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Encyclopedia > Phosphodiester bond
Diagram of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides
Diagram of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides

A phosphodiester bond is a group of strong covalent bonds between the phosphorus atom in a phosphate group and two other molecules over two ester bonds. Phosphodiester bonds are central to all life on Earth, as they make up the backbone of the strands of DNA. In DNA and RNA, the phosphodiester bond is the linkage between the 3' Carbon atom and the 5' Carbon of the ribose sugar. Diagram of Phosphodiester bonds between Nucleotides I made this diagram using ChemDraw Std 8. ... Diagram of Phosphodiester bonds between Nucleotides I made this diagram using ChemDraw Std 8. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning uncuttable) is the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...


The phosphate groups in the phosphodiester bond are very negatively-charged. Because the phosphate groups are so negatively-charged, there is a large repulsion, which forces the phosphates to take opposite sides of the DNA strands.


In order for the phosphodiester bond to be formed and the nucleotides to be joined, the tri-phosphate or di-phosphate forms of the nucleotide building blocks are broken apart to give off energy required to drive the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. When a single phosphate or two phosphates known as pyrophosphates break away and catalyze the reaction, the phosphodiester bond is formed. A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry, the anion, the salts, and the esters of pyrophosphoric acid are called pyrophosphates. ...


Hydrolysis of Phosphodiester bonds can be catalyzed by the action of phosphodiesterases which play an important role in repairing DNA sequences. A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ...


In biological systems, the phosphodiester bond between two ribonucleotides can be broken by alkaline hydrolysis because of the free 2' hydroxyl group. A ribonucleotide is a nucleotide in which a purine or pyrimidine base is linked to a ribose molecule. ... Categories: Chemical processes | Chemistry stubs ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...


Enzyme activity

A phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, for instance a bond in a molecule of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ...


An enzyme that plays an important role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage is the 3'-phosphodiesterase. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair is a process constantly operating in cells; it is essential to survival because it protects the genome from damage and harmful mutations. ...


During the replication of DNA, there is a hole between the phosphates in the backbone left by DNA polymerase I. DNA ligase is able to form a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides. DNA replication. ... DNA polymerase I is an enzyme that mediates the process of DNA replication in prokaryotes. ... It has been suggested that sticky end/blunt end be merged into this article or section. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...


See also


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Phosphodiester bonds - Definition, explanation (340 words)
In DNA and RNA, the phosphodiester bond is the linkage between the 3' Carbon atom and the 5' Carbon of the ribose sugar.
In order for the phosphodiester bond to be formed and the nucleotides to be joined, the tri-phosphate or di-phosphate forms of the nucleotide building blocks are broken apart to give off energy required to drive the enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
A phosphodiesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds, for instance a bond in a molecule of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP.
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