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Encyclopedia > Phosphate

A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... The field of biogeochemistry involves scientific study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere), and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical...

Contents

Chemical properties

The general chemical structure of a phosphate
This is the structural formula of the phosphoric acid functional group as found in a weakly acidic aqueous solution. In more basic aqueous solutions, the group will donate the two hydrogen atoms and ionize as a phosphate group with a negative charge of 2. [1]

The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula PO43− and a molar mass of 94.973 g/mol; it consists of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four identical oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The phosphate ion carries a negative three formal charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogenphosphate ion, HPO42−, which is the conjugate base of H2PO4, the dihydrogen phosphate ion, which in turn is the conjugate base of H3PO4, phosphoric acid. It is a hypervalent molecule (the phosphorus atom has 10 electrons in its valence shell). Phosphate is also an organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(OR)3 Image File history File links Phosphate. ... Image File history File links Phosphate. ... Image File history File links Phosphate_Group. ... Image File history File links Phosphate_Group. ... The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow A polyatomic ion is a molecule that bears ionic groups, that is, a molecule with a charge. ... In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom (called a chemical element) in it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) on an atom in a molecule is defined as: FC = number of valence electrons of the atom - number of Lone pair electrons on this atom - half the total number of electrons participating in covalent bonds with this atom. ... Within the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. ... A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more typical elements (group 1, 2, 13-18) formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. ... The valence shell is the outermost shell of an atom, which contains the electrons most likely to account for the nature of any reactions involving the atom and of the bonding interactions it has with other atoms. ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon phosphorus bonds. ...


A phosphate salt forms when a positively charged ion attaches to the negatively charged oxygen atoms of the ion, forming an ionic compound. Many phosphates are insoluble in water at standard temperature and pressure, except for the alkali metal salts. A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ...


In dilute aqueous solution, phosphate exists in four forms. In strongly basic conditions, the phosphate ion (PO43−) predominates, while in weakly basic conditions, the hydrogen phosphate ion (HPO42−) is prevalent. In weakly acid conditions, the dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2PO4) is most common. In strongly acid conditions, aqueous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is the main form.

More precisely, considering the following three equilibrium reactions: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 877 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 757 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 871 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1074 pixel, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1099 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

H3PO4 ⇌ H+ + H2PO4
H2PO4 ⇌ H+ + HPO42−
HPO42− ⇌ H+ + PO43−

the corresponding constants at 25°C (in mol/L) are (see phosphoric acid): This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ...





For a strongly basic pH (pH=13), we find



showing that only PO43− and HPO42− are in significant amounts.


For a neutral pH (for example the cytosol pH=7.0), we find



so that only H2PO4 and HPO42− ions are in significant amounts (62% H2PO4, 38% HPO42−). Note that in the extracellular fluid (pH=7.4), this proportion is inverted (61% HPO42−, 39% H2PO4).


For a strongly acid pH (pH=1), we find



showing that H3PO4 is dominant with respect to H2PO4. HPO42− and PO43− are practically absent.


Phosphate can form many polymeric ions, diphosphate (also pyrophosphate), P2O74−, triphosphate, P3O105−, et cetera. The various metaphosphate ions have an empirical formula of PO3 and are found in many compounds. Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic phosphate molecule (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... In chemistry, the anion, the salts, and the esters of pyrophosphoric acid are called pyrophosphates. ... A metaphosphate is a salt or an ester of metaphosphoric acid, HPO3. ...


Phosphate deposits can contain significant amounts of naturally occurring uranium. Subsequent uptake of such soil amendments can lead to crops containing uranium concentrations. General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ...


Occurrence

Shown is a sample of phosphate rock alongside a United States one-cent coin (for scale).

Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals. Elemental phosphorus and phosphides are not found (rare phosphide minerals may be found in meteorites). In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Phosphate rock Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Phosphate rock Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Strictly, a mineral that is a phosphate. ... A phosphide ion is a phosphorus atom with three extra electrons and charge -3. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Worlds second largest Meteorite in Culiacan, Mexico A meteorite is a relatively small extra-terrestrial body that reaches the Earths surface. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The largest rock phosphate deposits in North America lie in the Bone Valley region of central Florida, United States, the Soda Springs region of Idaho, and the coast of North Carolina. Smaller deposits are located in Montana, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina near Charleston along Ashley Phosphate road. The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively. Rock phosphate can also be found on Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Navassa Island, Tunisia, Togo and Jordan have large phosphate mining industries as well. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Bone Valley is a region of central Florida, encompassing portions of present-day Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk counties, in which phosphate is mined for use in the production of agricultural fertilizer. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Satellite imagery of Banaba Island from Google Earth. ...


In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and can be created by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, which is denoted PPi: For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

P2O74− + H2O → 2HPO42−

However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms. They are generally referred to as high energy phosphate, as are the phosphagens in muscle tissue. Compounds such as substituted phosphines, have uses in organic chemistry but do not seem to have any natural counterparts. Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often reffered to simply as bases) to a ribose ring. ... High energy phosphate can mean one of a couple things: It can mean the phosphate-phosphate bonds formed when compounds such as adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate are created. ... The phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ...


In ecological terms, because of its important role in biological systems, phosphate is a highly sought after resource. Consequently, it is often a limiting reagent in environments, and its availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms. Addition of high levels of phosphate to environments and to micro-environments in which it is typically rare can have significant ecological consequences. For example, booms in the populations of some organisms at the expense of others, and the collapse of populations deprived of resources such as oxygen (see eutrophication). In the context of pollution, phosphates are a principal component of total dissolved solids, a major indicator of water quality. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemistry, the limiting reagent, or also called the limiting reactant, is the chemical that determines how far the reaction will go before the chemical in question gets used up, causing the reaction to stop. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Bottled mineral water usually contains higher TDS levels than tap water Total dissolved solids (often abbreviated TDS) is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. ...


Uses

The image above shows the annual mean sea surface phosphate concentrations for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001.[2]

Phosphates were once commonly used in laundry detergent in the form trisodium phosphate (TSP), but because of algae boom-bust cycles tied to emission of phosphates into watersheds, phosphate detergent sale or usage is restricted in some areas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1538x1075, 345 KB)[edit] Summary Annual mean sea surface phosphate from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1538x1075, 345 KB)[edit] Summary Annual mean sea surface phosphate from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a data product of the Ocean Climate Laboratory of the National Oceanographic Data Center (USA). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Trisodium phosphate (TSP), available at most hardware stores in white powder form, is a cleaning agent and degreaser, commonly used to prepare household surfaces for painting. ...


In agriculture phosphate is one of the three primary plant nutrients, and it is a component of fertilizers. Rock phosphate is quarried from phosphate beds in sedimentary rocks. In former times it was simply crushed and used as is, but the crude form is now used only in organic farming. Normally it is chemically treated to make superphosphate, triple superphosphate, or ammonium phosphates, which have higher concentration of phosphate and are also more soluble, therefore more quickly usable by plants. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses, see Rock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... Superphosphate is a fertiliser produced by the action of concentrated Sulphuric Acid on ground phosphate rock. ... Triple Superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphate rock. ... Ammonium phosphate. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ...


Fertilizer grades normally have three numbers; the first is the available nitrogen, the second is the available phosphate (expressed on a P2O5 basis), and the third is the available potash (expressed on a K2O basis). Thus a 10-10-10 fertilizer would contain ten percent of each, with the remainder being filler. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) mixed with other potassium salts. ...


Surface runoff of phosphates from excessively fertilized farmland can be a cause of phosphate pollution leading to eutrophication (nutrient enrichment), algal bloom and consequent oxygen deficit. This can lead to anoxia for fish and other aquatic organisms in the same manner as phosphate-based detergents. Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Phosphate compounds are occasionally added to the public drinking water supply to counter plumbosolvency. Plumbosolvency is the ability of a solvent, notably water, to dissolve lead. ...


The food industry uses phosphates to perform several different functions. For example, in meat products, it solubilizes the protein. This improves its water-holding ability and increases its moistness and succulence. In baked products, such as cookies and crackers, phosphate compounds can act as part of the leavening system when it reacts with an alkalai, usually sodium bicarbonate (baking soda).[1]


See also

Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon phosphorus bonds. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Phosphine oxide, organophosphorus compounds with the fromula - OPR3 Phosphine - PR3 Phosphinite - P(OR)R2 Phosphonite - P(OR)2R Phosphite - P(OR)3 Phosphinate - OP(OR)R2 Phosphonate - OP(OR)2R Phosphate - OP(OR)3 ... Phosphinite, an organophosphorus compounds with the fromula P(OR)R2 Phosphine - PR3 Phosphine oxide - OPR3 Phosphonite - P(OR)2R Phosphite - P(OR)3 Phosphinate - OP(OR)R2 Phosphonate - OP(OR)2R Phosphate - OP(OR)3 ... Phosphonite, organophosphorus compounds with the fromula P(OR)2R Phosphine - PR3 Phosphine oxide - OPR3 Phosphinite - P(OR)R2 Phosphite - P(OR)3 Phosphinate - OP(OR)R2 Phosphonate - OP(OR)2R Phosphate - OP(OR)3 ... The phosphite ion is a polyatomic ion with phosphorus as its central atom. ... Phosphinate, organophosphorus compounds with the fromula OP(OR)R2 Phosphine - PR3 Phosphine oxide - OPR3 Phosphinite - P(OR)R2 Phosphonite - P(OR)2R Phosphite - P(OR)3 Phosphonate - OP(OR)2R Phosphate - OP(OR)3 ... Phosphonates or Phosphonic acids are organic compounds containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 groups. ... Triphenyl phosphate is the chemical compound with the formula OP(OC6H5)3. ...

References

  1. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology, Seventh Edition, San Francisco, California: Benjamin Cummings, 65. ISBN 0-8053-7171-0. 
  2. ^ On-line Objective Analyses and Statistics (HTML/ASCII). World Ocean Atlas 2001. National Oceanographic Data Center, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (2003).

3. "Figuring Out Phosphates," Food Product Design, June 2006, Lynn A. Kuntz Neil A. Campbell (1946 – 2004) was an American scientist known best for his Biology textbook. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ...


Further reading

Schmittner Karl-Erich and Giresse Pierre, 1999. Micro-environmental controls on biomineralization: superficial processes of apatite and calcite precipitation in Quaternary soils, Roussillon, France. Sedimentology 46/3: 463-476.


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Pentose Phosphate Pathway (1082 words)
The pentose phosphate pathway is primarily an anabolic pathway that utilizes the 6 carbons of glucose to generate 5 carbon sugars and reducing equivalents.
The reactions of oxidative portion of the pentose phosphate pathway are shown.
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Phosphate Rock (323 words)
Phosphate rock can be any rock or sediment with sufficiently high concentrations of some form of the mineral fluorapatite (Ca to be of commercial value.
Commercial phosphate rock is usually sedimentary in origin and is used primarily as a plant nutrient, either by direct application to the soils as a powdered product or in the manufacture of superphosphate or triple super-phosphate fertilizer.
Since phosphate rock is a low-cost commodity, certain cost-limiting conditions must be met for a deposit to be minable.
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