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Encyclopedia > Philopoemen
Philopoemen, hurt by David d'Angers, 1837, Louvre
Philopoemen, hurt by David d'Angers, 1837, Louvre
Relevant geographical locations, during Philopoemen's life.
Relevant geographical locations, during Philopoemen's life.

Philopoemen (in Greek, Φιλοποίμην, transliterated as Philopoimen), (b. 253 BC, Megalopolis - d. 183 BC, Messene) was a skilled Greek general and statesman, who was Achaean Strategos on eight occasions. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,480 × 2,670 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,480 × 2,670 pixels, file size: 2. ... Pierre Jean David (1789-1856), usually called David dAngers, French sculptor, was born at Angers on the 12th of March 1789. ... This article is about the museum. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (908 × 768 pixels, file size: 889 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (908 × 768 pixels, file size: 889 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 258 BC 257 BC 256 BC 255 BC 254 BC - 253 BC - 252 BC 251 BC... Ancient Megalopolis, or now Megalópoli (Μεγαλοπολη) is a town in the western part of the prefecture of Arcadia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC - 183 BC - 182 BC 181 BC... Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messínî or Messénê ) was an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia (until the modern prefecture was created). ... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ...


From the time he was appointed as strategos in 209 BC, Philopoemen helped turn the Achaean League into an important military power in Greece. He was called "the last of the Greeks" by an anonymous Roman. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ...

Contents

Early life

The son of Craugis of Megalopolis, his father died early in his life. He was then adopted by an important citizen of Megalopolis, Cleander. Ancient Megalopolis, or now Megalópoli (Μεγαλοπολη) is a town in the western part of the prefecture of Arcadia. ...


Philopoemen was educated by academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes. Both were Megapolitans, who had helped to depose previous tyrants of Megalopolis, Sicyon and Cyrene. Thus, he was inculcated with notions of freedom and democracy. Philopoemen strove to emulate the 4th century BC Theban general and statesman, Epaminondas. Philopoemen believed that as a public servant, personal virtue was a necessary condition. So Philopoemen wore humble garments for the rest of his life, spurning any expensive adornments. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ...


Battle of Megalopolis

Philopoemen first came to the attention of key Greek politicians when he helped defend Megalopolis against the Spartan king Cleomenes III in 223 BC. Cleomenes III had seized Megalopolis. Philopoemen was amongst those defending the city. During the battle, Philopoemen lost his horse and he was wounded. Nevertheless he remained involved in the battle until the end. His actions helped give the citizens of Megalopolis enough time to evacuate the city. For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC...


Battle of Sellasia

The king of Macedonia, Antigonus III Doson was keen to restore Macedonian influence in the Peloponnese for the first time in almost two decades. In 224 BC, he signed an alliance with the Achaeans, Boeotians, Thessalians and the Acarnanians. With his rear secured by treaties, Antigonus invaded the Peloponnese and drove the Spartans out of Argos, taking Orchomenos and Mantineia in the process. Antigonus III Doson (263 BC-221 BC), was king of Macedonia from 229 BC-221 BC. He belonged to the Antigonid dynasty. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 229 BC 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC - 224 BC - 223 BC 222 BC... Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Acarnania was a region of ancient central western Greece that lay along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... Orchomenos (Greek: ), the setting for many early Greek Myths, is a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, (modern Viotia, Greece) that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. ... Mantinea – Greek: Mαντινεία Mantineia, modern romanizations: Mantinia, Mandineia or Mandinia; and for a time Antigonia (Greek: Αντιγόνεια) also transliterated as Antigonea and Antigoneia – is a city in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ...


When he advanced against Laconia, however, Antigonus found that Cleomenes had blocked all the mountain passes except for one. It was there, near Sellasia, that Cleomenes waited with his army. Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... // Antigonus Doson and the Hellenic League with Cleomenes III The Battle of Sellasia was a war that took place in 222 BC between the armies of Antigonus III Doson, King of Macedonia and Cleomenes III, King of Sparta, the Spartan Forces were massacred and Cleomenes fled to Egypt. ...


Philopoemen commanded a cavalry force, which included soldiers from Megalopolis. He was supported by Illyrian infantry. When the latter entered into the battle, they were surrounded by the enemy. So Philopoemen launched his own attack. While his forces suffered many casualties, the surprised Spartan forces fled. Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ...


In the encounter, Philopoemen's horse fell and he was wounded by a javelin. Yet he continued to fight behind the enemy's lines.


In the end the Spartan forces were massacred by the Macedonians and their allies and Cleomenes was forced to flee to Egypt. As the leader of the Achaeans, Philopoemen’s actions impressed Antigonus III.


Cavalry Commander

He subsequently spent 10 years from 221 BC in Crete as a mercenary captain. Returning to Greece in 210 BC, Philopoemen was appointed Commander of the Cavalry in the Achaean League. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC - 209 BC 208 BC... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ...


In the same year, in one of the battles associated with the First Macedonian War between Macedonia and the Roman Republic, Philopoemen faced Damophantus, whose army comprised Aetolians and Eleans, near the Larissa river (on the border of Elis). During the battle, Damophantus charged directly against Philopoemen with his spear. Bravely, Philopoemen didn't retreat, but waited with his lance, which he mortally thrust into Damophantus' chest. Immediately, the enemy fled from the battlefield. By this action, Philopoemen’s fame increased across Greece. Combatants Roman Republic, Aetolian League, Pergamon Macedon Commanders Marcus Valerius Laevinus, Attalus I Philip V of Macedon The First Macedonian War (214 BC - 205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ...


The Battle of Mantinea

Philopoemen was appointed strategos of the Achaean League in 209 BC. Philopoemen used his position to modernise and increase the size of the Achaean army and updated the soldiers’ equipment and battle tactics. The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC...


His efforts to make the Achaeans an effective fighting force bore fruit a couple of years later.


In the years following the defeat of the Spartan king Cleomenes III at the Battle of Sellasia, Sparta experienced a power vacuum that eventually led to the Spartan kingship being bestowed on a child, Pelops, for whom Machanidas ruled as regent. Machanidas (Μαχανίδας) was the guardian of Pelops, tyrant in Sparta from c. ...


The Battle of Mantinea was fought in 207 BC between the Spartans led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans defeated the Spartans. In the battle, Philopoemen defeated and killed the Spartan ruler Machanidas in one-on-one combat. Afterward, the Achaeans erected at Delphi a bronze statue which captured the fight between Machanidas and Philopoemen. The Battle of Mantinea was fought in 207 BC between Spartans led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC - 206 BC 205 BC... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


With his victory at Mantinea, Philopoemen was able to go on to capture Tegea and then move with his army as far as the Eurotas River. There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ... Evrotas river, just outside the city of Sparta The Eurotas or Evrotas (Greek: Ευρώτας) is a river in the Peloponnese in southern Greece. ...


The Rise of Nabis of Sparta

Following Machanidas’ death, Nabis, a Syrian sold into slavery, rose to power in Sparta and became the new regent for Pelops. Nabis soon overthrew Pelops. Under Nabis, Sparta continued to trouble the Peloponnese. Nabis was the last king of Sparta. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ...


In 205 BC, Philip V of Macedon made a temporary peace (the Peace of Phoenice) with Rome on favourable terms for Macedonia thus ending the First Macedonian War. After the Peace, Nabis went to war against the Achaean League. However, Philopoemen was able to expel Nabis from Messene. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC - 205 BC - 204 BC 203 BC... Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... The Treaty of Phoenice, was a treaty ending the First Macedonian War. ... Combatants Roman Republic, Aetolian League, Pergamon Macedon Commanders Marcus Valerius Laevinus, Attalus I Philip V of Macedon The First Macedonian War (214 BC - 205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the... Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messínî or Messénê ) was an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia (until the modern prefecture was created). ...


Philopoemen was appointed strategos for the Achaean League between 201 BC and 199 BC. The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC - 201 BC - 200 BC 199 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC - 199 BC - 198 BC 197 BC...


In 201 BC, Nabis invaded and captured Messene. However, the Spartans were forced to retreat when the Achaean League army under Philopoemen intervened. Nabis' forces were decisively defeated at Tegea by Philopoemen and Nabis was forced to check his expansionist ambitions for the time being. Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messínî or Messénê ) was an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia (until the modern prefecture was created). ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ...


Philopoemen returns to Crete

The Cretan city of Gortyna then asked for Philopoemen’s help. So in 199 BC Philopoemen returned to Crete again as a mercenary leader. Philopoemen had to change his tactics as the fighting on the island was more in the style of guerrilla warfare. Nonetheless, with Philopoemen’s experience, he was able to defeat his enemies. Philopoemen spent six years in Crete. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Inheritance regulations, fragment of the 11th column of the Law Code of Gortyn, Louvre Gortyn (Greek Γορτυς/Gortys, also Γορτύν/Gortun or Γόρτυνα/Gortuna) is a town in the Greek island of Crete, 45 km away from the capital Heraklion. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC - 199 BC - 198 BC 197 BC... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


In the meantime, Nabis took advantage of Philopoemen's absence, laying siege to Megalopolis for a lengthy period. Nabis also acquired the important city of Argos from Philip V of Macedon, as the price of his alliance with the Macedonians. Nabis then defected to the Romans in the expectation of being able to hold on to his conquest. Ancient Megalopolis, or now Megalópoli (Μεγαλοπολη) is a town in the western part of the prefecture of Arcadia. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


In 196 BC, Roman general and pro-consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus accused the Spartan ruler, Nabis, of tyranny, took Gythium in Laconia and forced Nabis to surrender Argos. After checking the ambitions of the Spartan tyrant, Nabis, the Roman forces under Flamininus withdraw in 194 BC from Greece. With the Romans no longer having a military presence in Greece, the dominant powers in the region are the kingdom of Macedon, the Aetolians, the strengthened Achaean League and a weakened Sparta. The Aetolians, who had opposed the Roman intervention in Greek affairs, incite the Spartan leader, Nabis, to retake his former territories and regain his influence in Greek affairs. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC - 196 BC - 195 BC 194 BC... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Gytheio is a town of Laconia in Greece, long known as the seaport of Sparta some 30 miles inland. ... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


Philopoemen’s return as Achaean League strategos

Returning to the Greek mainland as strategos in 193 BC, Philopoemen was appointed strategos for a second time to lead the fight against Nabis. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC - 193 BC - 192 BC 191 BC... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ...


In 192 BC, Nabis attempted recapturing the Laconian coastline. The Achaeans responded to Sparta’s renewed interest in recovering lost territory by sending an envoy to Rome with a request for help. In response, the Roman Senate sent the praetor Atilius with a navy, as well as an embassy headed by Flamininus. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC - 192 BC - 191 BC 190 BC... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Not waiting for the Roman fleet to arrive, the Achaean army and navy headed towards Gythium under the command of Philopoemen. The Achaean fleet under Tiso was defeated by the Spartan fleet. On land, the Achaeans were unable to defeat the Spartan forces outside Gythium and Philopoemen retreated to Tegea. Gytheio is a town of Laconia in Greece, long known as the seaport of Sparta some 30 miles inland. ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ...


When Philopoemen re-entered Laconia for a second attempt, his forces were ambushed by Nabis, but nevertheless Philopoemen managed to gain a victory over the Spartan forces. Philopoemen’s plans for capturing Sparta itself were put on hold at the request of the Roman envoy, Flaminius, after his arrival in Greece. In return, Nabis decided, for the moment, to accept the status quo.


The Subjugation of Sparta

Nabis then appealed to the Aetolians for help. They sent 1,000 cavalry to Sparta under the command of Alexamenus. However, the Aetolians murdered Nabis and temporarily occupied Sparta. The Aetolian troops seized the palace and set about looting the city, but the inhabitants of Sparta were able to rally and forced them leave the city.


But Philopoemen took advantage of the Aetolian treachery and entered Sparta with his Achaean army. Now in full control of Sparta, Philopoemen forced Sparta to become a member state of the Achaean League.


Sparta's entry to the League raised the problem of how to deal with the all the Spartans exiled by the social-revolutionary regimes that had dominated Sparta for a number of years. Philopoemen wanted to restore only those Spartans who were willing to support the League. This meant that he adopted an uncompromising hostility to traditional Spartan concerns.


In 188 BC, Philopoemen entered northern Laconia with his army and a group of Spartan exiles. His army demolished the wall that the former tyrant of Sparta, Nabis, had built around Sparta. Philopoemen then restored Spartan citizenship to the exiles and abolished Spartan law and its education system, introducing Achaean law and institutions in their place. Sparta's role as a major power in Greece ended, while the Achaean League became the dominant power throughout the Peloponnese. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC - 188 BC - 187 BC 186 BC... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ...


Philopoemen’s Final Years

These actions provoked opposition even from Philopoemen’s supporters in Sparta. As a result, his opponents in Sparta appealled directly to the Roman Senate, which repeatedly suggested solutions to the disagreements, all of which Philopoemen and his supporters rejected. In fact, Philopoemen and his supporters refused to recognise any Roman role in Achaean internal affairs as they argued that Rome had previously recognised the Achaean League’s independence through a formal treaty. The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


This aggressive attitude towards Sparta and towards Rome split Achaean politics. However, Philopoemen died before these matters were resolved.


In 183 BC, Dinocrates, who strongly opposed Philopoemen, encouraged Messene to revolt against the League. After Dinocrates announced that he would capture Colonis, Philopoemen decided that he needed to subdue the rebellion. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC - 183 BC - 182 BC 181 BC... Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messínî or Messénê ) was an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia (until the modern prefecture was created). ...


In the ensuing battle, Philopoemen found himself behind the enemy's lines and was captured by the Messeneans after his horse threw him. He was then invited to drink poison to allow him to have what was then regarded as an honourable death.


On hearing of his death, the members of the Achaean League joined forces to capture Messene.


With his death, Philopoemen's body was cremated. At his public funeral, the historian Polybius carried the urn with Philopoemen's ashes and later wrote a biography and defended his memory in his Histories. Polybius (c. ... // Polybius’ Histories were originally written in 40 volumes of which we have completely only the first 5. ...


Sources

  • Polybius' Histories(x to xxiii) is the chief authority on the life of Philopoemen. These and a special treatise on Philopoemen (now lost) were used by Plutarch "Philopoemen", Pausanias (viii. 49SI), Livy (xxxi to xxxviii), and indirectly by Justin (xxx to xxxiv).
  • Plutarch, The Lives, "Philopoemen"
  • Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, Books X to XXXIII
  • Junianus Justinus, Marcus Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, Books XXX to XXXIV

Polybius (c. ... // Polybius’ Histories were originally written in 40 volumes of which we have completely only the first 5. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Justin may refer to: Justin (name), a common given name Junianus Justinus, 3rd century Roman historian Justin I (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Polybius (c. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary (1964)
  • The Oxford History of the Classical World (1995)
  • The Oxford Who's Who in the Classical World (2000)

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

External links

  • ancienthistory.about.com
  • Tarantine Cavalry
  • Plutarch's Lives
Preceded by
Cycliadas
Strategos of the Achaean League
209 BC208 BC
Succeeded by
Cycliadas
Preceded by
Aristaenos of Megalopolis
Strategos of the Achaean League
193 BC192 BC
Succeeded by
Diophanes
Preceded by
Diophanes
Strategos of the Achaean League
191 BC186 BC
Succeeded by
Aristaenos of Megalopolis
Preceded by
Archon
Strategos of the Achaean League
183 BC182 BC
Succeeded by
Lykortas of Megalopolis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Philopoemen - LoveToKnow 1911 (329 words)
PHILOPOEMEN (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom.
In Igo Philopoemen protected Sparta, which meanwhile had joined the League and thereupon seceded, but punished a renewed defection so cruelly as to draw the censure of Rome upon his country.
Philopoemen's great merit lies in his having restored to his compatriots that military efficiency without which the Achaean League for all its skilful diplomacy could never stand.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, page 317 (v. 3) (1026 words)
Philopoemen, on the contrary, was both a brave soldier and a good general; and the pos­session of these qualities enabled him to make the Achaean league a really independent power in Greece.
As soon as it became known that the Spartans were in the city, most of the citizens fled towards Messene; but Philopoe­men and a few kindred spirits offered a gallant resistance to the enemy, and their determined and desperate valour gave such employment to the Spartans, as to enable the citizens to escape in safety.
Eager to revenge his country, Philopoemen joined him with a thousand foot and a body of horse, which Megalopolis placed under his command, and at the head of which he fought in the celebrated battle of Sellasia, in which Cleomenes was utterly defeated, and by which peace was for a time re­stored to Greece.
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