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Encyclopedia > Phonation

In phonetics, phonation is the "use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i.e., sound, which can then be modified by the articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus." Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...


Phonation has traditionally been seen as one dimension of phonetic voicing, the degree of glottal tension. (A second dimension of voicing is timing, called voice onset time, or "VOT". When a sound is described as "half voiced", it may not be clear whether it is quality (phonation) or quantity (VOT) that is referred to.) The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... In phonetics, voice onset time, commonly abbreviated VOT, is the length of time that passes between when a stop consonant is released and when voicing, vibration of the vocal cords, begins. ...


However, with recent advances in imaging technology, it has become apparent that in many languages phonation involves more than just the glottis.

Contents


Voicing

A voiced sound is produced when air expelled from the lungs causes the vocal cords to vibrate. This produces a fundamental tone accompanied by several non-harmonic overtones. The resulting sound is modified by movements in the vocal tract, by the volume of the airflow and by the degree of constriction of the vocal cords. (During speech the flow of air is relatively small because of constrictions of the vocal cords.) Vowels are usually voiced, as are many consonants. (see voiced consonant.) The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ...


If the vocal cords are lax and do not vibrate, then the sound (usually a consonant) is voiceless. A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


The vocal vibration is varied to produce intonation and tone. This is accomplished by varying the pressure of the air column under the glottis as well as the tension in the vocal cords themselves. These cause changes in the frequency of vocal-cord vibration, which generates the fundamental pitch of the voice. Tone and intonation are not conveyed well by voiceless sounds, with their lax vocal cords, but the changes in airflow are still audible. Intonation is a term used to cover particular uses of tones in linguistics and music. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... The fundamental tone often referred to simply as the fundamental, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ...


Phonation as the state of the glottis

A continuum from closed glottis to open. The black triangles represent the arytenoid cartilages, the sail shapes the vocal cords, and the dotted circle the windpipe.
A continuum from closed glottis to open. The black triangles represent the arytenoid cartilages, the sail shapes the vocal cords, and the dotted circle the windpipe.

In classic treatments of phonation, such as those of Peter Ladefoged, phonation was considered to be a matter of points on a continuum of tension and closure of the vocal cords. More intricate mechanisms were occasionally described, but they were difficult to investigate, and until recently the state of the glottis and phonation were considered to be nearly synonymous. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2279x429, 224 KB) Postions of glottis own drawing File links The following pages link to this file: Glottis Phonation ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2279x429, 224 KB) Postions of glottis own drawing File links The following pages link to this file: Glottis Phonation ... Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (September 17, 1925 – January 24, 2006) was a British-American linguist phonetician who traveled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data. ...


If the vocal cords are completely relaxed, with the arytenoid cartilages apart for maximum airflow, the cords do not vibrate. This is voiceless phonation, and is extremely common with obstruents. If the arytenoids are pressed together for glottal closure, the vocal cords block the airstream, producing stop sounds such as the glottal stop. In between there is a sweet spot of maximum vibration. This is modal voice, and is the normal state for vowels and sonorants in all the world's languages. However, the aperture of the arytenoid cartilages, and therefore the tension in the vocal cords, is one of degree between the end points of open and closed, and there are several intermediate situations utilized by various languages to make contrasting sounds. In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... A sweet spot is a place, often numerical as opposed to physical, where a combination of factors suggest a particularly suitable solution. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ...


For example, Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured, while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice or laryngealized. Both of these phonations have dedicated IPA diacritics, an under-umlaut and under-tilde. The Jalapa dialect of Mazatec is unusual in contrasting both with modal voice in a three-way distinction. (Note that Mazatec is a tonal language, so the glottis is making several tonal distinctions simultaneously with the phonation distinctions.) {{Infobox Language |name=Gujarati |nativename=ગુજરાતી Gujarātī |region[[Pakistan|speakers=1 million |rank=122 |familycolor=Indo-European |fam2=Indo-Iranian |fam3=Indo-Aryan |fam4=Western Indo-Aryan |script=Gujarati script |nation=Gujarat |agency=Language Academy |iso1=gu|iso2=guj|iso3=guj |notice=Indic}} Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujarātī) is an Indo-European... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating... The Mazateco language is the native language of the Mazatec peoples of Oaxaca, Mexico. ...

Mazatec
breathy voice [ja̤] he wears
modal voice [já] tree
creaky voice [ja̰] he carries
Note: There was an editing error in the source of this information. The latter two translations may have been mixed up.

Javanese does not have modal voice in its plosives, but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale, with more moderate departures from modal voice, called slack voice and stiff voice. The "muddy" consonants in Shanghainese are slack voice; they contrast with tenuis and aspirated consonants. The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The term slack voice (or lax voice) describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in normal full voice. ... The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal cords stiffer, than what occurs in normal (modal) voice. ... Shanghainese, sometimes referred to as the Shanghai dialect, is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai. ...


Although each language may be somewhat different, it is convenient to classify these degrees of phonation into discrete categories. A series of seven alveolar plosives, with phonations ranging from an open/lax to a closed/tense glottis, are:

Open glottis [t] voiceless (full airstream)
[d̤] breathy voice
[d̥] slack voice
Sweet spot [d] modal voice (maximum vibration)
[d̬] stiff voice
[d̰] creaky voice
Closed glottis [ʔ͡t] glottal closure (blocked airstream)

The IPA diacritics under-ring and subscript wedge, commonly called "voiceless" and "voiced", are sometimes added to the symbol for a voiced sound to indicate more lax/open (slack) and tense/closed (stiff) states of the glottis, respectively. (Ironically, adding the 'voicing' diacritic to the symbol for a voiced consonant indicates less modal voicing, not more, because a modally voiced sound is already fully voiced, at its sweet spot, and any further tension in the vocal cords dampens their vibration.) Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... The term slack voice (or lax voice) describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in normal full voice. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal cords stiffer, than what occurs in normal (modal) voice. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating...


Unaccompanied phonation

It has long been noted that, both phonologically and historically, the glottal consonants [ʔ, ɦ, h] do not behave like other consonants. Phonetically, they have no manner or place of articulation other than the state of the glottis: glottal closure for [ʔ], breathy voice for [ɦ], and open airstream for [h]). Some phoneticians have described these sounds as neither glottal nor consonantal, but instead as instances of pure phonation. Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ...


Register

Many languages combine phonation and tone into a single phonological system. In Mazatec, tone and phonation have separate lives, so that all possible combinations of its several tones and phonations can be utilized to distinguish words, but Burmese tones do not contrast directly in this way. Rather each Burmese tone occurs only with a specific phonation that serves to make it more distinctive — or, from a different point of view, Burmese tone serves to make the phonations more distinct. These tone-phonation hybrids are called registers. In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. ...


Supra-glottal phonation

In the last few decades it has become apparent that phonation may involve the entire larynx, with as many as six valves and muscles working either independently or together. From the glottis upward, these articulations are[1]

  1. glottal (the vocal cords), producing the distinctions described above
  2. ventricular (the 'false vocal cords', partially covering and damping the glottis)
  3. arytenoid (sphincteric compression forwards and upwards)
  4. epiglotto-pharyngeal (retraction of the tongue and epiglottis, potentially closing onto the pharyngeal wall)
  5. raising or lowering of the entire larynx
  6. narrowing of the pharynx

Until the development of fiber-optic laryngoscopy, the full involvement of the larynx during speech production was not observable, and the interactions among the six laryngeal articulators is still poorly understood. However, at least two supra-glottal phonations appear to be widespread in the world's languages. These are harsh voice ('ventricular' or 'pressed' voice), which involves overall constriction of the larynx, and faucalized voice ('hollow' or 'yawny' voice), which involves overall expansion of the larynx. The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... Haha u cant see this b/c wiess The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Pharynx is the part of the neck and throat just behind the mouth and nose. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Laryngoscope in use intubating a dummy A laryngoscope is a medical instrument that is used to obtain a view of the glottis by direct laryngoscopy. ... Pressed voice, also called ventricular or harsh voice, is the production of speech sounds (typically vowels) with secondary epiglottal articulation. ... Faucalized voice, also called hollow or yawny voice, is the production of speech sounds with an expanded laryngeal cavity. ...


The Bor dialect of Dinka has contrastive modal, breathy, faucalized, and harsh voice in its vowels, as well as three tones. The ad hoc diacritics employed in the literature are a subscript double quotation mark for faucalized voice, [a͈], and underlining for harsh voice, [a]. Examples are, Dinka Dialects Northeastern (Padang) (Dialects: Abiliang, Dongjol, Luac, Ngok-Sobat, Ageer, Rut, Thoi) Northwestern (Ruweng) (Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Pawany) South Central (Agar) (Dialects: Aliap, Ciec, Gok, Agar) Southeastern (Bor) (Dialects: Bor (Athoc,Gok), Nyarweng, Tuic) Southwestern (Rek) (Dialects: Rek, Abiem, Aguok, Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual, Paliet...

Voice modal breathy harsh faucalized
Bor Dinka ʨìt̪ ʨì̤t̪ ʨì ʨì͈t̪
diarrhea go ahead scorpions to swallow

Other languages with these contrasts are Bai (modal, breathy, and harsh voice), Kabiye (faucalized and harsh voice, previously seen as ±ATR), Somali (breathy and harsh voice). Bai (白族; pinyin: bái zú) is one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Grusi is a subgroup of the Central Gur languages, comprising about 20 languages. ... In phonetics, advanced tongue root, abbreviated ATR or +ATR, or expanded, is the expansion of the pharyngeal cavity by moving the base of the tongue forward, and often lowering the larynx, during the pronunciation of a vowel. ...


Elements of laryngeal articulation or phonation may occur widely in the world's languages as phonetic detail even when not phonemically contrastive. For example, simultaneous glottal, ventricular, and arytenoid activity (for something other than epiglottal consonants) has been observed in Tibetan, Korean, Nuuchahnulth, Nlaka’pamux, Thai, Sui, Amis, Pame, Arabic, Tigrinya, Cantonese, and Yi. An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... The Tibetan language is typically classified as member of the Tibeto-Burman which in turn is thought by some to be a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. ... Nuu-chah-nulth (also called Nootka) is a Wakashan language spoken in the Pacific Northwest on the west coast of Vancouver Island from Barkley Sound to Quatsino Sound in British Columbia by the Nuu-chah-nulth people. ... ... The Shui people are an ethnic group. ... The Ami (阿美), or Amis or Pangcah, is one of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. ... Oto-Manguean languages are a large family of Native American languages spoken in Mexico. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Yi (also Moso, Lolo, Noso, ) is a family of closely related Tibeto-Burman languages spoken by the Yi people. ...


Phonation in familiar languages

In languages such as French, all obstruents occur in pairs, one modally voiced and one voiceless. In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ...


In English, every voiced fricative corresponds to a voiceless one. For the pairs of English plosives, however, the distinction is better specified as voice onset time rather than simply voice: In initial position /b d g/ are only partially voiced (voicing begins during the hold of the consonant), while /p t k/ are aspirated (voicing doesn't begin until well after its release). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, voice onset time, commonly abbreviated VOT, is the length of time that passes between when a stop consonant is released and when voicing, vibration of the vocal cords, begins. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ...


Certain English morphemes have voiced and voiceless allomorphs, such as the plural, verbal, and possessive endings spelled -s (voiced in kids /kɪdz/ but voiceless in kits /kɪts/) and the past-tense ending spelled -ed (voiced in buzzed /bʌzd/ but voiceless in fished /fɪʃt/. In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... This article is about a lingustic term. ...


A few European languages, such as Finnish or Alemannic, have no phonemically voiced obstruents but pairs of long and short consonants instead. Outside of Europe, a lack of voicing distinctions is not uncommon; indeed, in Australian languages it is nearly universal. Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ...


See also

A Acoustic phonetics Affricate Airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson Allophone Alveolar approximant Alveolar consonant Alveolar ejective fricative Alveolar ejective Alveolar flap Alveolar nasal Alveolar ridge Alveolar trill Alveolo-palatal consonant Apical consonant Approximant consonant Articulatory phonetics aspiration Auditory phonetics B Back vowel Bilabial click Bilabial consonant Bilabial ejective Bilabial nasal... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... The term slack voice (or lax voice) describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in normal full voice. ... The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal cords stiffer, than what occurs in normal (modal) voice. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating... Pressed voice, also called ventricular or harsh voice, is the production of speech sounds (typically vowels) with secondary epiglottal articulation. ... Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly pharyngealized vowels accompanied by epiglottal trill, where the larynx is raised and the pharynx constricted, so that either the epiglottis or the arytenoid cartilages vibrate instead of the vocal chords. ... Faucalized voice, also called hollow or yawny voice, is the production of speech sounds with an expanded laryngeal cavity. ... In phonetics, voice onset time, commonly abbreviated VOT, is the length of time that passes between when a stop consonant is released and when voicing, vibration of the vocal cords, begins. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Phonation. ...

External links

  • Universität Stuttgart Speech production
  • Université de Lausanne Speech production
  • Edmondson & Esling paper on harsh, faucalized, and strident phonation (PDF)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Phonation (374 words)
Phoneticians define phonation as "use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i.e., sound, which can then be modified by the articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus."
In languages such as French, all obstruents occur in pairs of a voiced one and an unvoiced one.
Mandarin Chinese has pairs of aspirated and unaspirated voiceless plosives and aspiration is the main distinction rather than phonation.
International Phonetic Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4843 words)
A series of alveolar plosives ranging from an open to a closed glottis phonation are:
One modification is the use of subscript parentheses around the phonation diacritics to indicate partial phonation; a single parenthesis at the left or right of the voicing indicates that it is partially phonated at the beginning or end of the segment.
Phonation diacritics may also be prefixed or suffixed rather than placed directly under the segment to represent relative timing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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