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Encyclopedia > Philistines
Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon
Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon
Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BC.      Kingdom of Judah      Kingdom of Israel      Philistine city-states      Phoenician states      Kingdom of Ammon      Kingdom of Edom      Kingdom of Aram-Damascus      Aramean tribes      Arubu tribes      Nabatu tribes      Assyrian Empire      Kingdom of Moab
Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BC.      Kingdom of Judah      Kingdom of Israel      Philistine city-states      Phoenician states      Kingdom of Ammon      Kingdom of Edom      Kingdom of Aram-Damascus      Aramean tribes      Arubu tribes      Nabatu tribes      Assyrian Empire      Kingdom of Moab

The historic Philistines (Hebrew פְּלְשְׁתִּים, plishtim; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn) (see "other uses" below) were a people who invaded the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. Their origin has been debated among scholars, but modern archaeology has suggested early cultural links with the Mycenean world in mainland Greece. Though the Philistines adopted local Canaanite culture and language before leaving any written texts, an Indo-European origin has been suggested for a handful of known Philistine words (See Philistine language). There is no basis to the claim that the etymology of this word can be based on the Semitic word plishah (פְּלִישָׁה, meaning invasion) since this name already appears in the Egyptian depictions of the Sea Peoples' invasion, as one of the Sea Peoples' groups. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x1210, 58 KB) Summary In this graphic about early historical Israel, the pink area is a rough approximate map of the near-maximum boundaries of the lands that were inhabited by Israelites or under direct central royal administration during the United... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x1210, 58 KB) Summary In this graphic about early historical Israel, the pink area is a rough approximate map of the near-maximum boundaries of the lands that were inhabited by Israelites or under direct central royal administration during the United... Image File history File links Levant_830. ... Image File history File links Levant_830. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC Events and Trends 836 BC - Shalmaneser III of Egypt. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Philistine language is the extinct language of the Philistines, along the coastal strip of southwestern Canaan. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ...

Contents

History

If the Philistines are to be identified as one of the "Sea Peoples" (see Origins below), then their occupation of Canaan would have to have taken place during the reign of Ramesses III of the Twentieth Dynasty, ca. 1180 to 1150 BC. Their maritime knowledge presumably would have made them important to the Phoenicians. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and trends 1186 BC - End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and Trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


In Egypt, a people called the "Peleset" (or, more precisely, prst), generally identified with the Philistines, appear in the Medinet Habu inscription of Ramesses III[1], where he describes his victory against the Sea Peoples, as well as the Onomasticon of Amenope (late Twentieth Dynasty) and Papyrus Harris I, a summary of Ramesses III's reign written in the reign of Ramesses IV. Nineteenth-century Bible scholars identified the land of the Philistines (Philistia) with Palastu and Pilista in Assyrian inscriptions, according to Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897). Medinet Habu from the air Medinet-Habu is the mortuary temple of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile at Thebes, Egypt, south of the morturary temple of Tutankhamun/Horemheb. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... The Onomasticon of Amenope is an Egyptian document from the New Kingdom, late 20th Dynasty. ... History of Ancient Egypt, Twentieth Dynasty The Twentieth Dynasty was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Rameses III, who modelled his career after Rameses II the Great. ... Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection). ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issues Ramesses V Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ...


The Philistines occupied the five cities of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, along the coastal strip of southwestern Canaan, that belonged to Egypt up to the closing days of the Nineteenth Dynasty (ended 1185 BC). The biblical stories of Samson, Samuel, Saul and David include accounts of Philistine-Israelite conflicts. The Philistines long held a monopoly on iron smithing (a skill they possibly acquired during conquests in Anatolia), and the biblical description of Goliath's armor is consistent with this iron-smithing technology. Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Hebrew אשדוד Founded in 1956 Government City (from 1968) District South Population 204. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and trends 1186 BC - End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... David faces Goliath in single combat. ...


This powerful association of tribes made frequent incursions against the Hebrews. There was almost perpetual war between the two peoples. the Philistine cities were ruled by seranim (סְרָנִים, "lords"), who acted together for the common good, though to what extent they had a sense of a "nation" is not clear without literary sources. After their defeat by the Hebrew king David, who originally for a time worked as a mercenary for Achish of Gath, kings replaced the seranim, governing from various cities. Some of these kings were called Abimelech, which was initially a name and later a dynastic title. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... pages edit history. ...


The Philistines lost their independence to Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria by 732 BC, and revolts in following years were all crushed. Later, Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon eventually conquered all of Syria and the Kingdom of Judah, and the former Philistine cities became part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. There are few references to the Philistines after this time period. However, Ezekiel 25:16, Zechariah 9:6, and I Macabees 3 make mention of the Philistines, indicating that they still existed as a people in some capacity after the Babylonian invasion. Eventually all traces of the Philistines as a people or ethnic group disappear. Subsequently the cities were under the control of Persians, Jews (Hasmonean Kingdom), Greeks (Seleucid Empire), Romans, and subsequent empires. Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-Apil-Ešarra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC) and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC Events and Trends 739 BC - Hiram II becomes king of Tyre 738 BC - King Tiglath-Pileser III... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebuchadrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


The name "Palestine" comes, via Greek and Latin, from the Philistines; see History of Palestine. The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Origin of the Philistines

History of the Levant
Stone Age

Kebaran · Natufian culture ·
Halafian culture · Jericho
This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...

Ancient History

Sumerians · Ebla · Akkadian Empire ·
Canaan · Phoenicians
Amorites · Aramaeans · Edomites · Hittites
Nabataeans ·Palmyra · Philistines ·Israel and Judah
Assyrian Empire · Babylonian Empire
Persian Empire · Seleucid Empire ·
Hasmonean kingdom
Roman Empire · Byzantine Empire
“Ancient” redirects here. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... A general view of the site Palmyra was in the ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 120 km southwest of the Euphrates. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

The Middle Ages

Umayyad · Abbasid · Fatimid
· Mamluks
Ottoman Empire
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...

Modern Times

Jordan · Israel
Palestinian territories
Syria · Lebanon
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

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Most authorities agree that the Philistines are not autochthonous to the regions of Israel/Palestine which the Bible describes them inhabiting. The Bible contains roughly 250 references to the Philistines or Philistia, and repeatedly refers to them as "uncircumcised", unlike the Semitic peoples, such as Canaanites, which the Bible relates encountered the Israelites following the Exodus. (See, e.g., 1 Samuel 17:26, 17:36; 2 Samuel 1:20; Judges 14:3). This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Seixas Family circumcision set and trunk, ca. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... ḍ:The article Exodus discusses the events related in the book of the Bible and Torah by the same name. ... (Redirected from 1 Samuel) The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ...


It has been suggested that the Philistines formed part of the great naval confederacy, the "Sea Peoples," who had wandered, at the beginning of the 12th century BC, from their homeland in Crete and the Aegean islands to the shores of the Mediterranean and repeatedly attacked Egypt during the later Nineteenth Dynasty. Though they were eventually repulsed by Ramesses III, he eventually resettled them, according to the theory, to rebuild the coastal towns in Canaan. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Aegean Islands (Greek: Αιγαίον Πέλαγος, Aigaíon Pélagos; Turkish: Ege Adaları) are a group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died...


Papyrus Harris I details the achievements of the reign of Ramesses III. In the brief description of the outcome of the battles in Year 8 is the description of the fate of the Sea Peoples. Ramesses tells us that, having brought the imprisoned Sea Peoples to Egypt, he "settled them in strongholds, bound in my name. Numerous were their classes like hundred-thousands. I taxed them all, in clothing and grain from the storehouses and granaries each year." Some scholars suggest it is likely that these "strongholds" were fortified towns in southern Canaan, which would eventually become the five cities (the Pentapolis) of the Philistines (Redford 1992, p. 289). Israel Finkelstein has suggested that there may be a period of 25-50 years after the sacking of the Philistine cities and their reoccupation by the Philistines. It is quite possible that for the initial period of time, the Philistines were housed in Egypt, only subsequently late in the troubled end of the reign of Rameses III would they have been allowed to settle Philistia. Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection). ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... Osirid statues of Ramses III at Karnak. ...


Archaeology

The connection between Mycenean culture and Philistine culture was made clearer by finds at the excavation of Ashdod, Ekron, Ashkelon, and more recently Tell es-Safi (probably Gath), four of the five Philistine cities in Canaan. The fifth city is Gaza. Especially notable is the early Philistine pottery, a locally-made version of the Aegean Mycenaean Late Helladic IIIC pottery, which is decorated in shades of brown and black. This later developed into the distinctive Philistine pottery of the Iron Age I, with black and red decorations on white slip. Also of particular interest is a large, well-constructed building covering 240 square meters, discovered at Ekron. Its walls are broad, designed to support a second story, and its wide, elaborate entrance leads to a large hall, partly covered with a roof supported on a row of columns. In the floor of the hall is a circular hearth paved with pebbles, as is typical in Mycenean buildings; other unusual architectural features are paved benches and podiums. Among the finds are three small bronze wheels with eight spokes. Such wheels are known to have been used for portable cultic stands in the Aegean region during this period, and it is therefore assumed that this building served cultic functions. Further evidence concerns an inscription in Ekron to PYGN or PYTN, which some have suggested refers to "Potnia," the title given to an ancient Mycenaean goddess. Excavations in Ashkelon, Ekron, and Gath reveal dog and pig bones which show signs of having been butchered, implying that these animals were part of the residents' diet. The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... Hebrew אשדוד Founded in 1956 Government City (from 1968) District South Population 204. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Tell es-Safi is a large multi-period site (ancient mound; Tell) that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Pelasgians

One name the Greeks used for the previous inhabitants of Greece and the Aegean was Pelasgians, but no definite connection has been established between this name and that of the Philistines. The theory that the Sea Peoples included Greek-speaking tribes has been developed even further to postulate that the Philistines originated in either western Anatolia or the Greek peninsula. Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Philistine language

There is some limited evidence in favor of the assumption that the Philistines did originally speak some Indo-European language. A number of Philistine-related words found in the Bible are not Semitic, and can in some cases, with reservations, be traced back to Proto-Indo-European roots. For example, the Philistine word for captain, seren, may be related to the Greek word tyrannos (which, however, has not been traced to a PIE root). Some of the Philistine names, such as Goliath, Achish, and Phicol, appear to be of non-Semitic origin, and Indo-European etymologies have been suggested. Recently, an inscription dating to the late 10th/early 9th centuries BC with two names, very similar to one of the suggested etymologies of the popular Philistine name Goliath (Lydian Alyattes/Wylattes) was found in the excavations at Tell es-Safi/Gath. The appearance of additional non-Semitic names in Philistine inscriptions from later stages of the Iron Age is an additional indication of the non-Semitic origins of this group. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... David faces Goliath in single combat. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Phicol, also spelled as Phichol (KJV) or Phikol, was a Philistine military leader. ... Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... Tell es-Safi is a large multi-period site (ancient mound; Tell) that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills. ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ...


Statements in the Bible

The Hebrew tradition recorded in Genesis 10:14 states that the "Pelishtim" (פְּלִשְׁתִּים, Standard Hebrew /pəlištim/, Tiberian Hebrew /pəlištîm/) proceeded from the "Pathrusim" (פַּתְרֻסִים) and the "Casluhim" (כַּסְלֻחִים), who descended from Mizraim (מִצְרַיִם, Egypt), son of Ham. The Philistines settled "Pelesheth" (פְּלֶשֶׁת, Standard Hebrew /pəléšet/ or /pəlášet/, Tiberian Hebrew /pəléšeṯ/ or /Pəlāšeṯ/) along the eastern Mediterranean coast at about the time when the Israelites settled in the Judean highlands. Biblical references to Philistines living in the area before this, at the time of Abraham or Isaac (e.g. Gen. 21:32-34), are generally regarded by modern scholars to be anachronisms. For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Pathrusim is the name by some scholars of southern(upper) Egypt. ... Casluhim is a Mizraite tribe that originated the Philistines with the Pathrusim according to Jasher. ... Mizraim (Hebrew מצרים Mitzráyim or Miá¹£rāyim/Miá¹£ráyim; cf. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ...


The Philistines are spoken of in the Book of Amos as originating in Caphtor: "saith the LORD: Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and Aram from Kir?" (Amos 9:7). Later, in the 7th century BC, Jeremiah makes the same association with Caphtor. "For the LORD will spoil the Philistines, the remnant of the country of Caphtor, (Jeremiah 47:4). Scholars variously identify the land of Caphtor with Cyprus and Crete and other locations in the eastern Mediterranean. The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Neviim and of the Old Testament. ... Caphtor is the land of the Biblical Caphtorim (Egyptian Keftiu, Mari Kaptara), said in Gen. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Other uses of the term 'Philistine'

  • British writers of the 19th century and very early 20th century sometimes referred to the Arabs of Palestine as "Philistines". This was apparently not due to a belief in a strong connection with the ancient Philistines, but merely reflects the former convention that "Philistine" simply denotes "native of Palestine". The Arabic word for Palestine, فلسطين‎, which is pronounced "Falasṭīn," derives from the Latin term Palaestina. After the Bar-Kokhba revolt of the Judeans and the subsequent Roman repression and exile, the Romans renamed the entire district of Judea "Palaestina" as a mark of insult to their defeated enemies. This is because of their knowledge of the region's history and the fact that the Philistines and the Israelites were warring peoples. The Arabic language's lack of the "p" phoneme, and the tendency to arabacize the "t" and "k" of foreign words as the corresponding Semitic emphatic consonants, resulted in this nomenclature after the Muslim conquest brought Arabs to the region in 636 AD, often used interchangeably for the entire greater Syrian district (Arabic: "Shaam").
  • In non-historical usage, the word philistine refers to a person deficient in the culture of the liberal arts or can also connote a smug and intolerant opponent of the bohemian who exhibits a restrictive moral code. See Philistinism.
  • The term "Philistines" also refers to an elite unit of the South African Defence Force (SADF). The Pathfinder Company was the official name of this elite unit. Counter-insurgency was the primary mission assigned to these troops.

The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Philistinism is a derogatory term used to describe a particular attitude or set of values. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... Philistinism is a derogatory term used to describe a particular attitude or set of values. ... The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is the name of the armed forces of South Africa. ...

References

  • Dothan, Trude Krakauer. 1982. The Philistines and Their Material Culture. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society
  • Dothan, Trude Krakauer, and Moshe Dothan. 1992. People of the Sea: The Search for the Philistines. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  • Ehrlich, Carl S. 1996. The Philistines in Transition: A History from ca. 1000–730 B.C.E. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East 10, ser. eds. Baruch Halpern, and Manfred Hermann Emil Weippert. Leiden: E. J. Brill
  • Gitin, Seymour, Amihai Mazar, and Ephraim Stern, eds. 1998. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society
  • Maeir, Aren M. 2005. Philister-Keramik. Pp. 528–36 in "Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie", Band 14. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.
  • Oren, Eliezer D., ed. 2000. The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment. University Museum Monograph 108. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
  • Redford, Donald Bruce. 1992. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press
  • Claude Vandersleyen, "Keftiu: a cautionary note," Oxford Journal of Archaeology 22/21, 2003, 209-212.
  • Mendenhall, George E. The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. ISBN.

The Israel Exploration Society (IES) External links Israel Exploration Society - official web site Categories: | ... Baruch Halpern is Chairman of Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. ... Amihai Ami Mazar (born 1942) is an Israeli archaeologist. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Philistines (873 words)
Philistines" (Judges 13:1-5); and we are informed in the same passage that the domination of the
Philistines trying to make themselves masters of the interior of Palestine, and in one of the ensuing battles they succeeded in capturing the Ark of the Covenant (1 Samuel 4).
Philistines was thus evidently Semitic, so also were probably the other features of their civilization.
Philistines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1590 words)
The Philistines long held a monopoly on iron smithing (a skill they possibly acquired during conquests in Anatolia), and the biblical description of Goliath's armor is consistent with this iron-smithing technology.
It has been suggested that the Philistines formed part of the great naval confederacy, the "Sea Peoples", who had wandered, at the beginning of the 12th century BC, from their homeland in southern Greece and the Aegean islands to the shores of the Mediterranean and repeatedly attacked Egypt during the later Nineteenth Dynasty.
Especially notable is the early Philistine pottery, a locally-made version of the Aegean Mycenaean IIIC pottery, which is decorated in shades of brown and fl.
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