FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
Type Abjad
Languages Phoenician
Time period Began 1050 BCE, and gradually died out as its evolved forms replaced it
Parent systems Egyptian hieroglyphs
 → Proto-Sinaitic
  → Proto-Canaanite alphabet
   → Phoenician alphabet
Child systems Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
Greek alphabet
Many hypothesized others
Unicode range U+10900 to U+1091F
ISO 15924 Phnx
History of the alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19–15th c. BC
The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of alphabets. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Hangul 1443
Zhuyin 1913
complete genealogy

The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. Phoenician is a pure abjad, meaning that it is a writing system made up of letters that represent the consonants of the language. While some subsequent offshoots of the script were true alphabets that represented all sounds of the language, the Phoenician alphabet lacks any symbols for vowels. The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... (Redirected from 1050 BCE) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC - 1050s BC - 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC 1000s BC Events and Trends 1053 BC - Death of Zhou kang wang, King of the... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


It became one of the most widely used writing systems, and was spread by traders of Phoenicia across Europe and the Middle East, where it became used for a variety of languages and spawned many subsequent scripts.


Many modern writing systems thought to have descended from Phoenician cover much of the world. The Aramaic alphabet, a modified form of Phoenician, was the ancestor of the modern Arabic and Hebrew scripts, as well as the Brāhmī script, the parent writing system of most modern abugidas in India, Southeast Asia, Tibet, and Mongolia. The Greek alphabet (and by extension its descendents such as Latin, Cyrillic and Coptic), was a direct successor of Phoenician, though certain letter values were changed to include vowels. Writing systems of the world today. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ...

Contents

History

Discovery

When Phoenician was first uncovered in the 19th century, its origins were unknown. Scholars at first believed that the script was a direct variation of Egyptian hieroglyphs.[1] This idea was especially popular due to the recent decipherment of hieroglyphs. However, no scholars could find any link between the two writing systems. Certain scholars hypothesized ties with Hieratic, Cuneiform, or even an independent creation, perhaps inspired by some other writing system. The theories of independent creation ranged from the idea of a single man conceiving it to the Hyksos people forming it from corrupt Egyptian.[2] Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet, foreign rulers; Greek , ) were an Asiatic people, likely Semitic or Indo-Aryan, who invaded the eastern Nile Delta, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. ...


Parent scripts

The original Proto-Sinaitic alphabet was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, in use from ca. 1500 BCE in the Sinai and the Levant, probably by early West Semitic speakers. In Canaan it developed into the Proto-Canaanite alphabet from ca. 1400 BCE, adapted to writing a Canaanite (Northwest Semitic) language. The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is the linear (, non-Cuneiform) abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... (Redirected from 1500 BCE) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... (Redirected from 1400 BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1344... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient Canaanite peoples. ...


The Phoenician alphabet seamlessly continues the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention called Phoenician from the mid 11th century.


Spread of the alphabet

Phoenician differed in only letterform and time period from the Proto-Canaanite script, so it is therefore difficult to attest a specific beginning of the alphabet. However, the oldest known inscription of Phoenician is known as the Ahiram epitaph, and is engraved on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram.[3]


The Phoenician adaptation of the alphabet was extremely successful, and variants were adapted around the Mediterranean from ca. the 9th century, notably giving rise to the Greek, Old Italic, Anatolian and Iberian scripts. Its success was due in part to its phonetic nature; Phoenician was the first widely used script in which one sound was represented by one symbol. This simple system contrasted the other scripts in use at the time, such as Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, which employed many complex characters and were difficult to learn. This one-to-one configuration also made it possible for Phoenician to be employed in multiple languages. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Various alphabetic writing systems were in use in Iron Age Anatolia to record Anatolian dialects and the Phrygian language. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...


Another reason of its success was the maritime trading culture of Phoenician merchants, which spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe.[4] In fact, inscriptions of Phoenician have been found as far as Ireland. Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day Lebanon) and Carthage in North Africa. Later finds indicate earlier use in Egypt.[5] The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


As the letters were originally incised with a stylus, most shapes are angular and straight, although more cursive versions are increasingly attested in later times, culminating in the Neo-Punic alphabet of Roman-era North Africa. Phoenician was usually written from right to left, although there are some texts written in boustrophedon (consecutive lines in alternating directions). Boustrophedon is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. ...


Letter names

Phoenician uses a system of acrophony to name letters. The names of the letters are essentially the same as in its parental scripts, which are in turn derived from the word values of the original hieroglyph for each letter.[6] The original word was translated from Egyptian into its equivalent form in the Semitic language, and then the initial sound of the translated word become the letter's value.[7] However, some of the letter names were changed in Phoenician from the Proto-Canaanite script. This includes: In an acrophonic alphabet the initial (Greek: acro) sound (phonos) of a word gives the name to the whole. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is the linear (, non-Cuneiform) abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs. ...

  • gaml "throwing stick" to gimel "camel"
  • digg "fish" to dalet "door"
  • hll "jubilation" to he "window"
  • ziqq "manacle" to zayin "weapon"
  • naḥš "snake" to nun "fish"
  • piʾt "corner" to pe "mouth"
  • šimš "sun" to šin "tooth"

The meanings given are of the letter names in Phoenician. The Phoenician letter names are not directly attested and were reconstructed by Theodor Nöldeke in 1904. Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Alphabet

Various letters have alternative representations: e.g. the taw can be written more like a '+' than like a 'x', the heth can have two cross bars.

  • The Latin letter X derives from a western Greek pronunciation of chi, and not directly from the samekh-inspired letter xi. However chi itself is probably a secondary derivation of Phoenician samekh.
Letter Unicode Name Meaning Sound Corresponding letter in
Hebrew Arabic Greek Latin Cyrillic
𐤀 ʼāleph ox ʼ א Αα Aa Аа
𐤁 bēth house b ב Ββ Bb Бб, Вв
Gimel 𐤂 gīmel camel g ג Γγ Cc, Gg Гг
Daleth 𐤃 dāleth door d ד د,ذ Δδ Dd Дд
He 𐤄 window h ה ه Εε Ee Ее, Єє
Waw 𐤅 wāw hook w ו (Ϝϝ), Υυ Ff, Uu, Vv, Ww, Yy (Ѵѵ), Уу
Zayin 𐤆 zayin weapon z ז Ζζ Zz Зз
Heth 𐤇 ḥēth fence ח ح,خ Ηη Hh Ии, Йй
𐤈 ṭēth wheel ט ط,ظ Θθ (Ѳѳ)
Yodh 𐤉 yōdh arm y י ي Ιι Ii, Jj Іі, Її, Јј
Kaph 𐤊 kaph palm (of a hand) k כ,ך Κκ Kk Кк
Lamedh 𐤋 lāmedh goad l ל Λλ Ll Лл
Mem 𐤌 mēm water m מ,ם Μμ Mm Мм
Nun 𐤍 nun fish n נ,ן Νν Nn Нн
Samekh 𐤎 sāmekh pillar s ס Ξξ, Χχ Xx (Ѯѯ), Хх
Ayin 𐤏 ʼayin eye ʼ ע ع,غ Οο Oo Оо
𐤐 mouth p פ,ף Ππ Pp Пп
Sade 𐤑 ṣādē papyrus plant צ,ץ ص,ض (Ϡϡ) Цц, Чч
Qoph 𐤒 qōph Eye of a needle q ק (Ϙϙ) Qq
Res 𐤓 rēš head r ר Ρρ Rr Рр
Sin 𐤔 šin tooth š ש س,ش Σ(ϲ)σς Ss Сс, Шш
Taw 𐤕 tāw mark t ת ت,ث Ττ Tt Тт

Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Χ, χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ξ, ξ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Aleph. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter...   Aleph (or alef) is the first letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Alif (Arabic: ‎, pronounced ) is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... А (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Phoenician Beth. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Bet, Beth, or Vet is the second letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ Syriac and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its value is a voiced bilabial plosive, IPA . ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up B, b in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Be (Б, б) is the second letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound [v]. In Russian, it is pronounced [f] at the end of a word. ... Phoenician Gimel. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ... Gimel is the third letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order; 5th in higai order). ... Gamma (upper case Γ, lower case γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Ge or He (Г, г) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced differently in different languages. ... Phoenician Daleth. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Dalet (, also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order). ... ( ‎) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA: ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Delta (upper case Δ, lower case δ) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up D, d in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De (Д, д) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Phoenician He. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   He (IPA: ) is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... He is the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician , Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic ‎. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative (). The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan , Latin E and Cyrillic Ye. ... Epsilon (upper case Ε, lower case ε) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ye (Є, Ñ”) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language to represent the iotated vowel sound /je/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Writing system stubs ... Phoenician Waw. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Waw (, also spelled vav or vau) is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac , and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order; it is 27th in modern Arabic order). ...      This article is about the Greek letter; for the mathematical function, see digamma function. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up U, u in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Izhitsa (Ñ´, ѵ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet. ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Zayin. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Zayin (also spelled Zain or Zayn) is the seventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic alphabet . It represents a voiced alveolar fricative, IPA . ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ze (З, з) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /z/. Its easily confusable with the number 3, for example the stages of the N1 rocket. ... Phoenician Heth. ... or (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also ) , Arabic (in abjadi order), and Berber . Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal , or velar (the...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... (also spelled Heth, Het, Chet, Khet, Kheth, or Cheth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also , heth) , and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... (, transliterated as either (DIN-31635) or (ISO 233)) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ... For other uses, see Eta. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ... Й, й (Short I) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Phoenician Teth. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ...   Teth or Tet is the ninth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a = pharyngealized voiced dental or alveolar fricative (IPA or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Note: A theta probe is a device for measuring soil moisture. ... Fita (Ѳ, ѳ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, descended from the Greek Theta. ... Phoenician Yodh. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ...   Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Syriac and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... For programming language, see Iota and Jot Iota (upper case Ι, lower case ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... I (І, Ñ–) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. ... Yi (Ї, Ñ—) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language. ... Je (Ј, ј) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian and Macedonian languages. ... Phoenician Kaph. ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Arabic alphabet , Persian alphabet . ...   Kaph or Kaf is the eleventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Kaph or Kaf is the eleventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎, Arabic alphabet ‎, Persian alphabet ‎ ​. Its value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Kappa (Κ), Latin K, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet (К). // Kaph is thought to have been... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ka (К, к) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /k/. It corresponds to the Roman K in origin, pronunciation, and appearance. ... Phoenician Lamedh. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its sound value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Lambda (Λ), Latin L, and Cyrillic El (Л). // Lamedh is believed to have come from a pictogram of an ox goad... Lambda (upper case Λ, lower case λ) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up L, l in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Phoenician Mem. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Mem is the thirteenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Mem is the thirteenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Mem (also spelled Meem or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its value is IPA: . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Mu (Îœ), Etruscan , Latin M, and Cyrillic Ðœ. // Mem is usually assumed to come from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol... Mu (upper case Îœ, lower case μ) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up M, m in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Em (Ðœ, м) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /m/. Code positions Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Nun. ... → [Nun] is the 14th letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ...   Nun is the fourteenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Nun is the fourteenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎ (in abjadi order). ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... En (Н, н) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /n/. It looks exactly like the Latin capital letter H. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Samekh. ... Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic, representing . ...   Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Xi (upper case Ξ, lower case ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Chi. ... Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ksi (Ñ®, ѯ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, descended from the Greek letter Xi. ... Kha, or Ha, (Ð¥, Ñ…) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the voiceless velar fricative /x/ (pronounced like the ch in German Bach). It is derived from the Greek letter chi (Χ, χ). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Ayin. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ...   ‘Áyin or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Omicron (upper case Ο, lower case ο, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Pe. ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ...   This is about the letter found in some Semitic alphabets. ...   This is about the letter found in some Semitic alphabets. ... Pe is the seventeenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎ (in abjadi order). ... Lower-case pi The mathematical constant Ï€ is a real number which may be defined as the ratio of a circles circumference (Greek περιφέρεια, periphery) to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, and which is in common use in mathematics, physics, and engineering. ... Look up P, p in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pe (П, п) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /p/. It arose directly from the Greek letter Pi (Π, Ï€). The shape of capital printed Pe can be described as a square with the bottom line missing, not to be confused with El (Cyrillic), which has a curved left. ... Image File history File links Phoenician_sade. ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... Binomial name Cyperus papyrus L. Papyrus sedge, also known as Bulrush or Paper reed (Cyperus papyrus) is a monocot belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae. ...   Tsade, Tsadi or Sadhe is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Tsade, Tsadi or Sadhe is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... ( ‎) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents an emphatic voiced alveolar plosive (IPA: ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Sampi (Upper case , lower case ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Che (Ч, ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant cluster /tS/ or /tS/ (like the ch in change). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Phoenician Qoph. ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... The eye of a needle. ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎ (in abjadi order). ... Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Look up Q, q in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoenician Res. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Resh is the twentieth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its sound value is one of a number of rhotic consonants: usually IPA: or but also or in Hebrew. ... 1. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Er (Р, Ñ€) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Phoenician Sin. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ...   Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic ‎ (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Es (С, с) is the nineteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Sha (Ш, ш) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound /ʃ/ or /ʃʲ/. It is equivalent to sh in English, ch in French, sch in German, ÅŸ in Turkish, or sz in Polish. ... Phoenician Taw. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ...   Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and Cyrillic Te (Т). // Origins of Taw Taw is believed... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Tau (upper case Τ, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Its name in English is tee . ... Te (Т, Ñ‚) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ...

Encoding

The Phoenician script was accepted for encoding in Unicode 5.0 in the range U+10900 to U+1091F. An alternative proposal to handle it as a font variation of Hebrew was turned down. (See PDF summary.) The letters are encoded U+10900 𐤀 aleph through to U+10915 𐤕 taw, U+10916 𐤖, U+10917 𐤗, U+10918 𐤘 and U+10919 𐤙 encode the numerals 1, 10, 20 and 100 respectively and U+1091F 𐤟 the word separator. Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Phoenician
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
U+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1090 𐤀 𐤁 𐤂 𐤃 𐤄 𐤅 𐤆 𐤇 𐤈 𐤉 𐤊 𐤋 𐤌 𐤍 𐤎 𐤏
1091 𐤐 𐤑 𐤒 𐤓 𐤔 𐤕 𐤖 𐤗 𐤘 𐤙 𐤚 𐤛 𐤜 𐤝 𐤞 𐤟

Derived alphabets

Each letter of Phoenician gave way to a new form in its daughter scripts
Each letter of Phoenician gave way to a new form in its daughter scripts

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (371x1112, 49 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the alphabet ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (371x1112, 49 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the alphabet ...

Middle Eastern descendents

The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, used to write early Hebrew, is nearly identical to the Phoenician one. The Samaritan alphabet, used by the Samaritans, is a version of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... For other senses of this word, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ...


The Aramaic alphabet, used to write Aramaic, is another descendant. Aramaic being the lingua franca of the Middle East, it was widely adopted. It later split off into a number of related alphabets, including the modern Hebrew alphabet, the Syriac alphabet, and the Nabatean alphabet, a highly cursive form that was the origin of the Arabic alphabet. Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...


Derived European scripts

The Greek alphabet developed from the Phoenician alphabet. The Greeks kept most of the sounds of the symbols, but used some letters which represented sounds that did not exist in Greek to represent vowels. This was particularly important as Greek, an Indo-European language, is much less consonant-dominated than most Semitic languages. The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ...


The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet. Some Cyrillic letters are based on Glagolitic forms, which were influenced by the Hebrew alphabet. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ...


The Latin was derived from Old Italic, (originally from the Greek alphabet) used for Etruscan and other languages. The Germanic runes also seem to have been derived from an early form of Old Italic alphabet, via the Alpine scripts. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Old Italic, referring to Italy prior to Roman domination Etruria, Villanovan culture, Terramare culture Old Italic alphabets Ancient Italic peoples Italic languages Category: ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Influence in India and Eastern Asia

Many historians believe that the Brahmi script and the subsequent Indic alphabets are derived from this script as well,[citation needed] which would make it the ancestor of almost all major writing systems in use today, possibly including even Hangul, which is possibly derived from Phagspa, itself a derivative of a Brahmi script; this would mean that of all the scripts in use in the world today, only the Chinese script and its derivatives have an independent origin. It is important to note, however, that the ancient scripts of the Maya and Sumerian cultures evolved independently, and that the Phoenician alphabet owes much of its inspiration to the Egyptian writing system. The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Jamo redirects here. ... The word Wiki in Phagspa characters The Phagspa script (also square script) was an Abugida designed by the Lama Phagspa for the emperor Kublai Khan during the Yuan Dynasty in China, as a unified script for all languages within the Mongolian Empire. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...


See also

Phoenician alphabet
𐤀 𐤁 𐤂 𐤃
𐤄 𐤅 𐤆 𐤇 𐤈 𐤉
𐤊 𐤋 𐤌 𐤍 𐤎 𐤏
𐤐 𐤑 𐤒 𐤓 𐤔 𐤕
Semitic abjads · Genealogy

is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Gimmel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Aramaic, Syriac, Phoenician and Hebrew. ... Dalet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... or (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew (also ) , Arabic (in abjadi order), and Berber . Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal , or velar (the... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Arabic alphabet , Persian alphabet . ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... → [Nun] is the 14th letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet (in abjadi order). ... Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic, representing . ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... The Tanakh is the Hebrew Bible and Qumran is an archaeological site near the Dead Sea. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jensen (1969) p. 256.
  2. ^ Jensen (1969) p. 256-258.
  3. ^ Coulmas (1989) p. 141.
  4. ^ Daniels (1996) p. 94-95.
  5. ^ Semitic script dated to 1800 B.C.
  6. ^ Jensen (1969) p. 262.
  7. ^ Jensen (1969) p. 262-263.

References

  • Sanford Holst, Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage, Cambridge and Boston Press, Los Angeles, 2005.
  • Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Je m'appelle Byblos, H & D, Paris, 2005. ISBN 2 914 266 04 9
  • George Rawlinson, History of Phoenicia, Longmans and Green, 1889.
  • Daniels, Peter T., et al. eds. The World's Writing Systems Oxford. (1996).
  • Jensen, Hans, Sign, Symbol, and Script, G.P. Putman's Sons, New York, 1969.
  • Coulmas, Florian, Writing Systems of the World, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford, 1989.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Phoenician alphabet

Canon George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 7 October 1902), was a 19th century English scholar and historian. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Phoenician Alphabet (0 words)
The Phoenician alphabetic script of 22 letters was used at Byblos as early as the 15th century B.C. This method of writing, later adopted by the Greeks, is the ancestor of the modern Roman alphabet.
All the European alphabets are descendants of the Phoenician, and all the Asiatic alphabets are descendants of the Aramaic variants of the Phoenician.
Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of the Greek alphabet and, hence, of all Western alphabets.
Phoenician alphabet - Definition, explanation (595 words)
Phoenician was usually written from right to left, although there are some texts written in boustrophedon (consecutive lines in alternate directions – literally, as the ox turns, a reference to the way an ox turns at the end ploughing a furrow and carries on the next furrow in the opposite direction).
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, used to write early Hebrew, is nearly identical to the Phoenician one.
The Greek alphabet is thought to have developed either directly from the Phoenician alphabet, or to share a common parent in Proto-Canaanite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m