2PO4 -- is a soluble salt which is used as a fertilizer, a food additive and a fungicide. ... Trisodium phosphate (TSP), available at most hardware stores in white powder form, is a cleaning agent and degreaser, commonly used to prepare household surfaces for painting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Threlfall, R.E., (1951). 100 years of Phosphorus Making: 1851 - 1951. Oldbury: Albright and Wilson Ltd
  2. ^ R. Ahuja, Physica Status Solidi, Sectio B: Basic Research, 2003, 235, 282-287
  3. ^ A. Brown, S. Runquist, Acta Crystallogr., 19 (1965) 684
  4. ^ Cartz, L.;Srinivasa, S.R.;Riedner, R.J.;Jorgensen, J.D.;Worlton, T.G., Journal of Chemical Physics, 1979, 71, 1718-1721
  5. ^ Stefan Lange, Peer Schmidt, and Tom Nilges, Inorganic Chemistry, 2007, 46, 4028
  6. ^ a b c d Emsley, John (2000). The Shocking History of Phosphorus. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-39005-8
  7. ^ Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956 - Presentation Speech, by Professor A. Ölander (committee member)
  8. ^ Phosphorus Topics page, at Lateral Science
  9. ^ Aall C. H. (1952). "The American Phosphorus Industry". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 44. doi:10.1021/ie50511a018. 
  10. ^ Podger, Hugh, (2002). Albright & Wilson: The Last 50 Years. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 1-85858-223-7
  11. ^ emedicine.com CBRNE - Incendiary Agents, White Phosphorus (Smoking Stool Syndrome)
  12. ^ US Navy's Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries: FM8-285: Part 2 Conventional Military Chemical Injuries
  13. ^ Emergency War Surgery NATO Handbook: Part I: Types of Wounds and Injuries: Chapter III: Burn Injury: Chemical Burns And White Phosphorus injury.
  14. ^ Skinner (1990). Methamphetamine Synthesis Via Hydriodic Acid/Red Phosphorus Reduction of Ephedrine. Forensic Sci. Int'l, 48, 123-34.
  15. ^ a b 66 FR 52670—52675. 17 October 2001.
  16. ^ 21 CFR 1309
  17. ^ 21 USC, Chapter 13 (Controlled Substances Act)
  18. ^ http://www.oseh.umich.edu/TrainP32.pdf

Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and phosphorus for the match industry. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Phosphorus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phosphorus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1704 words)
Phosphorus, (from the Greek language phôs meaning "light", and phoros meaning "bearer"), is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol P and atomic number 15.
White phosphorus is used in military applications as incendiary bombs, for smoke-screening as smoke pots and smoke bombs, and in tracer ammunition.
This is a particularly poisonous element with 50 mg being the average fatal dose (white phosphorus is generally considered to be the lethal form of phosphorus while phosphate and orthophosphate are essential nutrients).
Phosphorus, Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center (1726 words)
Phosphorus is a major structural component of bone in the form of a calcium phosphate salt called hydroxyapatite.
The regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels is interrelated through the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (diagram) A slight drop in blood calcium levels (e.g., in the case of inadequate calcium intake) is sensed by the parathyroid glands resulting in their increased secretion of PTH.
The increased urinary excretion of phosphorus is advantageous in bringing blood calcium levels up to normal because high blood levels of phosphate suppress the conversion of vitamin D to its active form in the kidneys (4).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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