FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Philosophy of nature

Philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, was the precursor of what is now called natural science, especially physics. For example, Isaacus Newtonus (http://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newtonus)'s treatise Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis which founded modern physics (modern compared to ancient physics, that is), means Mathematical Principles of the Philosophy of Nature.


Philosophy of nature includes physics (see Archimedes of Syracuse, Heron of Alexandria) biology, which was founded by Aristotle, "the father of biology", and astronomy (see Eudoxus of Cnidus, astronomer).


Philosophy of nature became science (scientia in Latin, which means "knowledge") when inductive methods of knowledge acquisition, known as the scientific method became emphasized over pure deduction.


The ancient emphasis on deduction has its representative in Aristotle's Organum, and the new emphasis on induction and research has its representative in Francis Bacon's treatise Novum Organum.


Philosophy of nature also can include: geology, gemmology, chemistry, paleontology. Philosophy of nature does not include: psychology, sociology, ethics, esthetics, politics, theology, philosophy of mind, philosophia perennis, history, axiology, rhetoric, oratory, consciousness, anthropology.


In René Descartes' metaphysical system of dualism, there are two kinds of substance: matter and mind. According to this system, everything which is "matter" is deterministic and natural -- and so belongs to philosophia naturalis -- and everything which is "mind" is volitional and non-natural, and falls outside the domain of philosophy of nature.


External links

  • Past Exhibit in Philosophical Hall (http://www.amphilsoc.org/exhibitions/philhall.htm) by APS.

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Santayana (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (8644 words)
Science provides explanations of natural phenomena, but poetry and religion are festive celebrations of human life born of consciousness generated from the interaction of one's psyche (the natural structure and heritable traits of ones physical body) and the physical environment.
If the spiritual disciplines of philosophy are to thrive, philosophers have to take off the bandages of epistemology and metaphysics altogether, accept the finite and fallible status of their knowledge claims, and get on with confessing their belief in the things that make life worth living.
The nature of truth simply is correspondence with what is, but since humans, nor any other conscious being, are able to see beyond the determinant limits of their nature and environment, pragmatism becomes the test of truth rather than correspondence.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Naturalism (philosophy) (818 words)
Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses.
Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences.
Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science.
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