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Encyclopedia > Phocaea
Phocaea(Φώκαια)
Ancient City of Greece
(Foça)
The theater of Phocaea

Phocaea
Phocaea, now Foça

Phocaea (Greek: Φώκαια) (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia[1] (the modern day Marseille, in France) in 600 BC, Emporion (the modern day Empúries, in Catalonia) in 575 BC and Elea (modern day Velia, in (Campania, Italy) in 540 BC. Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,416 × 1,612 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 320 pixelsFull resolution (3323 × 1331 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) Карта Турции в нужной проекции для Шаблон:ПозКарта, обрезанная ровно по линиям градусов (25° - 45° в.д., 43° - 35° с.ш.). Map of Turkey, in the equirectangular projection (equidistant cylindrical projection, or plate carrée). ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Greek amphora found at Empúries Empúries (Catalan name; in Spanish: Ampurias) is a town on the Mediterranean coast, of the Catalan comarca of Baix Empordà. It was founded in 575 BC by Greek colonists from Phocaea with the name of Ἐμπόριον ( Emporion — market; see also List of traditional Greek... Greek amphora found at Empúries Empúries (Catalan name; in Spanish: Ampurias) is a town on the Mediterranean coast, of the Catalan comarca of Baix Empordà. It was founded in 575 BC by Greek colonists from Phocaea with the name of Ἐμπόριον ( Emporion — market; see also List of traditional Greek... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Elea (Velia by the Romans; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a Greek coastal city founded around 540 BC in Lucania in southern Italy, 15 miles southeast of the Gulf of Salerno. ... Velia is an ancient town of Lucania (present Basilicata), Italy, on the hill now crowned by the medieval castle of Castellainmare della Bruca, 440 ft. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ...

Contents

Geography

Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna

Phocaea was the most northern of the Ionian cities. It was located near the mouth of the river Hermus (now Gediz), and situated on the coast of the peninsula separating the Gulf of Cyme to the north, named for the largest of the Aeolian cities, and the Gulf of Smyrna (now İzmir) to the south. It had two good harbors. Modified (by me) satellite photo. ... Modified (by me) satellite photo. ... Gediz is a district of Kütahya Province of Turkey. ... Cyme can refer to: Cyme, a botanical term a for a class of flower clusters (see inflorescence) characterized by the terminal flower in the cluster blooming first. ... Aeolia may mean: Another name for Aeolis in Anatolia. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ...


History

The ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus.[2] Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.[3] Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Ionian League (also called the Panionic League) was a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy comprised of 12 Ionian cities, formed as early as 800 BC. The cities were, (from south to north), Miletus, its principal city, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos... Codrus - King of Athens (r. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC...


According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.[4] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Etruria was an ancient country in central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what now are Tuscany, Latium and Umbria. ... // Background and Origin Arganthonios (Argantonio in Spanish) was king the most important king of ancient Tartessia (southern Spain). ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of Spain, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. ...


Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Massalia (Marseille) in France, and Emporion in Spain.[5] Naucratis (nŏk´retĬs), was an ancient city of Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile, 45 mi (72 km) SE of Alexandria. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... now. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Lampsacus was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Aléria (Greek and Roman Alalia) is a commune in the Haute-Corse département of France, on the island of Corsica. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...


Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560 - 545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[6] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ...


Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.[7] Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Elea (Velia by the Romans; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a Greek coastal city founded around 540 BC in Lucania in southern Italy, 15 miles southeast of the Gulf of Salerno. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ...


In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysis, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC.[8] However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three".[9] The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) This article is about the ancient deity. ... The Battle of Lade was fought in 494 BC between the Ionians and the Persians. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC - 494 BC - 493 BC 492 BC...


After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC - 412 BC - 411 BC 410 BC 409... “Athenian War” redirects here. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. It was later briefly under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium; Zaccaria amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there. The Hellenistic period (4th - 1st c. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. ... Benedetto Zaccaria (c. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


Coinage

Following the Lydians, the Phocaeans were among the earliest in the world to make and use coins as money. Its coins were made of electrum, an alloy of silver and gold. The British Museum has a Phocaean coin containing the image of a seal (phoca means "seal" in Greek) dating from 600550 BC.[10] Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies...


Hotels

Foça Kumsal Hotel


Notes

  1. ^ Pliny 3.5
  2. ^ Pausanias 7.3.10
  3. ^ Stilwell "Phokaia"
  4. ^ Herodotus 1.163
  5. ^ Stilwell "Phokaia"
  6. ^ Herodotus 1.6
  7. ^ For Herodotus' account of the flight of the Phocaeans, see: 1.164–168
  8. ^ Herodotus 6.11-12
  9. ^ Herodotus 6.8
  10. ^ The British Museum

References

  • Herodotus, The Persian Wars, Translated by A. D. Godley, (Loeb Classical Library, Nos. 117-120), Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press (1920) ISBN 0-674-99130-3 ISBN 0-674-99131-1 ISBN 0-674-99133-8 ISBN 0-674-99134-6 
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, Books I-II, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918) ISBN 0-674-99104-4. 
  • Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (Eds. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. (1855)  
  • Stillwell, Richard, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, (Editors: Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald and Marian Holland McAllister) (1976) ISBN 0-691-03542-3  

Coordinates: 38°40′03″N, 26°45′29″E Alfred Denis Godley (1856--1925) was a classical scholar and author of humorous poems. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Phocaea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (753 words)
Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.
It was located near the mouth of the river Hermus (now Gediz), and situated on the coast of the peninsula separating the Gulf of Cyme to the north, named for the largest of the Aeolian cities, and the Gulf of Smyrna (now Izmir) to the south.
Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysis, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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