FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Philosopher" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Philosopher

A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. Such thinking is called philosophy. The word, "philosopher," literally means "lover of wisdom." Greek: "φίλος + σοφία" These five broad types of question are not the only subjects of philosophical inquiry, and there are many overlaps between the categories which are subsumed within the discipline under the four major headings of Logic, Ontology, Epistemology, and Axiology. ...

Contents


Popular Western philosophers in (approximate) historical order


This article is part of the Influential Western Philosophers series
Presocratics | Socrates | Plato | Aristotle | Epicureans | Stoics | Plotinus | Pyrrho | Cicero | Augustine of Hippo | Boëthius | Al-Farabi | Anselm | Peter Abelard | Averroës | Maimonides | Thomas Aquinas | Albertus Magnus | Duns Scotus | Ramon Llull | Occam | Giovanni Pico della Mirandola | Marsilio Ficino | Michel de Montaigne | René Descartes | Thomas Hobbes | Blaise Pascal | Baruch Spinoza | John Locke | Nicolas Malebranche | Gottfried Leibniz | Giambattista Vico | Julien Offray de La Mettrie | George Berkeley | Baron de Montesquieu | David Hume | Voltaire | Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Denis Diderot | Adam Smith | Johann Herder | Thomas Jefferson | Immanuel Kant | Johann Georg Hamann | Jeremy Bentham | Friedrich Schleiermacher | Johann Gottlieb Fichte | G. W. F. Hegel | Friedrich von Schelling | Friedrich von Schlegel | Arthur Schopenhauer | Søren Kierkegaard | Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach | Ralph Waldo Emerson | Henry David Thoreau | John Stuart Mill | Karl Marx | Mikhail Bakunin | Friedrich Nietzsche | Vladimir Soloviev | William James | Wilhelm Dilthey | C. S. Peirce | Gottlob Frege | Edmund Husserl | Henri Bergson | Ernst Cassirer | John Dewey | Benedetto Croce | Giovanni Gentile | José Ortega y Gasset | Alfred North Whitehead | Bertrand Russell | Ludwig Wittgenstein | Ernst Bloch | Julius Evola | Georg Lukács | Martin Heidegger | Emmanuel Levinas | Rudolf Carnap | Georges Bataille | Theodor Adorno | Simone Weil | Jean-Paul Sartre | Pietro Ubaldi | Simone de Beauvoir | Maurice Merleau-Ponty | | Max Horkheimer | Hannah Arendt | Albert Camus | Michel Foucault | Cornelius Castoriadis
This article is part of The Contemporary Philosophers series
Analytic philosophers:
Simon Blackburn | Ned Block | David Chalmers | Gregory Currie | Patricia Churchland | Paul Churchland | Donald Davidson | Daniel Dennett | Aron Edidin | Jerry Fodor | Susan Haack | Ray Jackendoff | Jaegwon Kim | Saul Kripke | Thomas Samuel Kuhn | Bryan Magee | Ruth Barcan Marcus | Colin McGinn | Thomas Nagel | Robert Nozick | Martha Nussbaum | Alvin Plantinga | Karl Popper | Hilary Putnam | W. V. Quine | John Rawls | Richard Rorty | Roger Scruton | Peter Singer | John Searle | Charles Taylor
Continental philosophers:
Louis Althusser | Giorgio Agamben| Alain Badiou | Roland Barthes | Jean Baudrillard | Isaiah Berlin | Maurice Blanchot | Pierre Bourdieu | Judith Butler | Hélène Cixous | Guy Debord | Gilles Deleuze | Jacques Derrida | Michel Foucault | Hans-Georg Gadamer | Eugene Gendlin | Jürgen Habermas | Werner Hamacher | Julia Kristeva | Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe | Henri Lefebvre | Claude Lévi-Strauss | Emmanuel Levinas | Jean-François Lyotard | Paul de Man | Jean-Luc Nancy | Antonio Negri | Paul Ricoeur | Michel Serres | Paul Virilio | Slavoj Žižek

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates, who exerted tremendous influence on later thought. ... Socrates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn) (ca. ... Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: Πλωτίνος)(ca. ... Pyrrho (c360 BC - c270 BC), a Greek philosopher from Elis, is usually credited as being the first skeptic philosopher and is the founder of the school known as Pyrrhonism. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (standard English pronunciation ; Classical Latin pronunciation ) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... St. ... Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (AD 480 - 524 or 525) was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 - April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Averroes Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Ramon Llull. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (February 24, 1463 – November 17, 1494) was an Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. ... Marsilio Ficino (also known by his Latin name, Marsilius Ficinus) (Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 - Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, astrologer, and a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of... Michel de Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 – September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... Thomas Hobbes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), was named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Espinosa or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was a 17th-century English philosopher. ... Nicolas Malebranche (August 6, 1638 – October 13, 1715) was a French philosopher of the Cartesian school. ... Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (also von Leibni(t)z) (July 1 (June 21 Old Style) 1646, Leipzig – November 14, 1716, Hanover) was a German polymath, deemed a genius in his day and since. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668—January 23, 1744) was a Neapolitan philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment. ... Bishop George Berkeley George Berkeley (British English://; Irish English: //) (March 12, 1685 – January 14, 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of what has come to be called subjective idealism, summed up in his dictum, Esse est percipi (To... ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776*) was a Scottish philosopher and historian. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Adam Smith, FRSE (Baptised June 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish political economist and moral philosopher. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), author of the United States Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... It has been suggested that Kantianism be merged into this article or section. ... Johann Georg Hamann (August 27, 1730 - June 21, 1788) was a German pietist protestant, thinker, and friend of the philosopher Immanuel Kant. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (February 15, 1748 – June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher, who has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the leading progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Immanuel Kant. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770–November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... This article is about the the German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. ... Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 11, 1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , ca. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was a famous American essayist and one of Americas most influential thinkers and writers. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden (available at wikisource), on simple living amongst nature, and Civil Disobedience (available at wikisource), on resistance to civil... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential classical liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Karl Heinrich Mordechai Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an influential philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Trolo) (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well known Russian anarchist. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (IPA:) (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher, whose critiques of contemporary culture, religion, and philosophy centered around a basic question regarding the foundation of values and morality. ... Vladimir Sergeyevich Soloviev Vladimir Sergeyevich Soloviev (Владимир Сергеевич Соловьёв) (1853 - 1900) was an outstanding Russian philosopher, poet, pamphleteer, literary critic, who played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th century. ... William James William James (January 11, 1842, New York – August 26, 1910, Chocorua, New Hampshire) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, Bad Kleinen) was a German mathematician who evolved into a logician and philosopher. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Image:Bergson. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thought has been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and political figure. ... Giovanni Gentile in his earlier years. ... José Ortega y Gasset José Ortega y Gasset (May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 – December 30, 1947) was a British mathematician who evolved into a philosopher. ... The Right Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Meaning is determined by use, in the context of a language-game {later} Meaning is determined by use, in the context of a language-game {later} Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to modern philosophy... Ernst Simon Bloch (July 8, 1885 - August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher and atheist theologian. ... Julius Evola, born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Giulio (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was a controversial Italian esotericist, who wrote prolifically on matters political, philosophical, historical, and religious from a Traditionalist point of view. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 - June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Hegelian-Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... Emmanuel Levinas (January 12, 1906 - December 25, 1995) was a Jewish philosopher originally from Kaunas in Lithuania, who moved to France where he wrote most of his works in French. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf Germany - September 14, 1970 Los Angeles) was a philosopher, active in central Europe before 1935, and in the United States thereafter. ... George Bataille Georges Bataille (September 16, 1897 – July 9, 1962) was a French writer, anthropologist and philosopher, though he avoided this last term himself. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher, musicologist and composer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Pietro Ubaldi (born Foligno, Aug. ... Simone de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (January 9, 1908 – April 14, 1986) was a French author, philosopher, and feminist. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different style of citation and footnoting. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 - July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German political theorist. ... Albert Camus Albert Camus (pronounced Kam-oo, IPA: ka. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... Cornelius Castoriadis (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was born in Constantinople (Istanbul) and his family moved soon after to Athens. ... In this case contemporary philosophers refers not just to figures who are alive, but also those who passed away within the past three decades, irrespective of when their major works were written or when their work was most popular. ... Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement in University philosophy departments in English-speaking countries, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and many of its leading proponents, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel and Karl Popper, were Austrian. ... Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... Ned Block (born 1942) (Ph. ... David Chalmers David Chalmers (1966 -) is a leading philosopher in the area of philosophy of mind. ... Gregory Currie: Greg Currie is Professor of Philosophy and Dean of the Faculty of Arts at the University of Nottingham. ... Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943) is a Canadian-American philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego since 1984. ... Paul Churchland is a philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego. ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Daniel Dennett Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942) is a prominent American philosopher. ... Aron Edidin is a noteworthy contemporary American analytical philosopher. ... Jerry Allan Fodor (b. ... Susan Haack (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy and law, and is currently on the faculty at the University of Miami in Florida. ... Ray Jackendoff (born 1945) is an influential contemporary linguist who has always straddled the boundary between generative linguistics and cognitive linguistics, committed as he is both to the existence of an innate Universal Grammar (an all-important thesis of generative linguistics) and to giving an account of language that meshes... Jaegwon Kim (1934- ) is an American philosopher who explores the limitations of theories of strict psychophysical identity. ... Saul Kripke in 1983 Saul Aaron Kripke (b. ... Cover of a biography of Thomas Kuhn. ... Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ... ... Colin McGinn (born 1950) is a British philosopher at Rutgers University, soon to be transferring to the University of Miami, because he wants to surf year-round (or so he told The Chronicle of Higher Education). ... Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937) is Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher, with a particular interest in ancient philosophy, law and ethics. ... Alvin Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of Frisian ancestry) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of religion. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born British philosopher of science and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is a key figure in the philosophy of mind during the 20th century. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, and The Law of Peoples. ... Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ... Professor Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is a leading British academic philosopher, and founder of Claridge Press. ... Prof. ... John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932) is Mills Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and consciousness, on the characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. ... Charles Taylor, CC, BA, MA, Ph. ... Continental philosophy is a general term for several related philosophical traditions that (notionally) originated in continental Europe from the nineteenth century onward, in contrast with Anglo-American analytic philosophy. ... ... Giorgio Agamben (1942 – ) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the University of Verona. ... Alain Badiou (born 1937, Rabat, Morocco) is a prominent French left-wing philosopher formerly chair of Philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure (ENS). ... Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher and semiotician. ... Jean Baudrillard (born July 29, 1929) is a cultural theorist and philosopher. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930-January 23, 2002) was a French sociologistwhose work ranged widely from philosophy to anthropology. ... Judith Butler (b. ... Hélène Cixous, (born June 5, 1937), is a French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher and literary critic. ... Guy Debord (December 28, 1931-November 30, 1994) was a member of the Lettrist International, Socialisme ou Barbarie and a founder and chief essayist of the Situationist International (SI). ... Gilles Deleuze Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925 - November 4, 1995 (pron. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Eugene T. Gendlin is an American philosopher who has developed ways of thinking about and working with the implicit. ... Habermas speaking with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, 2004 This article is about Jürgen Habermas. ... Werner Hamacher (b. ... Julia Kristeva (born 24 June 1941) is a famous Bulgarian philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has been living in France since the middle of the 1960s. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Henri Lefebvre, born June 16, 1901, died 1991 was a French Marxist sociologist, intellectual and philosopher. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (born November 28, 1908) is a French anthropologist who became one of the twentieth centurys greatest intellectuals by developing structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Emmanuel Levinas (January 12, 1906 - December 25, 1995) was a Jewish philosopher originally from Kaunas in Lithuania, who moved to France where he wrote most of his works in French. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983) was a Belgian-born deconstructionist literary critic and theorist. ... ... Antonio Negri (1933- ) is a moral and political philosopher from Italy. ... Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913, Valence - May 20, 2005, Chatenay Malabry) was a French philosopher and anthropologist best known for his attempt to combine phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Michel Serres (born September 1, 1930) is a French philosopher and author with an unusual career. ... Paul Virilio (born 1932 in Paris) is a cultural theorist. ... Slavoj Žižek. ...

Eastern philosophers in approximate historical order:

Gautama Buddha -- Lao Zi -- Confucius -- Mozi -- Rhazes -- Mencius -- Zhuang Zi -- Xun Zi --Han Feizi -- Nagarjuna -- Bodhidharma -- Wang Yang-ming--Wang Shou-ren--Zhan ruo-shui--Avicenna -- Shankara -- Dogen -- Zhu Xi -- Feng Youlan -- Iqbal -- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... The name Confucius is a Jesuit romanization of Kong Fuzi, literally meaning Master Kong. ... Mozi (c. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ... // The Person Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. ... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán FÄ“izǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi (韓非子) (d. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... Wang Yangming (王陽明 1472-1529) was a Ming Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian scholar-official. ... The works of Avicenna, the greatest of the medieval Islamic physicians, played a crucial role in the European Renaissance. ... Shankara can refer to: Shiva, the Hindu god Adi Shankara, Hindu philosopher of around the year 800 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; January 19, 1200 - September 22, 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and founder of the Soto school of Zen in Japan. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (1130–1200) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became one of the most significant Neo-Confucians in China. ... Feng Youlan (Simplified Chinese: 冯友兰; Traditional Chinese: 馮友蘭; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Feng Yu-lan; also: Fung Yu-Lan; 1895–1990) was a Chinese philosopher who was important for reintroducing the study of Chinese philosophy. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ...


Western Zhou Dynasty, China

Zhou Wen Wang / Ji Chang

Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China

 Taoism: 
Lao Zi / Lao Dan
Zhuang Zi / Zhuang Zhou
Lie Yu-Kou / Lie Yukou / 列御寇 / Lie Zi
 Confucian: 
Confucius / Kong Zi / Kong Qiu
Kong Ji / Zi Si
Zeng Zi
Meng Zi / Meng Ke
Xun Zi / Xun Kuang

Others: Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... // The Person Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. ... Lie Yukou (列御寇) was the Chinese author of Lie Zi. ... Lie Zi or Lieh Tzu is a famous legendary Taoist sage mentioned several times in the Zhuang Zi. ... The name Confucius is a Jesuit romanization of Kong Fuzi, literally meaning Master Kong. ... Confucius (traditionally 551 BC – 479 BC) was a famous sage and social philosopher of China whose teachings deeply influenced East Asia during twenty centuries. ... The name Confucius is a Jesuit romanisation of Kung Fu-Zi, literally meaning Master Kung. ... Zengzi (曾子; also called Zeng Shen, 曾參; or Ziyu, 子輿) (505 BCE - 436 BCE) was a philosopher and student of Confucius. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ...

Li Ke / 李克
Qv Yuan / Qv Zi / 屈原
Zhu Yang / Yang Zi / 杨朱
Zi Xia / 子夏

Philosopher of economy

范 蠡 / Fan Li

Art of wars Fan Li was an advisor in the state of Yue in the Spring and Autumn Period. ...

Sun Zi / Sun Wu
Sun Bin
Wu Qi / 吴起

Philosopher of logic Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: SÅ«n Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Sun Bin (孫臏) (died 316 BC) was a military strategist who lived during the Warring States Period in ancient China. ... Wu Qi (died 381 BC) was a Chinese military leader and politician in the warring states period. ...

Mo Zi / Mo Di

Philosopher of politics Mozi (ca. ...

Guan Zi / Guan Zhong

Philosopher of languages/linguistics Guan Zhong (管仲) (died in 645 BC) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. ...

Yin Wen / 尹文
鶡冠子
Deng Xi
Gongsun Long / Gongsun Zi

Philosophers of laws

李悝
Shen Dao / 慎到
Shen Bu-Hai / Shen Buhai / 申不害
Shang Zi / Shang Yang
Deng Xi
Lv Bu-Wei / Lv Buwei
Han Fei Zi / Han Fei
Li Si

Shen Dao (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 慎到) (ca 350 BC-275 BC) was an itinerant Chinese philosopher from Zhao who also served at the Jixia academy in Qi. ... Shen Buhai (simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese: 申不害) (d. ... Shang Yang (商鞅) (d. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi 韓非子 (d. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi (韓非子) (d. ... Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ...

Qin Dynasty, China

Han Fei Zi / Han Fei
Lv Bu-Wei / Lv Buwei
Li Si

Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi 韓非子 (d. ... Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi (韓非子) (d. ... Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ...

Western Han Dynasty, China

Dong Zhong-Shu / Dong Zhongshu
Liu An / 刘安 (179BC--122BC)editor of "Huai Nan Zi"(《淮南子》),a very important philosophy work
Yang Xiong / 扬雄 (53 BC--18 AD)
Si Ma-Qian / Si Maqian

Dong Zhongshu (董仲舒 Hanyu Pinyin Dŏng Zhòngshū, Wade-Giles Tung Chung-shu) (c. ... Liu An (劉安, 179-122 BC) was an advisor to Emperor Wu of Han China and the inventor of tofu. ... Nicknamed the Pale-faced Warrior, Yang Xiong was one of the 36 Heavenly Chieftains amongst the 108 Liangshan bandits in the Water Margin. ...

Eastern Han Dynasty, China

Wang Chong
Wang Fu / 王符 (?85--162)
Gao You / 高诱

Wang Chung (or Wang Chong; 王充) (27–97 C.E.) was a Chinese philosopher during the Han Dynasty who developed a rational, secular, naturalistic, and mechanistic account of the world and of human beings. ... Wang Fu (? – 219) is a fictional character in the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong. ...

Three Kingdoms

Cao Cao / 曹操
Wan Ji / 阮籍
Liu Shao / 刘劭
Ji Kang / 嵇康
Wang Bi / 王弼

Cao Cao (155 – 220), whose name is also often transliterated and should be correctly pronounced as Tsao Tsao, was a regional warlord and the last Chancellor of Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... Xi Kang (Simplified Chinese: 嵇康; Traditional Chinese: 嵇康; pinyin: , born 奚康, 223-262) was a Chinese author, poet, Taoist philosopher, musician, and alchemist. ... Wang Bi was a scholar of the Yi Jing (also known as I Ching). ...

Philosophers: listed by philosophical school

See Philosophical Movements. Krishnamoorti A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ...


Nicknames of Medieval Philosophers

Several medieval philosophers have been given Latin nicknames -- some by their contemporaries, others by historians. For example: Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

  • Francis Mayron - Doctor acutus, the acute doctor, or Doctor illuminatus
  • St. Thomas Aquinas - Doctor Angelicus, the angelic doctor, or Doctor Communis
  • William of Ockham - Doctor Invincibilis
  • Alexander of Hales - Doctor Irrefragibilis
  • Roger Bacon - Doctor Mirabilis, the wonderful doctor
  • John Bassol - Doctor Ordinatissimus, the most methodical doctor
  • Nissim Cahn - Doctor Gaon, the innovative doctor
  • St. Bonaventure - Doctor Seraphicus
  • Henry Goethals (Hendricus Bonicollius) - Doctor Solemnis, the solemn doctor
  • Richard Middleton - the solid doctor, or the profound doctor
  • Duns Scotus - Doctor Subtilis, the discriminating doctor, or Doctor Marianus
  • Albertus Magnus - Doctor Universalis
  • Durandus de Sancto Portiano - the most resolute doctor
  • Thomas Bradwardine - the profound doctor
  • Jean Ruysbroeck (Joannes Ruysbrokius) - the divine doctor or ecstatic doctor

Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Hello, I am Sam, Sam I am. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ... Saint Bonaventura, John of Fidanza (1221 – July 15, 1274), was a Franciscan theologian. ... Henry of Ghent (c. ... Richard of Middleton (died 1300), also Richard Middleton (surnames were often muddled at that time) was an English theologian and philosopher of the 13th century. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Thomas Bradwardine (c. ... The name Jan van Ruysbroek can refer to two individuals: Jan van Ruysbroek, a Flemish scholar (1293-1381) Jan van Ruysbroek, a Flemish architect (15th century) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

  • a fuller listing of topics can be found at Category:Philosophers
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Philosophers (and non-philosophers important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Pietro dAbano, (1250?-1316) Firmin Abauzit... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term deconstruction was coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the 1960s and is used in contemporary humanities and social sciences to denote a philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed and understood by writers, texts, and readers. ... The usefulness of dividing philosophy into Western philosophy and other philosophies is open to challenge, not the least for speaking down to those other philosophies. ... Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Ethics (from Greek ethikos) is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : being (part. ... These five broad types of question are not the only subjects of philosophical inquiry, and there are many overlaps between the categories which are subsumed within the discipline under the four major headings of Logic, Ontology, Epistemology, and Axiology. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... Albert Einstein is almost without question, currently the most widely recognized scientist among the general public. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Other uses of the term

The Philosopher is also the nickname of Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 22. (Franz) Joseph Haydn, (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading austrian composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. Although he is still often called Franz Joseph Haydn, the name Franz was not used in the... The Symphony No. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philosopher (71 words)
Unlike Profundus Maximus, Philosopher can actually be quite knowledgeable on a variety of subjects.
Somewhat humorless and aloof, he is also slow to anger, and when he deigns to join in the fray he is considerate of other opinions.
His fighting tactics are direct and uncomplicated - he smothers the opposition with his ponderous and lengthy cogitations.
philosopher: Blogs, Photos, Videos and more on Technorati (704 words)
This morning on "the View", during a discussion about Epicurus (the Greek philosopher who was born in 341 BC and died in 270 BC), Sherri Shepherd - who was last seen saying she didn't know if the world was flat - says that nothing predates the Christians.
From the 11th, rentals of standard definition versions of the movies will be available to download from 250 MS Point upwards, whilst rentals of HD versions will set you back 380 MS points and up.
Nick Saban was supposed to be the savior for Alabama football -- and hey, the Dolphins sure have taken off since he left -- but the team has collapsed down the stretch, losing their last three games, including last week's home loss to Louisiana-Monroe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m