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Encyclopedia > Phosphatidate
Phosphatidate (red: phosphate group, blue & green: fatty acid)
Phosphatidate (red: phosphate group, blue & green: fatty acid)

Phosphatidates are biochemical compounds that consist of a glycerol backbone, with a (usually) saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, a (usually) unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2 and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3. Image File history File links Phosphatidate. ... ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ...


Synthesis

In mammalian cells, phosphotidates are synthesized in the ER and mitochondrial membrane. The first step in phosphatidate synthesis is the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate by acyl CoA to form lysophosphatidate by the enzyme Glycerophosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). Lysophosphatidate is again acylated to yield phosphatidate. Phosphatidates are precursors for triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Glycerophosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) only catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of phosphatidate. The second acylation step, the acylation of lysophosphatidate (LPA) is carried out by Monoacylglycerophosphate acyltransferase (MGAT). GPAT is a mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme, whereas MGAT is an ER enzyme. The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... In chemistry, acylation is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about lipid molecules, for FAT see File Allocation Table. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ...


References

  1. Berg, J.M., J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Biochemistry. 5th ed. 2002, New York: W.H. Freeman. xxxviii, 974, [976] (various pagings)

  Results from FactBites:
 
phosphatidic acid - Columbia Encyclopedia® article about phosphatidic acid (113 words)
phosphatidic acid: see phospholipid phospholipid (fŏs'fōlĭp`ĭd), lipid that in its simplest form is composed of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
The resulting compound called phosphatidic acid contains a region (the fatty acid component) that is fat-soluble along with a region (the charged phosphate group) that is water-soluble.
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
BioMed Central | Full text | Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Staphylococcus aureus N315: an ... (5712 words)
All but three reactions produce no net change in terms of chemical elements and charge.
Of these three reactions, one (1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate octaprenyltransferase, abbreviated DHNAOT) is never used because it is a dead-end (see below), one (phosphatidic acid synthase, abbreviated PASYN_SA) is a weighted combination of various fatty acids to form an average phosphatidate molecule for this organism, and one (2,3-diketo-5-methylthio-1-phosphopentane degradation reaction, abbreviated DKMPPD2) participates in methionine and spermidine metabolism.
Most of the reactions (91%) in the GENRE are associated with one or more genes with only 9% (59) of the reactions included without a known gene.
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