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Encyclopedia > Phosphor

A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). Download high resolution version (1024x740, 91 KB) IBM PC 5150 with keyboard and green monochrome monitor (5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Download high resolution version (1024x740, 91 KB) IBM PC 5150 with keyboard and green monochrome monitor (5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The IBM PC with green screen Green screen was the common name for a monochrome CRT computer display using a green P1 phosphor screen. ... An optical phenomenon is any observable event which results from the interaction of light and matter. ... Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ...


The chemical element phosphorus (Greek. phosphoros, meaning "light bearer") was discovered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669. Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to distill some kind of "life essence" from his urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark. Since that time, the term phosphorescence has been used to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone (1771) by Joseph Wright depicting Hennig Brand discovering phosphorus (the glow shown is exaggerated) Hennig Brand(t) (c. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Phosphorus itself is not a phosphor; it is highly reactive and gives-off a faint chemoluminescent glow upon uniting with oxygen. The glow observed by Brand was actually caused by the very slow burning of the phosphorus, but as he saw no flame nor felt any heat he did not recognize it as burning. Lightsticks Chemoluminescence (sometimes chemiluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence) as the result of a chemical reaction. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Phosphors are transition metal compounds or rare earth compounds of various types. The most common uses of phosphors are in CRT displays and fluorescent lights. CRT phosphors were standardized beginning around World War II and designated by the letter "P" followed by a number. In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... A compact fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp is a type of electric lamp that excites argon and mercury vapor to create luminescence. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Materials

Phosphors are usually made from a suitable host material, to which an activator is added. The best known type is a copper-activated zinc sulfide and the silver-activated zinc sulfide (zinc sulfide silver).


The host materials are typically oxides, sulfides, selenides, halides or silicates of zinc, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, silicon, or various rare earth metals. The activators prolong the emission time (afterglow). In turn, other materials (eg. nickel) can be used to quench the afterglow and shorten the decay part of the phosphor emission characteristics. An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The selenide ion is Se2-. A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of -2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ...


Glow-in-the-dark toys

Spectra of constituent blue, green and red phosphors in a common cathode ray tube.
  • Calcium sulfide with strontium sulfide with bismuth as activator, (Ca,Sr)S:Bi, yields blue light with glow times up to 12 hours, [1] red and orange are modifications of the zinc sulfide formula. Red color can be obtained from strontium sulfide.
  • Zinc sulfide with about 5 ppm of a copper activator is the most common phosphor for the glow-in-the-dark toys and items. It is also called GS phosphor.
  • Mix of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide emit color depending on their ratio; increasing of the CdS content shifts the output color towards longer wavelengths; its persistence ranges between 1-10 hours.
  • Strontium aluminate activated by europium, SrAl2O4:Eu:Dy, is a newer material with higher brightness and significantly longer glow persistence; it produces green and aqua hues, where green gives the highest brightness and aqua the longest glow time. SrAl2O4:Eu:Dy is about 10 times brighter, 10 times longer glowing, and 10 times more expensive than ZnS:Cu. The excitation wavelengths for strontium aluminate range from 200 to 450 nm. The wavelength for its green formulation is 520 nm, its blue-green version emits at 505 nm, and the blue one emits at 490 nm. Colors with longer wavelengths can be obtained from the strontium aluminate as well, though for the price of some loss of brightness.

In these applications, the phosphor is directly added to the plastic from which the toys are molded, or mixed with a binder for use as paints. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2444x1591, 71 KB) Spectra of individual color phosphors of a typical CRT video monitor. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2444x1591, 71 KB) Spectra of individual color phosphors of a typical CRT video monitor. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula CaS. This white material crystallizes in cubes, with the rock salt structure. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Cadmium sulfide (UK English sulphide), the mineral greenockite, is an hexagonal, yellowish crystal with specific gravity of 4. ... Strontium aluminate (SRA, SrAl, SrAl2O4) is a solid odorless nonflammable pale yellow powder, heavier than water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ...


ZnS:Cu phosphor is used in glow-in-the-dark cosmetic creams frequently used for Halloween make-ups. [2] This article is about the holiday. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ...


Generally, the persistence of the phosphor increases as the wavelength increases. . [citation needed]


See also lightstick for chemiluminescence-based glowing items. Three types of lightsticks in several colours A lightstick, also called a glowstick, is a transparent plastic tube which contains chemical fluids held apart in two compartments. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ...


Radioactive light sources

Mixtures of zinc sulfide with radioactive materials, where the phosphor was excited by the alpha- and beta-decaying isotopes, were used to paint dials of watches and instruments. The formula used on watch dials between 1913 and 1950 was a mix of radium-228 and radium-226 with a scintillator made of zinc sulfide and silver (ZnS:Ag). [3] However, zinc sulfide undergoes degradation of its crystal lattice structure, leading to gradual loss of brightness significantly faster than the depletion of radium. Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A watch is a timepiece or portable clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A scintillator is a device or substance that absorbs high energy (ionizing) electromagnetic or charged particle radiation then, in response, fluoresces photons at a characteristic Stokes-shifted (longer) wavelength, releasing the previously absorbed energy. ...


The ZnS:Ag phosphor yields greenish glow. It is not suitable to be used in layers thicker than 25 mg/cm², as the self-absorption of the light then becomes a problem. ZnS:Ag coated screens were used by Ernest Rutherford in his experiments discovering atomic nucleus. Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 - 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ...


Copper-activated zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) is the most common phosphor used. It yields blue-green light.


Copper and magnesium activated zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu,Mg) yields yellow-orange light.


Trasers are light producing devices composed of a sealed borosilicate glass tube with inner coat of a phosphor, filled with tritium. Betalights use tritium as energy source as well. Traser is a registered trademark/name of mb-microtec,a Swiss company engaged in the business of manufacturing GTLS (gaseous tritium light source). ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... A betalight is an artificial light source powered by the radioactive decay of tritium (H3) gas. ...


Electroluminescence

Main article: Electroluminescence

Electroluminescence can be exploited in light sources. Such sources typically emit from a large area, which makes them suitable for backlights of eg. LCD displays. The excitation of the phosphor is usually achieved by application of high-intensity electric field, usually with suitable frequency. Current electroluminescent light sources tend to degrade with use, resulting in their relatively short operation lifetimes. Animation of LCD, both unlit and with electroluminiscent backlight switched on Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon where a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. ... Animation of LCD, both unlit and with electroluminiscent backlight switched on Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon where a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ...

Phosphorwhite in powder
Phosphorwhite in powder
  • ZnS:Cu was the first formulation successfully displaying electroluminescence, tested at 1936 by Georges Destriau in Madame Marie Curie laboratories in Paris.

Indium tin oxide (ITO, also known under trade name IndiGlo) composite is used in some Timex watches, though as the electrode material, not as a phosphor itself. "Californeon" is another trade name of an electroluminescent material, used in electroluminescent light strips. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (1544 × 1066 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Phosphore white in powder File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (1544 × 1066 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Phosphore white in powder File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a mixture of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), typically 90% In2O3, 10% SnO2 by weight. ...


See also a history of electroluminescent displays.


White LEDs

White light-emitting diodes are usually blue InGaN LEDs with a coating of a suitable material. Cerium(III)-doped YAG (YAG:Ce3+, or Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is often used; it absorbs the light from the blue LED and emits in a broad range from greenish to reddish, with most of output in yellow. The pale yellow emission of the Ce3+:YAG can be tuned by substituting the cerium with other rare earth elements such as terbium and gadolinium and can even be further adjusted by substituting some or all of the aluminium in the YAG with gallium. However, this process is not one of phosphorescence. The yellow light is produced by a process known as scintillation, the complete absence of an afterglow being one of the characteristics of the process. “LED” redirects here. ... Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, InxGa1-xN) is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride and indium nitride. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ... YAG Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Color: Wide range of colors Moh’s hardness: 8. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... The term Scintillation has several different meanings, including: Atmospheric induced Scintillation effects which influence astronomical observations. ...


White LEDs can also be made by coating near ultraviolet (NUV) emitting LEDs with a mixture of high efficiency europium based red and blue emitting phosphors plus green emitting copper and aluminium doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu,Al). This is a method analogous to the way fluorescent lamps work. General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...


Cathode ray tubes

The phosphors are usually poor electrical conductors. This may lead to deposition of residual charge on the screen, effectively decreasing the energy of the impacting electrons due to electrostatic repulsion (an effect known as "sticking"). To eliminate this, a thin layer of aluminium is deposited over the phosphors and connected to the conductive layer inside the tube. This layer also reflects the phosphor light to the desired direction, and protects the phosphor from ion bombardment resulting from an imperfect vacuum.


Combination of zinc sulfide with copper, the P31 phosphor or ZnS:Cu, provides green light peaking at 531 nm, with long glow. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


Combination of zinc sulfide with few ppm of silver, the ZnS:Ag, when excited by electrons, provides strong blue glow with maximum at 450 nm, with short afterglow with 200 nanosecond duration. It is known as the P22B phosphor. [4] This material, zinc sulfide silver, is still one of the most efficient phosphors in cathode ray tubes. It is used as a blue phosphor in color CRTs. This article is about the chemical element. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ...


When mixed with cadmium sulfide, the resulting zinc cadmium sulfide (Zn,Cd)S:Ag, provides strong yellow light. Cadmium sulfide (UK English sulphide), the mineral greenockite, is an hexagonal, yellowish crystal with specific gravity of 4. ...


The mix of zinc cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide silver, the ZnS:Ag+(Zn,Cd)S:Ag is the white P4 phosphor used in black and white television CRTs.


Yttrium oxide-sulfide activated with europium is used as red phosphor in color CRTs. The development of color TVs took a long time due to the long search for a red phosphor. General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ...

  • ZnS:Ag+(Zn,Cd)S:Ag (P4), white phosphor for black and white TV screens and display tubes
  • ZnS:Cu,Al (P22G), green phosphor for TV screens
  • ZnS:Ag+Co-on-Al2O3 (P22B), blue phosphor for TV screens
  • ZnS:Ag,Cl or ZnS:Zn (P11, BE), blue (460 nm), 0.01-1 ms persistence, for display tubes and vacuum fluorescent displays
  • (Zn,Cd)S:Ag or (Zn,Cd)S:Cu (P20, KA), yellow-green, 1-100 ms persistence, for display tubes
  • (Zn,Cd)S:Cu,Cl (P28, KE), yellow, for display tubes
  • ZnS:Cu or ZnS:Cu,Ag (P31, GH), yellowish-green, 0.01-1 ms persistence, for oscilloscopes
  • ZnS:Ag+(Zn,Cd)S:Cu (P40, GA), white, for display tubes
  • ZnS:Ag,Al (P55, BM), blue (450 nm), for projection tubes
  • ZnS:Ag, blue (450 nm)
  • ZnS:Cu,Al or ZnS:Cu,Au,Al, green (530 nm)
  • (Zn,Cd)S:Cu,Cl+(Zn,Cd)S:Ag,Cl, white
  • ZnS:Ag+ZnS:Cu+Y2O2S:Eu, white, Cd-free replacement for P4, black and white CRT tubes, display tubes
  • Zn2SiO4:Mn (P1, GJ), yellowish-green (525 nm), 1-100 ms persistence, for display tubes
  • Zn2SiO4:Mn,As (P39, GR), green (525 nm), for display tubes
  • Y2SiO5:Ce (P47, BH), blue (400 nm), for beam index tubes
  • Y2SiO5:Tb, green (545 nm), for projection tubes
  • ZnO:Zn (P24, GE), green (505 nm), 1-10 µs persistence, for vacuum fluorescent displays
  • Gd2O2S:Tb (P43, GY), yellow-green (545 nm), for display tubes
  • Y2O2S:Eu+Fe2O3 (P22R), red phosphor for TV screens
  • Y2O2S:Tb (P45, WB), white (545 nm), for viewfinders
  • Y2O2S:Tb, green (545 nm), for display tubes
  • Y3Al5O12:Ce (P46, KG), green (530 nm), for beam index tubes
  • Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce, green (520 nm), for beam index tubes
  • Y3Al5O12:Tb (P53, KJ), yellow-green (544 nm), for projection tubes
  • Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb, yellow-green (544 nm), for projection tubes
  • MgF2:Mn (P33, LD), orange (590 nm), over 1 second persistence, for radar screens
  • (KF,MgF2):Mn (P19, LF), yellow (590 nm), for radar screens
  • (KF,MgF2):Mn (P26, LC), orange (595 nm), over 1 second persistence, for radar screens
  • (Zn,Mg)F2:Mn (P38, LK), orange (590 nm), for radar screens
  • InBO3:Tb, yellow-green (550 nm)
  • InBO3:Eu, yellow (588 nm)
  • InBO3:Tb+InBO3:Eu, amber
  • InBO3:Tb+InBO3:Eu+ZnS:Ag, white

Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ... “TV” redirects here. ... A full view of a typical vacuum fluorescent display used in a videocassette recorder A close-up of the VFD highlighting the multiple filaments, tensioned by the sheet metal springs at the right of the image A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a type of display used commonly on consumer... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ... Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), also called gadolinium sulfoxylate or GOS, is an inorganic compound, a mixed oxide-sulfide of gadolinium. ... Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) is a white crystalline salt composed of one magnesium ion and two fluoride ions, and is used in the electrolysis of aluminium ore. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...

Fluorescent lamps

  • (Ba,Eu)Mg2Al16O27, blue phosphor for trichromatic fluorescent lamps
  • (Ce,Tb)MgAl11O19, green phosphor for trichromatic fluorescent lamps
  • Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19:Ce,Tb, green (543 nm), for trichromatic lamps
  • BaMgAl10O17:Eu,Mn, blue-green (456/514 nm)
  • BaMgAl10O17:Eu,Mn, blue (450 nm), for trichromatic lamps
  • BaMg2Al16O27:Eu(II), blue (452 nm)
  • BaMg2Al16O27:Eu(II),Mn(II), blue (450+515 nm)
  • (Ce,Tb)MgAl11O19, green
  • Zn2SiO4:Mn, green (528 nm)
  • Zn2SiO4:Mn,Sb2O3, green (528 nm)
  • CaSiO3:Pb,Mn, orange-pink (615 nm)
  • MgWO4, pale blue (473 nm), wide bandwidth, deluxe blend component
  • CaWO4 (Scheelite), blue (417 nm)
  • CaWO4:Pb, blue (433 nm), wide bandwidth
  • (Sr,Eu,Ba,Ca)5(PO4)3Cl, blue phosphor for trichromatic fluorescent lamps
  • (La,Ce,Tb)PO4, green phosphor for trichromatic fluorescent lamps
  • (La,Ce,Tb)PO4:Ce,Tb, green (546 nm), for trichromatic lamps
  • (Ba,Ti)2P2O7:Ti, blue-green (494 nm), wide bandwidth, deluxe blend component
  • Sr2P2O7:Sn, blue (460 nm), wide bandwidth, deluxe blend component
  • Ca5F(PO4)3:Sb, blue (482 nm), wide bandwidth
  • Sr5F(PO4)3:Sb,Mn, blue-green (509 nm), wide bandwidth
  • LaPO4:Ce,Tb, green phosphor (544 nm), for trichromatic blends
  • (Sr,Ca,Ba)10(PO4)6Cl2:Eu, blue phosphor (453 nm) for trichromatic blends
  • (Ca,Zn,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn, orange-pink (610 nm), wide bandwidth, blend component
  • (Sr,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn, orange-pinkish white (626 nm), wide bandwidth, deluxe blend component
  • Ca5F(PO4)3:Sb,Mn, yellow, for Lite-white blend
  • Ca5(F,Cl)(PO4)3:Sb,Mn, warm white to cool white or blue or daylight
  • (Ca,Sr,Ba)3(PO4)2Cl2:Eu, blue (452 nm)
  • 3 Sr3(PO4)2.SrF2:Sb,Mn, blue (502 nm)
  • (Zn,Sr)3(PO4)2:Mn, orange-red (625 nm)
  • (Sr,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn(II), orange-red (630 nm)
  • (Y,Eu)2O3, red phosphor for trichromatic fluorescent lamps
  • Y2O3:Eu, red phosphor (611 nm), for trichromatic blends
  • Y2O3:Eu(III), red (611 nm), for trichromatic lamps
  • Mg4(F)GeO6:Mn, red (658 nm)
  • Mg4(F)(Ge,Sn)O6:Mn, red (658 nm)
  • Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu(II), blue (447 nm)
  • Sr6P5BO20:Eu, blue-green (480 nm)
  • Y(P,V)O4:Eu, orange-red (619 nm)
  • Y2O2S:Eu, red (626 nm)
  • 3.5 MgO . 0.5 MgF2 . GeO2 :Mn, red (655 nm)
  • Mg5As2O11:Mn, red (660 nm)
  • Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2:Ce,Mn, yellow (568 nm)
  • SrAl2O7:Pb, ultraviolet (313 nm)
  • BaSi2O5:Pb, ultraviolet (355 nm)
  • SrFB2O3:Eu(II), ultraviolet (366 nm)
  • SrB4O7:Eu, ultraviolet (368 nm)
  • MgGa2O4:Mn(II), blue-green, used in black light displays

Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ... Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4. ... Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4. ... Strontium fluoride, SrF2, is a compound of strontium and fluorine. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... Yttrium oxide is an oxide of yttrium. ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) is a white crystalline salt composed of one magnesium ion and two fluoride ions, and is used in the electrolysis of aluminium ore. ... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is an insoluble ionic compound of calcium and fluorine. ...

Detergents

Optical brighteners act as UV-sensitive phosphors with close-to-zero afterglow. Usually they are organic compounds. Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents, fluorescent brightening agents or fluorescent whitening agents are dyes that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy...


Various

Some other phosphors commercially available, for use as X-ray screens, neutron detectors, alpha-particle scintillators, etc, are:

  • Gd2O2S:Tb (P43), green (peak at 545 nm), 1.5 ms decay to 10%, low afterglow, high X-ray absorption, for X-ray, neutrons and gamma
  • Gd2O2S:Eu, red (627 nm), 850 µs decay, afterglow, high X-ray absorption, for X-ray, neutrons and gamma
  • Gd2O2S:Pr, green (513 nm), 7 µs decay, no afterglow, high X-ray absorption, for X-ray, neutrons and gamma
  • Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F, green (513 nm), 4 µs decay, no afterglow, high X-ray absorption, for X-ray, neutrons and gamma
  • Y2O2S:Tb (P45), white (545 nm), 1.5 ms decay, low afterglow, for low-energy X-ray
  • Y2O2S:Tb (P22R), red (627 nm), 850 µs decay, afterglow, for low-energy X-ray
  • Y2O2S:Tb, white (513 nm), 7 µs decay, no afterglow, for low-energy X-ray
  • Zn(0.5)Cd(0.4)S:Ag (HS), green (560 nm), 80 µs decay, afterglow, efficient but low-res X-ray
  • Zn(0.4)Cd(0.6)S:Ag (HSr), red (630 nm), 80 µs decay, afterglow, efficient but low-res X-ray
  • CdWO4, blue (475 nm), 28 µs decay, no afterglow, intensifying phosphor for X-ray and gamma
  • CaWO4, blue (410 nm), 20 µs decay, no afterglow, intensifying phosphor for X-ray
  • MgWO4, white (500 nm), 80 µs decay, no afterglow, intensifying phosphor
  • Y2SiO5:Ce (P47), blue (400 nm), 120 ns decay, no afterglow, for electrons, suitable for photomultipliers
  • YAlO3:Ce (YAP), blue (370 nm), 25 ns decay, no afterglow, for electrons, suitable for photomultipliers
  • Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG), green (550 nm), 70 ns decay, no afterglow, for electrons, suitable for photomultipliers
  • Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce (YGG), green (530 nm), 250 ns decay, low afterglow, for electrons, suitable for photomultipliers
  • CdS:In, green (525 nm), <1 ns decay, no afterglow, ultrafast, for electrons
  • ZnO:Ga, blue (390 nm), <5 ns decay, no afterglow, ultrafast, for electrons
  • ZnO:Zn (P15), blue (495 nm), 8 µs decay, no afterglow, for low-energy electrons
  • (Zn,Cd)S:Cu,Al (P22G), green (565 nm), 35 µs decay, low afterglow, for electrons
  • ZnS:Cu,Al,Au (P22G), green (540 nm), 35 µs decay, low afterglow, for electrons
  • ZnCdS:Ag,Cu (P20), green (530 nm), 80 µs decay, low afterglow, for electrons
  • ZnS:Ag (P11), blue (455 nm), 80 µs decay, low afterglow, for alpha particles and electrons
  • anthracene, blue (447 nm), 32 ns decay, no afterglow, for alpha particles and electrons
  • plastic (EJ-212), blue (400 nm), 2.4 ns decay, no afterglow, for alpha particles and electrons
  • Zn2SiO4:Mn (P1), green (530 nm), 11 ms decay, low afterglow, for electrons
  • ZnS:Cu (GS), green (520 nm), decay in minutes, long afterglow, for X-rays
  • NaI:Tl, for X-ray, alpha, and electrons
  • CsI:Tl, green (545 nm), 5 µs decay, afterglow, for X-ray, alpha, and electrons

In chemistry, anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal-tar. ... Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Caesium iodide is an ionic compound often used as the input phosphor of an x-ray image intensifier tubes found in Fluoroscopy equipment. ... For other uses, see LIF. Lithium fluoride is a chemical compound of lithium and fluorine. ... Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula ZnS. Zinc sulfide is a white to yellow colored powder or crystal. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Photoluminescence is a process in which a chemical compound absorbs a photon (electromagnetic radiation), thus transitioning to a higher electronic energy state, and then radiates a photon back out, returning to a lower energy state. ... Animation of LCD, both unlit and with electroluminiscent backlight switched on Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon where a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. ... Cathodoluminescence is an optical and electrical phenomenon whereby a beam of electrons is generated by an electron gun (e. ...

External links

Look up Phosphor in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phosphor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (199 words)
A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing without further stimulus).
Phosphors are transition metal compounds or rare earth compounds of various types.
CRT phosphors were standardized beginning around World War II and designated by the letter "P" followed by a number.
Phosphor and image storage panel - Patent 5198679 (6778 words)
The powdery phosphor may be processed in a conventional manner involving a variety of procedures for the preparation of phosphors such as a washing procedure, a drying procedure and a sieving procedure.
In the method employing the stimulable phosphor having the formula (I) in the form of a radiation image storage panel, a radiation having passed through an object or radiated from an object is absorbed by the phosphor layer of the panel to form a radiation image as a radiation energy-stored image on the panel.
The thickness of the phosphor layer varies depending upon the characteristics of the aimed radiation image storage panel, the nature of the phosphor, the ratio between the binder and the phosphor, etc. Generally, the thickness of the phosphor layer is within the range of from 20.mu.m to 1 mm, preferably from 50 to 500.mu.m.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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