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Encyclopedia > Philosophy of religion

Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

Contents

Philosophy of religion as a part of metaphysics

Philosophy of religion has classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's, Metaphysics, he described first causes as one of the subjects of his investigation. For Aristotle, God was the first cause: the unmoved mover. This later came to be called natural theology by rationalist philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries. In Aristotle's Metaphysics he also states that the word that comes closest to describing the meaning of the word God is "Understanding". Today, philosophers have adopted the term 'philosophy of religion' for the subject, and typically it is regarded as a separate field of specialization, though it is also still treated by some, particularly Catholic philosophers, as a part of metaphysics. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...


It should be clear why considerations of the divine have been regarded as metaphysical. God is usually conceived to be in a distinct category of being; a being different from those of the rest of the universe. For example, God in some traditions is conceived as not having a body. Metaphysics, and in particular ontology, is concerned with the most basic categories of existence, those things that cannot be explained with reference to any other type of existence. Thus one might argue that the very notion of God (or gods, or the divine) cannot be reduced to human concepts of mind or body; God is a sui generis entity. In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... In metaphysics (in particular, ontology), the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being or simply According to the Aristotelian tradition, a being is anything that can be said to be in the various senses of this word. ... Pronunciation SOO-eye jen-ER-ihs Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning of its own kind/genus or unique in its characteristics. ...


However, the philosophy of religion has concerned itself with more than just metaphysical questions. In fact the subject has long involved important questions in areas such as epistemology, philosophy of language, philosophical logic, and moral philosophy. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy of language is the branch of philosophy that studies language. ... Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of logic. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


Questions asked in philosophy of religion

One might think that philosophy of religion would be an inquiry into the foundations of religions (as Philosophy X is typically an inquiry into the foundations of X). However, philosophy of religion is predominantly an inquiry into the nature of God and religious belief (not religions per se). Thus, two of the main questions in the field are:

  1. What is God?
  2. Are there any good reasons to think that God does or does not exist?

Still, there are other questions studied in the philosophy of religion. For example: What, if anything, would give us good reason to believe that a miracle has occurred? What is the relationship between faith and reason? What is the relationship between morality and religion? What is the status of religious language? Does petitionary prayer (sometimes still called impetratory prayer) make sense?


What is God?

The question "What is God?" is sometimes also phrased as "What is the meaning of the word 'God'?" Most philosophers expect some sort of definition as an answer to this question, but they are not content simply to describe the way the word is used: they want to know the essence of what it means to be God. Western philosophers typically concern themselves with the God of monotheistic religions (see the nature of God in Western theology), but discussions also concern themselves with other conceptions of the divine. Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... The nature of God in monotheistic religions is a broad topic in Western philosophy of religion and theology, with a very old and distinguished history; it was one of the central topics in medieval philosophy. ...


Indeed, before attempting a definition of a term it is essential to know what sense of the term is to be defined. In this case, this is particularly important because there are a number of widely different senses of the word 'God.' So before we try to answer the question "What is God?" by giving a definition, first we must get clear on which conception of God we are trying to define. Since this article is on "philosophy of religion" it is important to keep to the canon of this area of philosophy. For whatever reasons, the Western, monotheistic conception of God (discussed below) has been the primary target of investigation in philosophy of religion. (One likely reason as to why the Western conception of God is dominant in the canon of philosophy of religion is that philosophy of religion is primarily an area of analytic philosophy, which is primarily Western.) Among those people who believe in supernatural beings, some believe there is just one God (monotheism; see also monotheistic religion), while others, such as Hindus, believe in many different deities (polytheism; see also polytheistic religion) while maintaining that all are manifestations of one God. Hindus also have a widely followed monistic philosophy that can be said to be neither monotheistic nor polytheistic (see Advaita Vedanta). Buddhists generally do not believe in the existence of a creator God similar to that of the Abrahamic religions, but direct attention to a state called Nirvana (See also Mu). In theology, monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Polytheism multiple gods or deities. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools being Dvaita and . ... Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, Pali: बुद्ध धम्म, the teachings of the awakened one) is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a way of life, a practical philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of applied psychology. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... Traditional Han character (used in Japanese) for mu Simplified Han character (used in modern Chinese) for wú Mu (Japanese/Korean), Wú/Mou5 (Chinese (Mandarin/Cantonese); 無, simplified: 无, Cantonese: 冇) is a word which can be roughly translated as without or have not. While typically used as a prefix to imply the absence...


Within these two broad categories (monotheism and polytheism) there is a wide variety of possible beliefs, although there are relatively few popular ways of believing. For example, among the monotheists there have been those who believe that the one God is like a watchmaker who wound up the universe and now does not intervene in the universe at all; this view is deism. By contrast, the view that God continues to be active in the universe is called theism. (Note that 'theism' is here used as a narrow and rather technical term, not as a broader term as it is below. For full discussion of these distinct meanings, refer to the article Theism.) Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more Gods or deities. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more Gods or deities. ...


Monotheistic definitions

Monotheism is the view that only one God exists (as opposed to multiple gods). In Western (Christian) thought, God is traditionally described as a being that possesses at least three necessary properties: omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (all-powerful), and omnibenevolence (supremely good). In other words, God knows everything, has the power to do anything, and is perfectly good. Many other properties (e.g., omnipresence) have been alleged to be necessary properties of a god; however, these are the three most uncontroversial and dominant in Christian tradition. By contrast, Monism is the view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. Monistic theism, a variant of both monism and monotheism, views God as both immanent and transcendent. Both are dominant themes in Hinduism. In theology, monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character/s including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe etc. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omnibenevolence is the property of being perfectly good, attributed by some religions to God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ALL is a three-letter acronym that can denote: Albanian Lek (currency) Acute lymphocytic leukemia, a leukemia affecting mostly children. ... In philosophy, essence is the attribute (or set of attributes) that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is, and that it has necessary, in contrast with accident, properties that the object or substance has contingently and without which the substance could have existed. ... In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Even once the word "God" is defined in a monotheistic sense, there are still many difficult questions to be asked about what this means. For example, what does it mean for something to be created? How can something be "all-powerful"?


Polytheistic definitions

The distinguishing characteristic of polytheism is its belief in more than one god(dess). There can be as few as two (such as a classical Western understanding of Zoroastrian dualism) or an innumerably large amount, as in Hinduism (as the Western world perceives it). There are many varieties of polytheism; they all accept that many gods exist, but differ in their responses to that belief. Henotheists for example, worship only one of the many gods, either because it is held to be more powerful or worthy of worship than the others. But in Kali Yukam all gets unified into Ayya Vaikundar for destroying the Kaliyan. (some Christian sects take this view of the Trinity, holding that only God the Father should be worshipped, Jesus and the Holy Spirit being distinct and lesser gods), or because it is associated with their own group, culture, state, etc. (ancient judaism is sometimes interpreted in this way). The distinction isn't a clear one, of course, as most people consider their own culture superior to others, and this will also apply to their culture's God. Kathenotheists have similar beliefs, but worship a different god at different times or places. Polytheism multiple gods or deities. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... This is the seventh of the Eight Yukams according to Ayyavazhi Mythology ... According to Akilattirattu Ammanai, a scripture of the Ayyavazhi, Ayya Vaikundar அய்யா வைகுண்டர், was a Manu (father, sovereign) avatar (the incarnation of a deity) of Narayana. ... Kaliyan was the sixth fragment of the primordial manifestation of Kroni (evil) according to Akilam, the source of Ayyavazhi mythology and the holy book of Ayyavazhi religion. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Kathenotheism is a term coined by the philologist Max Müller to mean the worship of one god at a time. ...


Pantheistic definitions

Pantheists assert that God is himself (or itself) the natural universe. The most famous Western pantheist is Baruch Spinoza, though the precise characterisation of his views is complex. Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) by his synagogue elders, and known as Bento de Espinosa or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam, was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher. ...


Panentheism is a variation of pantheism which holds that the physical universe is part of God, but that God is more than this. While pantheism can be summed up by "God is the world and the world is God", panentheism can be summed up as "The world is God, but God is more than the world". However, this might be a result of a misinterpretation of what is meant by world in Pantheism. Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God; all-in-God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ...


Rationality of belief

See main article: Existence of God

Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ...

Positions

The second question, "Do we have any good reason to think that God does (or does not) exist?", is equally important in the philosophy of religion. There are four main positions with regard to the existence of God that one might take: Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ...

  1. Theism - the belief that God exists.
  2. Weak atheism - the lack of belief in any deity.
  3. Strong atheism - the belief that no deity exists.
  4. Agnosticism - the belief that the existence or non-existence of God is not known or cannot be known.

Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more Gods or deities. ... Weak atheism (also called negative atheism) is the lack of belief in the existence of deities, without a commitment to the necessary non-existence of deities. ... Strong atheism, sometimes called positive atheism, hard atheism or gnostic atheism, is the philosophical position that no deity exists. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without and gnosis, knowledge, translating to unknowable) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities — is unknown or (possibly) inherently unknowable. ...

Natural theology

The attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is known as natural theology or the natural theistic project. Natural theology, then, is the attempt to justify belief in God by independent grounds. There is plenty of philosophical literature on faith (especially fideism) and other subjects generally considered to be outside the realm of natural theology. However, throughout much of philosophy of religion is the assumption of natural theology (i.e., that the existence of God can be proved or disproved). Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of several belief systems which hold, on various grounds, that reason is irrelevant to religious faith. ...


The philosopher Alvin Plantinga is a prominent Christian apologist who has effectively abandoned the tradition of natural theology. Instead of attempting to prove the existence of God, Plantinga has shifted his focus to justifying belief in God (that is, those who believe in God, for whatever reasons, are rational in doing so) through reformed epistemology. Alvin Cornelius Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... Reformed epistemology is the title given to a broad body of epistemological viewpoints relating to Gods existence that have been offered by a group of Protestant Christian philosophers that includes Alvin Plantinga, William Alston, and Nicholas Wolterstorff among others. ...


Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have all developed religious world views based on, or incorporating, philosophical investigation. There are separate entries on Hindu philosophy, Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and Islamic philosophy. Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Christian philosophy is a catch-all expression for a two-millennia tradition of rational thought that attempts to fuse the fields of philosophy with the religious teachings of Christianity. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a part of the Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam. ...


Major philosophers of religion

Abhinavagupta (c. ... Adi Shankara with the Four Disciples Adi Shankara (Åšankara, Shri Shankaracharya, Adhi Shankaracharya, Ä€di Åšhankarācārya; the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of the Lord) (approximately 8th century, but see below) was the most famous advaita philosopher, who had a... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (traditionally dated 1017–1137 CE) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Madhva can refer to: Shri Madhvacharya, Vaishnavite saint and founder of Dvaita school of thought, at Pajaka, Udupi a person belonging to the Dvaita school of thought This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Reverend Professor Marilyn McCord Adams (1943 – ) is an American philosopher of religion, a theologian and a writer on medieval philosophy. ... Robert M. Adams (born 1937) is an American philosopher of religion and morality. ... William P. Alston (born 1921) is professor emeritus at Syracuse University, and has been influential as an epistemologist. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... Boethius teaching his students (initial from a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy) Boethius redirects here. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 - June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist and philosopher. ... Samuel Clarke. ... Anne Conway (1631–1679) was an English philosopher whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on Leibniz. ... René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, was a noted French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite is the name scholars have given to an anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century, who wrote a collection of books (Corpus Areopagiticum) falsely ascribed to the Dionysius mentioned in Acts 17:34. ... Mircea Eliade Mircea Eliade (March 13, 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian, theorist of religion, and novelist notably in the fantasy and autobiographical genres. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazâlî (ابو حامد محمد الغزالي), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was an Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic of Persian origin. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, or Judah ben Samuel Halevi (Hebrew רבי יהודה הלוי) (c. ... Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ... Heraclitus by Johannes Moreelse Heraclitus of Ephesus (Greek Herakleitos) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Greek Ainiktin), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Ephesus in Asia Minor. ... John J. Havlicek (born April 8, 1940 in Martins Ferry, Ohio) is an American former professional basketball player, thought to be one of the best NBA players in history, especially in defense. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian, as well as an important figure of Western philosophy and of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Peter van Inwagen is John Cardinal OHara Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA:  ; 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian, generally recognized as the first existentialist philosopher. ... Nishida Kitaro Nishida Kitaro (西田 幾多郎 Nishida Kitarō; 1870, Ishikawa Prefecture – 1945) was a prominent Japanese philosopher, founder of what has been called the Kyoto School of philosophy. ... Nishitani Keiji (西谷 啓治 Nishitani Keiji, 1900, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan - 1990) was one of Nishida Kitaros disciples and part of the Kyoto School of Philosophy. ... Harold Kushner is a Conservative rabbi, in the liberal wing of Conservative Judaism, a member of the Rabbinical Assembly, and a long time congregational rabbi of Temple Israel in Natick, Massachusetts, USA. He is the author of the immensely popular book on liberal theology, When Bad Things Happen to Good... This article is 82 kilobytes or more in size. ... John Leslie Mackie (1917–1981) was a philosopher, originally from Sydney, Australia. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Michael Martin is a philosopher at Boston University as professor emeritus. ... Herbert McCabe (1926-2001) was a Dominican priest, theologian and philosopher. ... Basil Mitchell is a former National Football League running back. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna at the Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, Scotland Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జున in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Jetsun Milarepa (Wylie: Rje-btsun Mi-la-ras-pa), 1052-1135 (approx) was one of one of Tibets most famous yogis and poets, a student of Marpa Lotsawa, and a major figure in the history of the Kagyu (Bka-brgyud) school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rudolf Otto (September 25, 1869 - 6 March 1937) was an eminent German protestant theologian and scholar of comparative religion. ... William Paley William Paley (July, 1743 - May 25, 1805), English divine, Christian apologist and philosopher, was born at Peterborough, Northamptonshire. ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced []), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Dewi Zephaniah Phillips (24 November 1934 - 25 July 2006), known as D. Z. Phillips, enjoyed a long and distinguished academic career spanning four decades at Swansea University. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Alvin Cornelius Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... John Duns Scotus Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Professor Roderick Ninian Smart (1927–2001) was a writer and university educator. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) by his synagogue elders, and known as Bento de Espinosa or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam, was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher. ... Melville Y. Stewart is Professor of Philosophy at Bethel College in Minnesota. ... Richard Swinburne (born December 26, 1934) is a British professor and philosopher primarily interested in the philosophy of religion. ... Denys Turner is a British academic in the field of philosophy and theology. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... The philosopher Nicholas Paul Wolterstorff was born January 21, 1932 in Bigelow, Minnesota. ... Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায়) , (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was one of the most important Hindu religious leaders, and is deeply revered by millions of Hindus and non-Hindus to this date as a messenger of God. ... Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 -April 27, 1882) was an American author, poet, and philosopher. ...

Further Reading

William L. Rowe, William J. Wainwright, Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, Third Ed. (Florida: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998)


See also

Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ...

External links

  • Philosophy of Religion links Massive list, which includes religion, theology, and general philosophy links as well. Maintained by philosophy professor Dale Tuggy.
  • An introduction to the Philosophy of Religion by Paul Newall.
  • Philosophy of Religion Useful annotated index of religious philosophy topics.
  • Christian CADRE Philosophy Page Philosophy and research from a Christian perspective.
  • Apollos.ws Christian apologetics and philosophy of religion.
  • Philosophy of Religion .Info Introductory articles on philosophical arguments for and against theism.
  • Aroumah - Journal for literary philosophy of ReligionGerman and English e-journal.
  • Article on God & Philosophy
Philosophy Portal

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Feminist philosophy of religion is important to feminist and nonfeminist philosophy alike for providing a critical understanding of various religious concepts, beliefs, and rituals, as well as of religion as a cultural institution that defines, sanctions, and sometimes challenges gender roles and gender-inflected representations.
The maturing of feminist philosophy of religion as a field distinct from feminist theology was evident at the end of the twentieth century.
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Philosophy of Religion Useful annotated index of religious philosophy topics.
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