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This article is part of the series on: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 884 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lebanon Phoenicia 1982 Lebanon War Lebanon crisis of 1958 Lebanese Civil War Cedar Revolution 2005 Lebanon...


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Ancient History
Phoenicia
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Persian Rule
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1958 Lebanon crisis
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Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced /fɨˈnɪʃiə/[1], Greek: Φοινίκη: Phoiníkē, Latin: Phœnicia) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean between the period of 1200 BC to 900 BC. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre, is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland. The Phoenicians often traded by means of a galley, a man-powered sailing vessel. They were the first civilization to create the bireme. Template:History of Lebanon The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule. ... During the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, what is today known as Lebanon, came under nominal Assyrian rule on several occasions[1]. The approach of the devastating Assyrian armies would more often than not result in the vassalage of these states. ... Throughout her history, the lands known today as Lebanon came under foreign rule from various powers. ... The history of Lebanon under Arab traces the course of human events in the section of the Middle East now known as Lebanon. ... The State of Greater Lebanon is the name of a territory that was created by France and is the precursor of modern Lebanon. ... The Lebanon crisis of 1958 was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... The 2005 Lebanon bombings were a series of bombings that occurred mainly in Beirut, Lebanon and its suburbs. ... Cedar Revolution has become the most commonly used name for the chain of demonstrations and popular civic action in Lebanon (mainly Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005. ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... The 2006–2007 Lebanese political protests were a series of protests and sit-ins that began on 1 December 2006, led by groups in Lebanon that opposed the Western-backed government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. ... Combatants Lebanese Armed Forces Fatah al-Islam Commanders Michel Sulaiman Shaker al-Abssi Strength ~70,000 troops, ~1000 surrounding the camp ~500 Casualties 35 killed, 58 wounded 37 killed, 20 captured; 60 killed (Lebanese claim) 10 killed (FaI claim) [1]. Civilian casualties: 22 killed Casualties sources: [2] The 2007 North... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Central New York City. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. Each city-state was an independent unit politically, although they could come into conflict, be dominated by another city-state, or collaborate in leagues or alliances. Tyre and Sidon were the most powerful of the Phoenician states in the Levant, but were not as powerful as the North African ones. The Phoenicians were close allies with the ancient Israelites and inter-married with each other already at the beginning of the United Monarchy of Solomon and they are considered one of the main influences on the architecture of ancient Israel.[2] A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ...


The Phoenicians were also the first state level society to make extensive use of the alphabet, and the Canaanite-Phoenician alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of all modern alphabets. Phoenicians spoke the Phoenician language, which belongs to the group of Canaanite languages in the Semitic language family. Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Romans and Etruscans.[3] In addition to their many inscriptions, the Phoenicians wrote many books, which have not survived. Evangelical Preparation by Eusebius of Caesarea quotes extensively from Philo of Byblos and Sanchuniathon. The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... ABCs redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Philo of Byblos (Herennios Philon), (ca 64 - 141 CE) was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek, whose name Herennius makes it appear that he was a client of the Consul suffectus Herennius Severus, through whom Philo could have achieved the status of a Roman citizen. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Phoenician, through Latin punicus, comes from Greek phoînix, attested since Homer and altered from Linear B ponikijo, was ultimately borrowed from Ancient Egyptian Fnkhw "Syrian people".[4] The name appears to have been modified or influenced in form by Greek phoînix "Tyrian purple, crimson; murex" (from phoinos "blood red"[5]), an association probably patterned after Semitic kinahna "Syrian coast" and kinahhu "purple dye", already attested in the 2nd millennium BC.[6] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ...


Origins

Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. The sarcophagus is thought to have been designed and paid for by a Phoenician merchant, and made in Greece with Egyptian influence.
Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. The sarcophagus is thought to have been designed and paid for by a Phoenician merchant, and made in Greece with Egyptian influence.

Stories of their emigrating from various places to the eastern Mediterranean are probably founded in 'oral fact', but researchers are pursuing DNA tests to verify this assertion. A written reference, Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to a memory from 800 years earlier, which may be subject to question in the fullness of genetic results. (History, I:1). Image File history File links Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cadiz From http://www. ... Image File history File links Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cadiz From http://www. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ...

According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly reached the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean from an unknown origin and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria....

This is a legendary introduction to Herodotus' brief retelling of some mythical Hellene-Phoenician interactions. Though few modern archaeologists would confuse this myth with history, a grain of truth may yet lie therein. (For the theory that the history of Phoenician seafaring starts with the arrival of the Sea Peoples to the shores of present-day Lebanon, see the relevant article.) The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Erythraean Sea is an ancient name for the Indian Ocean or its attached gulfs, specifically, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


In terms of archaeology, language, and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other local cultures of Canaan, because they were Canaanites themselves. However, they are unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements. Indeed, in the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC they call themselves Kenaani or Kinaani (Canaanites). Note, however, that the Amarna letters predate the invasion of the Sea Peoples by over a century. Much later in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back "cedars of Lebanon" as early as the third millennium BC. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Hecataeus (c. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Foundation of the city of Mari (Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in Sumeria...


Archaeologists argue that the Phoenicians are simply the descendants of coastal-dwelling Canaanites, who over the centuries developed a particular seagoing culture and skills. Other suggestions are that Phoenician culture must have been inspired from external sources (Egypt, North Africa etc.), that the Phoenicians were sea-traders from the Land of Punt who co-opted the Canaanite population; or that they were connected with the Minoans, or the Sea Peoples or the Philistines further south; or even that they represent the maritime activities of the coastal Israelite tribes like Dan, who from the Song of Deborah in Judges, are listed as being "amongst their ships". The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Tribe of Dan was also a band from the mid 1990s. ...


The Middle East Phoenician - Aramaic derivative 'Semitic language' gave some evidence of invasion at the site of Byblos, which may suggest origins in the highly disputed 'wave of Semitic migration' that hit the Fertile Crescent between ca. 2300 and 2100 BC, some scholars, including Sabatino Moscati believe that the Phoenicians' ethnogenesis included prior non-Semitic people of the area, suggesting a mixture between two populations. Both Sumerian and Akkadian armies had reached the Mediterranean in this area from the beginning of recorded Hebrew history, but very little is known of Phoenicia before it was conquered by Thutmoses III of Egypt around 1500 BC. The Amarna correspondence (ca. 1411-1358 BC) reveals that Amorites and Hittites were defeating the Phoenician cities that had been vassals to Egypt, especially Rib-Addi of Byblos and Abi-Milku/Abimelech of Tyre, but between 1350 and 1300 BC Phoenicia was reconquered by Egypt. Over the next century Ugarit flourished, but was permanently destroyed at the end of it (ca. 1200 BC). This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... The Amarna letters is the name popularly given to a cache of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE). ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... Abi-Milku was the only mayor/ruler of Tyre, Lebanon-(called Surru in the letters), during the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ...


Historian Gerhard Herm asserts that, because the Phoenicians' legendary sailing abilities are not well attested before the invasions of the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC, that these Sea Peoples would have merged with the local population to produce the Phoenicians, whom he says gained these abilities rather suddenly at that time. There is also archaeological evidence that the Philistines, often thought of as related to the Sea Peoples, were culturally linked to Mycenaean Greeks, who were also known to be great sailors even in this period. The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ...


The question of the Phoenicians' origin persists. Archaeologists have pursued the origin of the Phoenicians for generations, basing their analyses on excavated sites, the remains of material culture, contemporary texts set into contemporary contexts, as well as linguistics. In some cases, the debate is characterized by modern cultural agendas. Ultimately, the origins of the Phoenicians are still unclear: where they came from and just when (or if) they arrived, and under what circumstances, are all still energetically disputed. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


Spencer Wells of the Genographic Project has conducted genetic studies which demonstrate that male populations of Lebanon and Malta and other areas which are past Phoenician settlements, share a common m89 chromosome Y type,[7] while male populations which are related with the Minoans or with the Sea Peoples have completely different genetic markers. This implies that Minoans and Sea Peoples probably didn't have any ancestral relation with the Phoenicians.[2][3] The Phoenician's nickname "Purple People" came from the purple dye they manufactured in Mesopotamia and Mogador. Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ... The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ramparts of Essaouira Essaouira is a city and tourist resort in Morocco, near Marrakesh. ...


The cultural and economic "empire"

Map of Phoenicia.
Map of Phoenicia.

Fernand Braudel remarked in The Perspective of the World that Phoenicia was an early example of a "world-economy" surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and seapower is usually placed ca. 1200 – 800 BC. Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...


Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this: Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Aradus and Berytus all appear in the Amarna tablets; and indeed, the first appearance in archaeology of cultural elements clearly identifiable with the Phoenician zenith is sometimes dated as early as the third millennium BC. The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Harbor in Arwad Arwad viewed from the air Arwad – formerly Arado (Greek: Άραδο), Arados (Greek: Άραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Πιερίας), Latin: Aradus, and also transliterated from the Arabic as Ar-Ruad – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only island in Syria. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


This league of independent city-state ports, with others on the islands and along other coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, was ideally suited for trade between the Levant area, rich in natural resources, and the rest of the ancient world. Suddenly, during the early Iron Age, in around 1200 BC an unknown event occurred, historically associated with the appearance of the Sea Peoples from the north who were perhaps driven south by crop failures and mass starvation following the eruption at the island Thera. The powers that had previously dominated the area, notably the Egyptians and the Hittites, became weakened or destroyed; and in the resulting power vacuum a number of Phoenician cities established themselves as significant maritime powers. A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite...

An ancient Phoenician coin.
An ancient Phoenician coin.

Authority seems to have stabilized because it derived from three power-bases: the king; the temple and its priests; and councils of elders. Byblos soon became the predominant center from where they proceeded to dominate the Mediterranean and Erythraean (Red) Sea routes, and it is here that the first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram (ca. 1200 BC). However, by around 1000 BC Tyre and Sidon had taken its place, and a long hegemony was enjoyed by Tyre beginning with Hiram I (969-936 BC), who subdued a rebellion in the colony of Utica[citation needed]. The priest Ittobaal (887-856 BC) ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, and part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion (820-774 BC). The collection of city-kingdoms constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians themselves as Sidonia or Tyria, and Phoenicians and Canaanites alike came to be called Zidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician conquest came to prominence after another. Hiram I or Ahiram (Hebrew: חִירָם, high-born; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām) was king of Tyre and Byblos from 969 BC to 936 BC, succeeding his father, Abibaal. ... Hiram I or Ahiram (Hebrew: חִירָם, high-born; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām) was the Phoenician king of Tyre and Byblos from 969 BC to 936 BC, succeeding his father, Abibaal. ... This article is about the ancient city of Utica in Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC Events and Trends 817 BC - Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty. ... Pygmalion (also known as Pumayyaton) was king of Tyre from 820 to 774 BC and a son of King Mattan I (829-821 BC). ...


Phoenician gods

Further information: Canaanite religion

Canaanite religion was the group of Ancient Semitic religions, belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. ...

Phoenician trade

Map of Phoenicia and trade routes
Map of Phoenicia and trade routes

The Phoenicians were amongst the greatest traders of their time and owed a great deal of their prosperity to trade. The Phoenicians' initial trading partners were the Greeks, with whom they used to trade wood, slaves, glass and a Tyrian Purple powder. This powder was used by the Greek elite to colour clothes and other garments and was not available anywhere else. Without trade with the Greeks they would not be known as Phoenicians, as the word for Phoenician is derived from the Ancient Greek word phoinikèia meaning "purple". Image File history File links PhoenicianTrade. ... Image File history File links PhoenicianTrade. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


In the centuries following 1200 BC, the Phoenicians formed the major naval and trading power of the region. Phoenician trade was founded on Tyrian Purple, a violet-purple dye derived from the Murex sea-snail's shell, once profusely available in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea but exploited to local extinction. James B. Pritchard's excavations at Sarepta in present day Lebanon revealed crushed Murex shells and pottery containers stained with the dye that was being produced at the site. The Phoenicians established a second production center for the purple dye in Mogador, in present day Morocco. Brilliant textiles were a part of Phoenician wealth, and Phoenician glass was another export ware. Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ... The American archaeologist James Bennett Pritchard (October 4, 1909 – January 1, 1997) explicated the interrelationships of the religions of ancient Israel, Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon. ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... The ramparts of Essaouira Essaouira is a city and tourist resort in Morocco, near Marrakesh. ... This article is about the material. ...


From elsewhere they obtained other materials, perhaps the most important being silver from Iberian Peninsula and tin from Great Britain, the latter of which when smelted with copper (from Cyprus) created the durable metal alloy bronze. Strabo states that there was a highly lucrative Phoenician trade with Britain for tin. This article is about the chemical element. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


The Phoenicians established commercial outposts throughout the Mediterranean, the most strategically important being Carthage in North Africa, directly across the narrow straits in Sicily and the island of Malta in the center of the Mediterranean; carefully selected with the design of monopolizing the Mediterranean trade beyond that point and keeping their rivals from passing through. Other colonies were planted in Cyprus, Corsica, Sardinia, the Iberian Peninsula, and elsewhere. They also founded innumerable small outposts a day's sail away from each other all along the North African coast on the route to Iberia's mineral wealth. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


The date when several of these cities were founded has been very controversial. Greek sources put the foundation of many cities very early. Gades (Cadiz) in Spain was traditionally founded in 1110 BC, while Utica in Africa was supposedly founded in 1101 BC. However, no archaeological remains have been dated to such a remote era. The traditional dates may reflect the establishment of rudimentary way stations that left little archaeological trace, and only grew into full cities centuries later. (The World of the Phoenicians, Sabatino Moscati, 1965). Alternatively, the early dates may reflect Greek historians' belief that the legends of Troy (mentioning these cities) were historically reliable. This article is about the Spanish city. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s 1100s - 1110s - 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s 1160s Years: 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 Events and Trends 1111 Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II 1112 The people of Laon... This article is about the ancient city of Utica in Tunisia. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s Years: 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Events and Trends 1107 Emperor Toba ascends the throne of Japan The great Buddhist centre of learning at Nalanda is...


Phoenician ships used to ply the coast of southern Spain and along the coast of Portugal. It is often mentioned that Phoenicians ventured north into the Atlantic ocean as far as Great Britain, where the tin mines in what is now Cornwall provided them with tin, although no archaeological evidence supports this belief and reliable academic authors see this belief as hollow (see Malcolm Todd - 1987, reference below). They also sailed south along the coast of Africa. A Carthaginian expedition led by Hanno the Navigator explored and colonized the Atlantic coast of Africa as far as the Gulf of Guinea; and according to Herodotus, a Phoenician expedition sent down the Red Sea by pharaoh Necho II of Egypt (c. 600 BC) even circumnavigated Africa and returned through the Pillars of Hercules in three years. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ... Map of the Gulf of Guinea, showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line of volcanoes. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Nomen: Necho Horus name: Maaib Nebty name: Maakheru Golden Horus: Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BC - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Wife Mehtenweskhet. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Phoenicians were not an agricultural people, because most of the land was not arable; therefore, they focused on commerce and trading instead. They did, however, raise sheep and sell them and their wool.


Art

Decline

Cyrus the Great conquered Phoenicia in 539 BC. Phoenicia was divided into four vassal kingdoms by the Persians: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad, and Byblos, and prospered, furnishing fleets for the Persian kings. However, Phoenician influence declined after this. It is also reasonable to suppose that much of the Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest, as it is roughly then (under King Hanno) that we first hear of Carthage as a powerful maritime entity. In 350 or 345 BC a rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III, and its destruction was described, perhaps too dramatically, by Diodorus Siculus. “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and trends 539 BC - Babylon is conquered by Cyrus the Great, defeating Nabonidus. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Harbor in Arwad Arwad viewed from the air Arwad – formerly Arado (Greek: Άραδο), Arados (Greek: Άραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Πιερίας), Latin: Aradus, and also transliterated from the Arabic as Ar-Ruad – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only island in Syria. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Hanno is a name that can refer to the following entities: Hanno the elephant, Pope Leo Xs pet Hanno the Elder, Carthaginian general Hanno the Great, Carthaginian general Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian explorer Hanno the Rab, Carthaginian politician Hanno von Sangerhausen, great master of the Teutonic Knights Hanno crater... Artaxerxes III ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


Alexander the Great took Tyre in 332 BC following the Siege of Tyre. Alexander was exceptionally harsh to Tyre, executing 2000 of the leading citizens, but he maintained the king in power. He gained control of the other cities peacefully: the ruler of Aradus submitted; the king of Sidon was overthrown. The rise of Hellenistic Greece gradually ousted the remnants of Phoenicia's former dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean trade routes, and Phoenician culture disappeared entirely in the motherland. However, its North African offspring, Carthage, continued to flourish, mining iron and precious metals from Iberia, and using its considerable naval power and mercenary armies to protect its commercial interests, until it was finally destroyed by Rome in 146 BC at the end of the Punic Wars. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC - 332 BC - 331 BC 329 BC 328... In 332 BC, Alexander the Great set out to conquer Tyre, a strategic coastal base in the war between the Greeks and the Persians. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ...


As for the Phoenician homeland, following Alexander it was controlled by a succession of Hellenistic rulers: Laomedon (323 BC), Ptolemy I (320), Antigonus II (315), Demetrius (301), and Seleucus (296). Between 286 and 197 BC, Phoenicia (except for Aradus) fell to the Ptolemies of Egypt, who installed the high priests of Astarte as vassal rulers in Sidon (Eshmunazar I, Tabnit, Eshmunazar II). In 197 BC, Phoenicia along with Syria reverted to the Seleucids, and the region became increasingly Hellenized, although Tyre actually became autonomous in 126 BC, followed by Sidon in 111. Syria, including Phoenicia, were seized by king Tigranes the Great from 82 until 69 BC when he was defeated by Lucullus, and in 65 BC Pompey finally incorporated it as part of the Roman province of Syria. Laomedon (in Greek Λαoμέδων; lived 4th century BC), native of Mytilene and son of Larichus, was one of Alexander the Greats generals, and appears to have enjoyed a high place in his confidence even before the death of Philip II, as he was one of those banished by that... For the unrelated astronomer, see Ptolemy Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC), ruler of Egypt (reigned 323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC, Greek: Δημήτριος), surnamed Poliorcetes (The Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC - 197 BC - 196 BC 195 BC... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC - 125 BC 124 BC... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ...


Important Phoenician cities and colonies

Map of Phoenician and Greek colonies at about 550 BC(with German legend).
Map of Phoenician and Greek colonies at about 550 BC(with German legend).

From the 10th century BC, their expansive culture established cities and colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Canaanite deities like Baal and Astarte were being worshipped from Cyprus to Sardinia, Malta, Sicily, Spain, Portugal, and most notably at Carthage in modern Tunisia. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with the east-Semitic goddess Ishtar. ...


In the Phoenician homeland:

Phoenician colonies, including some of lesser importance (this list might be incomplete): Arqa (originally Irqata, Arkite in the Bible) is a village near Miniara in the Akkar district of northern Lebanon, 22 km northeast of Tripoli, near the coast. ... Harbor in Arwad Arwad viewed from the air Arwad – formerly Arado (Greek: Άραδο), Arados (Greek: Άραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Πιερίας), Latin: Aradus, and also transliterated from the Arabic as Ar-Ruad – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only island in Syria. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The coastal city of Batroun (Arabic: البترون) located in northern Lebanon is one of the oldest cities of the world. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... View of Safita from Chastel Blanc. ... Sarepta (modern Sarafand, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Zemar (Egypt. ... Zemar (Egypt. ...

Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Cherchell or Cherchel is a seaport of Algeria. ... District Larnaka  - Mayor Andreas Moyseos Population (2001)  - City 72,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Carales redirects here. ... Nora is an ancient Roman and pre-Roman town placed on a peninsula near Pula, Sardinia. ... For Pontic Olbia, the Greek colony on the Black Sea coast, see Olbia, Ukraine. ... Sulcus (pl. ... Corinthian columns at Tharros Tharros is the name of the archaeological site in the province of Oristano on Sardinia, Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... The Phoenician town Motya, founded in the eighth century BCE as a commercial center, is situated on a small island in a lagoon on the most western part of Sicily. ... Location of the city of Palermo (red dot) within Italy. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Sabratha, in the Zawia district in the northwestern corner of modern Libya, was the westernmost of the three cities of Tripoli. ... The Acra was a fortress or citadel built in Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes ruler of the Seleucid Empire after his conquest of the city in 168 BCE. It stood on a hill higher than the Temple and was garrisoned by Greek soldiers. ... The ramparts of Essaouira Essaouira is a city and tourist resort in Morocco, near Marrakesh. ... Lixus is the site of an ancient city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Lucus River. ... Larache (also Laraish, El Araish العرائش) is a port city located in northern Morocco on the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... Abdera was an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, between Malaca (now Malaga) and Carthago Nova (now Cartagena), in the district inhabited by the Bastuli. ... may refer to: Jay Adra from QLD. A smart little boy who can overcome any challenge. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Location Coordinates : Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alacant (Catalan) Spanish name Alicante Postal code 03000 - 03016 Website www. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... Location of Málaga Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - Total 385. ... Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... Sexi (Ex, Sex) was a Phoenician colony at the present-day site of Almuñecar on Spains Costa del Sol. ... Almuñécar Playa Velilla Promenade and Hotel Helios, Playa San Cristobal, Almuñécar Excavated ruins of the Phoenecian fish salting factory within the Majuelo Park The Roman aqueduct at Torrecuevas near the source of the Rio Verde about 4 km north of Almuñécar The Roman aqueduct in the Rio... District or region Lisbon Mayor  - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... Faro is a city in Portugal; see Faro, Portugal a town in Yukon, Canada; see Faro, Yukon. ... Hadrumetum was a Phoenician colony earlier than Carthage, and was already an important town when the latter rose to greatness. ... View from the Abou Nawas Hotel over to the main beach in Sousse (Bou Jaafar) The Ribat of Sousse Sousse (Arabic سوسة Susa), is a city of Tunisia. ... Bizerte or Bizerta (Arabic: بنزرت; transliterated: Binzart) is a capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Thapsus (less commonly, Tapsus) was an ancient city in what is modern day Tunisia. ... Bekalta, Arabic: البقالطة (al-Bikalita), is a Tunisian coastal village, around 30 km. ... This article is about the ancient city of Utica in Tunisia. ... Finike is a district of Antalya Province of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Gibraltar (disambiguation). ...

Countries and Cities that derive their names from Phoenician

There are many countries and cities around the world that derive their names from the Phoenician Language. Below is a list with the respective meanings:

  • Altiburus: City in Algeria, SW of Carthage. From Phoenician: "Iltabrush"
  • Bosa: City in Sardinia: From Phoenician "Bis'en"
  • Cadiz: City in Spain: From Phoenician "Gadir"
  • Dhali (Idalion): City in Central Cyprus: From Phoenician "Idyal"
  • Erice: City in Sicily: From Phoenician "Eryx"
  • Malta: Island in the Mediterranean: From Phoenician "Malat" ('refuge')
  • Marion: City in West Cyprus: From Phoenician "Aymar"
  • Oed Dekri: City in Algeria: From Phoenician: "Idiqra"
  • Spain: From Phoenician: "I-Shaphan", meaning "Land of Hyraxes". Later Latinized as "Hispania"

Language and literature

The Phoenicians are credited with spreading the Phoenician alphabet throughout the Mediterranean world. It was a variant of the Semitic alphabet of the Canaanite area developed centuries earlier in the Sinai region, or in central Egypt. Phoenician traders disseminated this writing system along Aegean trade routes, to coastal Anatolia, the Minoan civilization of Crete, Mycenean Greece, and throughout the Mediterranean. Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... ABCs redirects here. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ...


This alphabet has been termed an abjad or a script that contains no vowels. A cuneiform abjad originated to the north in Ugarit, a Canaanite city of northern Syria, in the 14th century BC. Their language, Phoenician, is classifed as in the Canaanite subgroup of Northwest Semitic. Its later descendant in North Africa is termed Punic. The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Punics, (from Latin pÅ«nicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ...


The earliest known inscriptions in Phoenician come from Byblos and date back to ca. 1000 BC. Phoenician inscriptions are found in Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cyprus and other locations, as late as the early centuries of the Christian Era. In Phoenician colonies around the western Mediterranean, beginning in the 9th century BC, Phoenician evolved into Punic. Punic Phoenician was still spoken in the 5th century CE: St. Augustine, for example, grew up in North Africa and was familiar with the language. (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Augustinus redirects here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Phoenician Influence in the Mediterranean

Phoenician culture had a huge effect upon the cultures of the Mediterranean basin in the early Iron Age. For example, in Greece, the tripartite division between Zeus, Hades and Poseidon, seems to have been influenced by the Phoenician division between Baal, Mot and Yam. Stories like the Rape of Europa, and the coming of Cadmus also draw upon Phoenician influence. The recovery of the Mediterranean economy after the late Bronze Age collapse, seems to have been largely due to the work of Phoenician traders and merchant princes, who re-established long distance trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 10th century BC. Phoenician motifs are also present in the Orientalising period of Greek art, and Phoenicians also played a formative role in Etruscan civilisation in Tuscany. Phoenician temples in various Mediterranean ports sacred to Phoenician Melkart, during the classical period, were recognised as sacred to Hercules. The Ionian revolution was led by philosophers such as Thales of Miletus or Pythagoras, both of whom had Phoenician fathers. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Yam, from the Canaanite word Yam, meaning Sea, is one name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea. ... Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, circa 1869. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa) replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... For the French electronics and defence contractor, see Thales Group Thales (in Greek: Θαλης) of Miletus (circa 635 BC - 543 BC), also known as Thales the Milesian, was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


Phoenicians in the Bible

Hiram (also spelled Huran) associated with the building of the temple.

2Ch 2:14—The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father [was] a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him...

This is the architect of the Temple, Hiram Abiff of Masonic lore. They are vastly famous for their purple dye. Hiram Abiff is an allegorical figure mentioned in Masonic ritual, who is figuratively the master of the construction of King Solomons Temple. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Later, reforming prophets railed against the practice of drawing royal wives from among foreigners: Elijah execrated Jezebel, the princess from Tyre who became a consort of King Ahab and introduced the worship of her gods. Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jezebel (אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל (not exalted) Standard Hebrew Izével/Izável, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) is the name of two women in the Hebrew Bible. ... For other uses, see Ahab (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


Long after Phoenician culture had flourished, or Phoenicia had existed as any political entity, Hellenized natives of the region where Canaanites still lived were referred to as "Syro-Phoenician", as in the Gospel of Mark 7:26: "The woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by birth..." The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ...


The word Bible itself ultimately derives through Greek from the word Byblos which means Book, and not from the Hellenised Phoenician city of Byblos (which was called Gebal), before it was named by the Greeks as Byblos. The Greeks called it Byblos because it was through Gebal that bublos (Bύβλος ["Egyptian papyrus"]) was imported into Greece. Present day Byblos is under the current Arabic name of Jbeil (جبيل Ǧubayl) derived from Gebal. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


Genetics of the Phoenicians

Further information: Genetics of the Ancient World

In 2004, two Harvard University educated geneticists and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells identified the haplogroup of the Phoenicians as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research.[10] As Dr. Wells commented, "The Phoenicians were the Canaanites—and the ancestors of today's Lebanese."[11] The male populations of Tunisia and Malta were also included in this study and shown to share overwhelming genetic similarities with the Lebanese-Phoenicians. Harvard redirects here. ... The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ... Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... J2 (comics), a comicbook character Azal Azerbaijan Airlines (J2 IATA airline designator) The Janko group J2 J2 (roller coaster), a rollercoaster at Clementon Amusement Park J2 (music channel), a New Zealand television music channel Shorthand for J.LEAGUE Division 2 j2 Global Communications, a tech company best known for electronic...


See also

Phoenicianism (Arabic,نزعة فينيقية) is a form of Lebanese nationalism that promotes the idea that Lebanese people are not Arabs and the Lebanese speak their own language, look European and have their own culture, separate from the surrounding Middle Eastern countries. ... The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant. ...

References

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ c.f. 1 Kings 7:13-14. For archaeological discussion of the impact of the Phoenicians on Israelite architecture see, in general, Amihai Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000 - 586 BCE. Doubleday: New York, 1992.
  3. ^ Edward Clodd, Story of the Alphabet (Kessinger) 2003:192ff
  4. ^ Sinuhe, B220. Said "Fenesh/w". Refers specifically to Phoenician area. Urk.
  5. ^ Gove, Philip Babcock, ed. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1993.
  6. ^ Gray, John. The Canaanites. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964: 15.
  7. ^ "In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link", National Geographic, 8 January 2008. 
  8. ^ Claudian, B. Gild. 518
  9. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Mogador: promontory fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham, Nov. 2, 2007 [1]
  10. ^ National Geographic Magazine, October 2004. Available online: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/lebanon/phoenicians-text/1; and http://www.independent.com.mt/news.asp?newsitemid=57215 [accessed: March 10, 2008]
  11. ^ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/lebanon/phoenicians-text/5 Accessed April 11, 2008
  • Aubet, Maria Eugenia, The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade, tr. Mary Turton (Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 2001: review)
  • Todd, Malcolm; Andrew Fleming (1987). The South West to AD 1,000 (Regional history of England series No.:8). Harlow, Essex: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49274-2 (Paperback), 0-582-49273-4 (hardback). , for a critical examination of the evidence of Phoenician trade with the South West of the U.K
  • Markoe, Glenn (2000). Phoenicians. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-226135 (hardback). , for a critical examination of the evidence of Phoenician trade with the South West of the U.K
  • Thiollet, Jean-Pierre, Je m'appelle Byblos, H & D, Paris, 2005. ISBN 2 914 266 04 9

OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 7 October 1902), was a 19th century English scholar and historian. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Malcolm Todd is a British historian and archaeologist with an interest in the interaction between the Roman Empire and Western Europe. ...

External links

  • University of Pennsylvania Museum offers simplified but unbiased information on Canaan and Phoenicians, emphasizing common aspects of culture among Israel and the other kingdoms in Canaan.
  • Phoenicians in Cadiz bay (Spain) Punic Phoenician archaeology in Cadiz bay (Spain)
  • "Phœnicia". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

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