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Encyclopedia > Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas
Republic of the Philippines
Flag of the Philippines Coat of arms of the Philippines
Flag Coat of arms
MottoMaka-Diyos, Makatao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa
(English: "For God, For People, For Nature and For Country")
AnthemLupang Hinirang
"Chosen Land"
Location of the Philippines
Capital Manila
14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583, 121
Largest city Quezon City
Official languages Filipino and English
Recognised regional languages Bikol, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Waray-Waray[1]
Demonym Filipino, Pinoy, Pilipino
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
 -  Vice President Noli De Castro
Independence from Spain
from United States 
 -  Established March 16, 1521 
 -  Declared June 12, 1898 
 -  Self-government March 24, 1934 
 -  Independence recognized July 4, 1946 
 -  Current constitution February 2, 1987 
Area
 -  Total 300,000 km² [2](72nd)
115,831 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.61%[2]
Population
 -  2008 estimate 90.5 million[3] (12th)
 -  2007 census 88,574,614 [4] 
 -  Density 295/km² (32nd)
112/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $466.632 billion [5] (25th)
 -  Per capita $5,365.287[5] (99th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $117.562 billion[5] (47th)
 -  Per capita $1,351.718[5] (117th)
Gini (2003) 44.5[2] (medium
HDI (2007/2008) 0.771[6] (medium) (90th)
Currency Peso (Filipino: piso ) (PHP)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
Internet TLD .ph
Calling code +63
1 Spanish and Arabic are promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
2 Rankings above were taken from associated Wikipedia pages as of December, 2007, and may be based on data or data sources other than those appearing here.
Philippines Portal

The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; RP), is an archipelagic nation located in Southeast Asia with Manila as its capital city. The Philippine archipelago comprises 7,107 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, bordering countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Palau, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Vietnam. The Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country with a population approaching 90 million people.[3][5] Its national economy is the 37th largest in the world with a 2006 gross domestic product (GDP) of over US$117.562 billion.[5] There are more than 11 million overseas Filipinos worldwide, the largest diaspora networks in the world, about 11% of the total population of the Philippines. Terneuzen is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands, in the province of Zeeland, in the middle of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Philippines. ... Bandila redirects here. ... The Coat of Arms of the Philippines features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the first eight provinces (Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Cavite) which rebelled against Spanish rule, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... When the national anthem was first played, this was the flag displayed to the Filipino people. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Quezon City Coordinates: 14°38 N, 121°2 E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 4th districts of Quezon City Barangays 142 Incorporated (town) October 12, 1939 (as Balintawak) Incorporated (city) October 12, 1939 Government  - Mayor Feliciano Sonny... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Bicolano or Bikol is an Austronesian language used in the Philippines particularly on the Bicol Peninsula on the island of Luzon. ... Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). ... To view the Ilokano edition of this Wikipedia article, select from the in other languages Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Hiligaynon language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Hiligaynon (or Ilonggo) is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pangasinan language (Pangasinan: salitan Pangasinan; Spanish: idioma pangasinense) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. ... Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Wáray-Wáray or Waráy (commonly spelled as Waray; also referred to as Winaray or L(in)eyte-Samarnon) is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte (eastern portion), and Biliran in the Philippines. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Pinoy is a demonym used by Filipinos for their compatriots in the Philippines and around the world. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The President of the... Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947), also known by her initials G.M.A., is the 14th and current president of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman:Jose Melo 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Vice President of the... Manuel Noli Leuterio De Castro, Jr. ... The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... The proclamation of the independence of the Philippines from Spain by General Emilio Aguinaldo on June 12, 1898 as depicted on the back of the old 5-peso bill. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of ten years. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links PhilippinePeso. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Philippine Standard Time (PST) is the name used in the Philippines to describe its location among the worlds time zones. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ph is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Philippines. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Extelcom: 973 Globe Telecom¹: 906, 915, 916, 917, 926, 927 Next Mobile (Nextel): 979 Smart Communications²: 910, 912, 918, 919, 920, 921, 928, 929 Sun Cellular: 922 ¹: Includes Globe Gizmo (postpaid/prepaid), Globe Handyphone (postpaid/prepaid), Globe Platinum (postpaid) and Touch Mobile (prepaid) ²: Includes Addict Mobile (postpaid/prepaid), Smart Buddy... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... GDP redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... An Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin who lives and works outside the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


The Philippines was settled mostly by Malayo-Polynesian-speaking peoples. The Philippines became a Spanish colony in the 16th century, and an American territory at the beginning of the 20th century. The Katipunan led the Philippine Revolution of 1896 that won independence from Spain. The U.S. occupation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War led to the outbreak of the Philippine-American War. The Philippines gained its independence from the United States on July 4, 1946 after the Pacific War (the Second World War) via the Treaty of Manila. Martial law was declared in 1972 by Ferdinand Marcos. The assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. led to the People Power Revolution of 1986 that overthrew authoritarian rule. Political upheavals and corruption scandals alternated with the peaceful transition of power during the period that followed the restoration of democracy.[2] The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila, in 1892, which aimed to gain independence from Spain. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Modern Philippines has many affinities with the Western world, derived mainly from the cultures of Spain, Latin America, and the United States. Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant religion, although pre-Hispanic indigenous religious practices still exist; there are also followers of Islam.[7] Spanish was an official language of the Philippines until 1973. Since then, the two official national languages are Filipino and English.[2] Occident redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Spanish was the first official language of the Philippines since the conquest by Spain in the 16th century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Philippines and its Spanish counterpart, Filipinas, are derived from the name of Phillip II, the King of Spain in the late 16th century.[8] Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos used the name Las Islas Filipinas in honor of the then-Crown Prince during his expedition to the Philippines, originally referring to the islands of Leyte and Samar. Despite the presence of other names, the name Filipinas was eventually adopted as the name of the entire archipelago.[8] Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Ruy López de Villalobos (b. ... Las Islas Filipinas is the Spanish name for The Philippine Islands. ... This article is about the island. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ...


History

Main article: History of the Philippines

Archeological and paleontological discoveries show that Homo sapiens existed in Palawan circa 50,000 BC. The aboriginal people of the Philippines, the Negritos, are an Australo-Melanesian people, which arrived in the Philippines at least 30,000 years ago. The Austronesians, who originated from populations of Taiwanese aboriginals that migrated from mainland Asia approximately 6000 years ago, colonized the Philippine islands and eventually migrated to Indonesia, Malaysia and, soon after, to the Polynesian islands and Madagascar.[citation needed] The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... Ati woman Negrito refers a dwindling ethnic group which is now restricted to parts of Southeast Asia. ... Austronesian can refer to: The Austronesian people The Austronesian languages Austronesia, refers to the homeland of the people who speak Austronesian languages. ... A Rukai villege Chief visiting Department of Anthropology in Tokyo Imperial University during the Japanese rule. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ...


The Philippines had cultural ties with Malaysia, Indonesia, India in ancient times, and trade relations with China and Japan as early as the 9th century. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. The Islamization of the Philippines is due to the strength of then-Muslim India.[9] By the 13th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there to Mindanao; it had reached the Manila area by 1565. Muslim converts established Islamic communities and states ruled by rajas or sultans. However, no Islamic state exercised sovereignty over much of the archipelago, and the indigenous maritime and agricultural societies ruled by datus or apos remained autonomous. When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, the majority of the estimated 500,000 people in the islands lived in independent settlements called 'barangay' or networks of settlements. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The English language word proselytism is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix pros (towards) and the verb erchomai (to come). ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Datu or datto is the title for ancient tribal chieftains and monarchs in pre-Hispanic Philippines. ... APO refers to: Apo; Acting Pilot Officer the lowest Commissioned Officer rank in the Royal Air Force; Army Post Office, the United States armed forces postal service; Alpha Phi Omega, service fraternity existing in both the United States and the Philippines (co-ed on most campuses); Apache Point Observatory (New...

The Banaue Rice Terraces, they are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Banaue Rice Terraces, they are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In the service of Spain, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his crew started their voyage on September 20, 1519. Magellan sighted Samar on March 17, 1521, on the next day, they reached Homonhon. They reached the island of Limasawa on March 28, 1521 where the first Mass in the Philippines was celebrated on March 31, 1521.[8] Magellan arrived at Cebu on April 7, 1521, befriending Rajah Humabon and converting his family and 700 other Cebuanos to Christianity.[8] However, Magellan would later be killed in the Battle of Mactan by indigenous warriors led by Lapu-Lapu, a fierce rival of Humabon. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x791, 600 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Southeast Asia Banaue Rice Terraces ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x791, 600 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Southeast Asia Banaue Rice Terraces ... Panoramic view of the Banaue Rice Terraces The Banaue Rice Terraces are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the Batad indigenous people. ... For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... For other uses, please see Samar (disambiguation). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Homonhon Island is an island in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines, on the west side of Leyte Gulf. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Rajah Humabon was the main Raja of Cebu island in the Philippines at the time of Ferdinand Magellans arrival in the archipelago in 1521. ... Combatants Explorers in the service of Spain Visayan natives of Mactan Commanders Ferdinand Magellan† Lapu-Lapu Strength 49 men including Magellan on shore, at least 11 others in boats 1,500+(controversial account by pigafetta) 200+ is more accurate because the population then was really small and the barangay then... Image:Lapulapumanila. ...


The beginnings of colonization started to take form when Philip II of Spain ordered successive expeditions. Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Spanish settlements in Cebu. In 1571 he established Manila as the capital of the new Spanish colony.[10] Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Miguel López de Legazpi (1502 - August 20, 1572, Manila), also known as El Adelantado (The Governor) and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish conquistador who established the first colony in the Philippine Islands in 1565. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Flag A map of the Spanish East Indies Capital Manila (Cebu until 1595, Bacolor 1762-1763, Iloilo 1898) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Colony Monarch  - 1565-1598 Philip II  - 1896-1898 Alfonso XIII Governor-General  - 1565-1572 Miguel López de Legazpi  - 1898 Diego de los R...

Model of a Philippine-built ship used for trading around the archipelago before the arrival of the Spanish.

Spanish rule brought political unification to an archipelago of previously independent islands and communities that later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law, printing and the calendar[11]. The Philippines was ruled as a territory of New Spain from 1565 to 1821, but after Mexican independence it was administered directly from Madrid. During that time numerous towns were founded, infrastructures built, new crops and livestock introduced, and trade flourished. The Manila Galleon which linked Manila to Acapulco once or twice a year beginning in the late 16th century, carried silk, spices, ivory and porcelain to America and silver on the return trip to the Philippines. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external threats, especially from the British, Chinese pirates, Dutch, and Portuguese. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to Christianity, and founded numerous schools, universities and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced public education, creating free public schooling in Spanish [12]. For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... A painting of a Spanish galleon. ... For other uses, see Acapulco (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ...

Flag Pambansang Watawat
Anthem "Lupang Hinirang"
Patriotic Song "Pilipinas Kong Mahal", "Bayan Ko"
Gem South Sea pearls
Dance Cariñosa
Animal Carabao
Bird Philippine Eagle
Fish Milkfish (Bangus)
Flower Arabian Jasmine (Sampaguita)
Tree Angsana (Narra)
Leaf Fan palm (Banahaw)
Fruit Mango (Mangga)
Sport Sipa
House Nipa hut (Bahay kubo)
Costume Barong and Baro't saya
Hero José Rizal

The Propaganda Movement, which included Philippine nationalist José Rizal, then a student studying in Spain, soon developed on the Spanish mainland. This was done in order to inform the government of the injustices of the administration in the Philippines as well as the abuses of the friars. In the 1880s and the 1890s, the propagandists clamored for political and social reforms, which included demands for greater representation in Spain. Unable to gain the reforms, Rizal returned to the country, and pushed for the reforms locally. Rizal was subsequently arrested, tried, and executed for treason on December 30, 1896. Earlier that year, the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, had already started a revolution, which was eventually continued by Emilio Aguinaldo, who established a revolutionary government, although the Spanish governor general Fernando Primo de Rivera proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.[13] Bandila redirects here. ... When the national anthem was first played, this was the flag displayed to the Filipino people. ... Pilipinas Kong Mahal (Tagalog) Ang bayan koy tanging ikaw Pilipinas Kong Mahal Ang puso ko at buhay man. ... Bayan Ko (Tagalog My Country) is one of the most recognizable patriotic songs in the Philippines that, because of its popularity, is sometimes assumed to be a folk song and the unofficial national anthem of the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... Cariñosa (IPA: ) is a flirtatious Philippine group dance in the Maria Clara suite of Philippine folk dances where the fan or handkerchief plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in a hard-to-get romance scenario. ... Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Trinomial name Bubalus bubalis carabanesis The carabao (Filipino: kalabaw; Malay: kerbau) or is a domesticated subspecies of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) found in the Philippines, Guam, and various parts of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Ogilvie-Grant, 1896 The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is one of the rarest, largest and most powerful birds in the world. ... Binomial name (ForsskÃ¥l, 1775) The milkfish, Chanos chanos, is an important food fish in Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name (L.) Aiton Jasminum sambac (syn. ... Binomial name Pterocarpus indicus Willd. ... Species See text The genus Livistona is a genus of 28 species of palms (family Arecaceae), native to southern Asia and Australasia. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Sipa is the Philippines national and traditional native sport which dates backs to the Pre-Hispanic period. ... The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the national house of the Philippines. ... A painting of Ramon Magsaysay, the first Philippine President to wear a barong in an official portrait A barong Tagalog (or simply barong) is an embroidered formal garment of the Philippines. ... A painting of Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in a barot saya Barot saya is the national dress of the Philippines. ... For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation). ... José Rizal José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 - December 30, 1896) is the national hero of the Philippines. ... For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila, in 1892, which aimed to gain independence from Spain. ... This article is about the person Andrés Bonifacio. ... Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. ... Fernando Primo de Rivera, also known in English by the name Prime Fernando of Creek and Sobremonte (1831-1921), was a Spanish politician and soldier. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898 and soon reached the Philippines when Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila Bay. Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines on June 12, 1898, and was proclaimed head of state. As a result of its defeat, Spain was forced to officially cede the Philippines, together with Cuba (made an independent country, the US in charge of foreign affairs), Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States. In 1899 the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed in Malolos, Bulacan but was later dissolved by the US forces, leading to the Philippine-American War between the United States and the Philippine revolutionaries, which continued the violence of the previous years. The US proclaimed the war ended when Aguinaldo was captured by American troops on March 23, 1901, but the struggle continued until 1913 claiming the lives of over a million Filipinos[14] [15]. The country's status as a territory changed when it became the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935, which provided for more self-governance. Plans for increasing independence over the next decade were interrupted during World War II when Japan invaded and occupied the islands. After the Japanese were defeated in 1945, returned to the Filipino and American forces in the Liberation of the Philippines from 1944 to 1945, the Philippines was granted independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.[2]  Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... George Dewey (December 26, 1837 – January 16, 1917) was an admiral of the United States Navy, best known for his victory (without the loss of a single life of his own forces due to combat; one man died of a heart attack) at the Battle of Manila Bay during the... There have been a number of naval battles that occurred in Manila Bay. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipina Location of Filipinas in Asia Capital Bacoor, Cavite Malolos, Bulacan January 23, 1899-March 29, 1899 San Isidro, Nueva Ecija March 29, 1899-May 9, 1899 Palanan, Isabela September 6, 1900-March 23, 1901 Language(s) Spanish (official), Tagalog Government Republic President  - 1898-1901 Emilio... Malolos (Pop. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bulacan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Malolos City Founded: 1572 Population: 2000 census—2,234,088 (4th largest) Density—851 per km² (5th highest) Area: 2,625. ... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Philippine-American War was a war between the armed forces of the United States and the Philippines from 1899 through 1913. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.

Since 1946, the newly independent Philippine state has faced political instability with various rebel groups. The late 1960s and early 1970s saw economic development that was second in Asia, next to Japan. Ferdinand Marcos was, then, the elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972, under the guise of increased political instability and resurgent Communist and Muslim insurgencies, and ruled the country by decree. Image File history File links B155. ... Image File history File links B155. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ...


Upon returning from exile, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated on August 21, 1983. In January 1986, Marcos allowed for a snap election, after large protests. The election was believed to be fraudulent, and resulted in a standoff between military mutineers and the military loyalists. Protesters supported the mutineers, and were accompanied by resignations of prominent cabinet officials. Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr., was the recognized winner of the snap election. She took over the government, and called for a constitutional convention to draft a new constitution, after the People Power Revolution. Marcos, his family and some of his allies fled to Hawaii.[16] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Presidential and vice-presidential snap elections were held on February 7, 1986 in the Philippines. ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by massive national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a communist insurgency, and a Muslim separatist movement. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992.[17] However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. The 2001 EDSA Revolution led to the downfall of the following president, Joseph Estrada. The current administration of president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has been hounded by allegations of corruption and election rigging.[18] Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... The East Asian financial crisis was a period of economic unrest that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The 2001 EDSA Revolution, also called by the local media as EDSA II (pronounced as Edsa dos) or the Second People Power Revolution, is the common name of the four-day popular revolution that peacefully overthrew Philippine president Joseph Estrada in January 2001. ... Joseph Ejército Estrada, more popularly known as Erap (born José Marcelo Ejército on April 19, 1937), is a popular former film actor in the Philippines and was the 13th President of the Philippines from June 30, 1998 to January 20, 2001. ... Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947), also known by her initials G.M.A., is the 14th and current president of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The crisis first became public on June 6, 2005 with the press conference held by Presidential Press Secretary Ignacio Bunye. ...


Politics and government

See also: Foreign relations of the Philippines, President of the Philippines, and Constitution of the Philippines
Further information: Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

The Philippines has a presidential, unitary form of government (with some modification; there is one autonomous region largely free from the national government), where the President functions as both head of state and head of government, and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six-year term, during which time she or he appoints and presides over the cabinet.[1] Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The political system in the Philippines takes place in an... U.S. President George W. Bush, Philippines President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Mrs. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The President of the... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the... Seal of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Filipinas) originated in the... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947), also known by her initials GMA, is the current and 14th President of the Republic of the Philippines. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM; Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Muslim Mindanao) of the Philippines is composed of five provinces and one city namely: Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and the Marawi City. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The President of the... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Seal of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Filipinas) originated in the... This article is about the governmental body. ...


The bicameral Congress is composed of a Senate, serving as the upper house whose members are elected nationally to a six-year term, and a House of Representatives serving as the lower house whose members are elected to a three-year term and are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[1] In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Philippine Congress Session Hall The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Type Lower house Houses House of Representatives House Speaker Jose De Venecia, Jr. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The Legislative districts of the Philippines are the representations of the Philippines provinces and cities in the Philippine Congress. ...


The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[1] In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the... An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. ... The Judicial and Bar Council of the Philippines is a body that recommends appointees for vacancies that may arise in the composition of the Supreme Court and other lower courts. ...


Attempts to amend the constitution to either a federal, unicameral or parliamentary form of government have repeatedly failed since the Ramos administration. A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ...


The Philippines is a founding and active member of the United Nations since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Philippines is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), an active player in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, and a member of the Group of 24. The country is a major non-NATO ally of the U.S. but also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.[1] UN redirects here. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. ... APEC redirects here. ... Headquarters Paris, France , Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have close strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Administrative divisions

Provinces and regions of the Philippines.
Provinces and regions of the Philippines.

The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 136 cities, 1,494 municipalities and 41,995 barangays. [19] The Philippines is divided into, from the highest division to the lowest: Provinces and independent cities Municipalities and component cities Barangays Each division at each level from the provinces down to the barangays is a local government unit (LGU). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 70 KB)Map of the Philippines showing the location of all the regions and provinces. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 70 KB)Map of the Philippines showing the location of all the regions and provinces. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Map of the Philippines showing Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao Visayas is one of the three island groupings in the Philippines along with Luzon and Mindanao. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Map of the Philippines showing the... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The province (Filipino: lalawigan... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      A city (lungsod, sometimes siyudad, in Filipino and Tagalog) is a tier of local... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A municipality (bayan, sometimes munisipyo, in Tagalog) is a local... A barangay (Tagalog: baranggay , pronounced as ba-rang-gai, gai as in guy), also known by its former name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. ...

Region Designation Government center
Ilocos Region Region I San Fernando City, La Union
Cagayan Valley Region Region II Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Central Luzon Region Region III City of San Fernando, Pampanga
CALABARZON Region¹ ² Region IV-A Calamba City, Laguna
MIMAROPA Region¹ ² ³ Region IV-B Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
Bicol Region Region V Legazpi City, Albay
Western Visayas Region³ Region VI Iloilo City
Central Visayas Region Region VII Cebu City
Eastern Visayas Region Region VIII Tacloban City, Leyte
Zamboanga Peninsula Region Region IX Pagadian City
Northern Mindanao Region Region X Cagayan de Oro City
Davao Region Region XI Davao City
SOCCSKSARGEN Region¹ Region XII Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Caraga Region Region XIII Butuan City
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ARMM Cotabato City
Cordillera Administrative Region CAR Baguio City
National Capital Region NCR Manila

¹ Names are capitalized because they are acronyms, containing the names of the constituent provinces or cities (see Acronyms in the Philippines).
² These regions formed the former Southern Tagalog region, or Region IV.
³ Palawan was moved from Region IV-B as known as MIMAROPA to Region VI. From November 2005, Region IV-B would be called MIMARO, decreased from five to four provinces and Region VI increased from six to seven provinces. The Ilocos Region or Region I (Ilokano: Rehion ti Ilokos, Pagasinan: Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon or Rihiyon na Ilokos) of the Philippines is located in the northwestern part of Luzon. ... San Fernando City is a 3rd class city in the province of La Union, Philippines. ... La Union is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. ... Cagayan Valley (Lambak ng Cagayan in Filipino) is a region of the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. ... The City of Tuguegarao is a second class city in the province of Cagayan, Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Cagayan Region: Cagayan Valley (Region II) Capital: Tuguegarao City Founded: 1581 Population: 2000 census—993,580 (25th largest) Density—110 per km² (16th lowest) Area: 9,002 km² (3rd largest) Divisions: Highly urbanized cities—0 Component cities—1 Municipalities—28 Barangays—820 Congressional districts... Central Luzon region contains the largest plain of the Philippines, and produces most of the countrys rice supply. ... The City of San Fernando, where Efren is so beautiful. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Pampanga Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: City of San Fernando Founded: December 11, 1571 Population: 2000 census—1,882,730 (10th largest) Density—863 per km² (4th highest) Area: 2,180. ... CALABARZON is one of the regions of the Philippines. ... The concrete jar where the legend of the citys name has been immortalized. ... Laguna is a province of the Philippines found in the CALABARZON region in Luzon. ... MIMAROPA, also known as Region IV-B, is a region of the Philippines located in Luzon. ... City of Calapan is a 2nd class city in the province of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. ... Oriental Mindoro (Filipino: Silangang Mindoro) is a province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ... Bicol Region or Bicolandia is one of the 16 regions of the Philippines occupying the Bicol Peninsula at the southeastern end of Luzon island and some other islands. ... The City of Legazpi (Bikol: Ciudad nin Legazpi; Filipino: Lungsod ng Legazpi) is a first class city and capital of the province of Albay, Philippines. ... Albay is a province of the Philippines located in the Bicol Region in Luzon. ... Western Visayas, one of the regions of the Philippines, is designated as Region VI. It consists of seven provinces, namely, Aklan, Antique, Negros Occidental, Capiz, Guimaras, Iloilo and Palawan and 17 cities making it the region with the most number of cities. ... Map of Iloilo showing the location of Iloilo City Coordinates: 10. ... Central Visayas, one of the regions of the Philippines, is designated as Region VII. It is part of the Visayas. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas... Eastern Visayas is one of the two regions of the Philippines having no land border with another region, MIMAROPA being the other, and is designated as Region VIII. It consists of six provinces, namely, Biliran, Eastern Samar, Leyte, Northern Samar, Samar (Western Samar) and Southern Leyte. ... Tacloban City is the largest city and regional center of the Eastern Visayas region of the Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Leyte Region: Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capital: Tacloban City Founded: 1543 and March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,592,336 (14th largest) Density—279 per km² (24th highest) Area: 5,712. ... It has been suggested that Zamboanga be merged into this article or section. ... Pagadian City is a 1st class city in the province of Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. ... Designated as Region X of the Philippines, Northern Mindanao (Hilagang Mindanao) is composed of five provinces and eight cities, namely: Misamis Oriental (Gingoog City and Cagayan de Oro City), Misamis Occidental (Oroquieta City, Tangub City and Ozamis City), Camiguin, Lanao del Norte (Iligan City), and Bukidnon (Malaybalay City and Valencia... , Nickname: Map of Misamis Oriental showing the location of Cagayan de Oro City Country Region Province Misamis Oriental (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cagayan de Oro City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1871 Incorporated (city) June 15, 1950 Government  - Mayor Constantino Jaraula (Lakas-CMD)  - Vice Mayor Vicente Emano (Lakas... Davao redirects here. ... Motto: Love, Peace, and Progress Map of Davao Region showing the location of Davao City Coordinates: 7° 30 N, 126° E Country Region Province None Districts 1st to 3rd Districts of Davao City Barangays 184 Incorporated (town) 1848 Incorporated (city) October 16, 1936 Government  - Mayor Rodrigo Duterte (Hugpong/PDP-Laban... SoCCSKSarGen is a region of the Philippines, located in central Mindanao, and is officially designated as Region XII. The name is an acronym that stands for the regions four provinces and one of its cities: South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos City. ... Koronadal City, also known as Marbel to its locals, is a city in the province of South Cotabato, Philippines. ... South Cotabato is a province of the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao. ... For the municipality in the province of Davao Oriental, see Caraga, Davao Oriental Caraga is an administrative region of the Philippines, on the northeastern portion of the island of Mindanao. ... Butuan City is the regional center of the Caraga Region in the Philippines. ... The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM; Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Muslim Mindanao) of the Philippines is composed of five provinces and one city namely: Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and the Marawi City. ... Cotabato City is one of the cities of the Philippines located in Mindanao. ... The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) of the Philippines consists of the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province and Apayao. ... For other uses, see Baguio (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Acronyms are very popular in the Philippines. ... Southern Tagalog, or Region IV, was a region of the Philippines that is now comprised of Region IV-A (CALABARZON) and Region IV-B (MIMAROPA). ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ...


Geography

Mayon Volcano, the most active volcano in the Philippines.
Mayon Volcano, the most active volcano in the Philippines.

The Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (116,000 sq mi). It generally lies between 116° 40' and 126° 34' E. longitude, and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude, and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south. The island of Borneo lies a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan directly north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are to the south/southwest, and Palau is to the east beyond the Philippine Sea.[1] The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of 300,000 km². The 11 largest islands contain 94% of the total land area. ... -1... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east of Philippines. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Celebes Sea The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... The Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east of Philippines. ...


The islands are commonly divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), Visayas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII and ARMM). The busy port of Manila, on Luzon, is the national capital and second largest city after its suburb Quezon City. [1] Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Map of the Philippines showing Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao Visayas is one of the three island groupings in the Philippines along with Luzon and Mindanao. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Quezon City Coordinates: 14°38 N, 121°2 E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 4th districts of Quezon City Barangays 142 Incorporated (town) October 12, 1939 (as Balintawak) Incorporated (city) October 12, 1939 Government  - Mayor Feliciano Sonny...

Mount Apo, the Philippines' tallest mountain.
Mount Apo, the Philippines' tallest mountain.

The local climate is hot, humid, and tropical. The average yearly temperature is around 26.5 °C (79.7 °F). There are three recognized seasons: Tag-init or Tag-araw (the hot season or summer from March to May), Tag-ulan (the rainy season from June to November), and Taglamig (the cold season from December to February). The southwest monsoon (May-October) is known as the "habagat" and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (November-April) as the "amihan".[20] Image File history File links MountApo1. ... Image File history File links MountApo1. ... Mount Apo is the highest mountain in the Philippines and overlooks Davao City,it is actually located at north cotabato you can find trails via kidapawan city a few kilometres to the northeast. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


Most of the mountainous islands used to be covered in tropical rainforest and are volcanic in origin. The highest point is Mount Apo on Mindanao at 2,954 metres (9,692 ft). There are many active volcanos such as Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The country also lies within the typhoon belt of the Western Pacific and about 19 typhoons strike per year.[21] Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... Mount Apo is the highest mountain in the Philippines and overlooks Davao City,it is actually located at north cotabato you can find trails via kidapawan city a few kilometres to the northeast. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... -1... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... Taal Volcano is an active volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ...


Lying on the northwestern fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activities. Some 20 earthquakes are registered daily in the Philippines, though most are too weak to be felt. The last great earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[22] “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Map of Nueva Ecija showing the location of Cabanatuan City. ...


The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay is connected to Laguna de Bay by means of the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf and the Moro Gulf are some of the important bays. Transversing the San Juanico Strait is the San Juanico Bridge (considered a point of vital national infrastructure and capacity), that connects the islands of Samar and Leyte.[23] Image:CagayanRiver. ... Photography sunset in Bay City, Pasay (near SM Mall of Asia) Manila Bay is one of the finest natural harbors in the world which serves the port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines. ... Laguna de Bay is the largest lake in the Philippines and the largest inland freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. ... The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines and connects Laguna de Bay via the Napindan Channel into Manila Bay. ... A 1902 nautical chart of Subic Bay Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in Zambales, Philippines, about 100 kilometers northwest of Manila Bay. ... Davao Gulf is a gulf found in Mindanao in the Philippines. ... Moro Gulf is a gulf in Mindanao in the Philippines. ... San Juanico Strait is a narrow strait in the Philippines. ... The San Juanico Bridge is the longest bridge in the Philippines, with a length of 2 km. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ...


Economy

The Philippines is a newly industrialized country with an economy anchored on agriculture but with substantial contributions from manufacturing, mining, remittances from overseas Filipinos and service industries such as tourism and, increasingly, business process outsourcing, to which it is known for having one of most vibrant BPO industries in Asia.[7][24] The Philippines is listed in the roster of "Next Eleven" economies. The Economy of the Philippines is a capitalist market economy in Asia, and one of the newly industrialized emerging market economies of the world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MetroManila. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MetroManila. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Countries considered NICs as of 2007 The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Remittance advertising in Oxford Street, London with Russian slogans. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Tourist redirects here. ... Business process outsourcing (BPO) contains the transmission of processes along with the associated operational activities and responsibilities, to a third party with at least a guaranteed equal service level and where the client contains a firm grip over the (activities of the) vendor for mutual long term success. ... BPO is an acronym that can refer to: business process outsourcing, the increasing trend of relocating entire business functions to either self-owned or third-party service providers, typically in low-cost locations. ... N-11 nations in red The Next Eleven (or N-11) is a list of eleven countries named by Goldman Sachs investment bank on December 12, 2005 as having a high potential of becoming the worlds largest economies along with the BRICs, with promising outlooks for investment and future...


Historically, the Philippine economy has largely been anchored on the Manila galleon during the Spanish era, and bilateral trade with the United States during the American era. Pro-Filipino economic policies were first implemented during the tenure of Carlos P. Garcia with the "Filipino First" policy. By the 1960s, the Philippine economy was regarded as the second-largest in Asia, next only to Japan. However, the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos would prove disastrous to the Philippine economy, sliding the country into severe economic recession, only to recover starting in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization and the breaking of Marcos-era monopolies and the system of cronyism under Fidel V. Ramos.[17] A painting of a Spanish galleon. ... Carlos Polistico Garcia (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was the 8th president of the Philippines (1957-1961). ... In macroeconomics, a recession is generally associated with a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth. ...


The Asian Financial Crisis affected the Philippine economy to an extent, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the Philippine peso and falls in the stock market, although the extent to which it was affected is not as severe as that of its Asian neighbors. This is largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the Philippine government partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund, in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[17] By 2004, the Philippine economy experienced six-percent growth in gross domestic product and 7.3% in 2007,[25] in line with the "7, 8, 9" project of the government to accelerate GDP growth by 2009.[26] The East Asian Financial Crisis was a period of economic unrest (or financial contagion) that started in July 1997 in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai Baht, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in a number of Asian countries. ... IMF redirects here. ... GDP redirects here. ...

Cebu City Business Park.

In a bid to further strengthen the Philippine economy, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pledged to make the Philippines a developed country by 2020. As part of this goal, she instituted five economic "super regions" to concentrate on the economic strengths of various regions of the Philippines, as well as the implementation of tax reforms, continued privatization of state assets, and the building-up of infrastructure in various areas of the Philippines. Image File history File linksMetadata Keppel_and_innove. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Keppel_and_innove. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... The creation of super regions in the Philippines is a proposed plan by the President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on her sixth State of the Nation Address to group the selected regions/provinces by their economic strengths. ... Taxes redirects here. ...


Despite the growing economy, the Philippines will have to address several chronic problems in the future. Strategies for streamlining the economy include improvements of infrastructure, more efficient tax systems to bolster government revenues, furthering deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade integration within the region and across the world.[27][28] The Philippine economy is also heavily reliant on remittances as a source of foreign currency, surpassing even foreign direct investment. China and India have emerged as major economic competitors, siphoning away investors who would otherwise have invested in the Philippines, particularly telecommunications companies. Regional development is also somewhat uneven, with Luzon and Metro Manila in particular gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,[29] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the Philippines. Origins People Theories Ideas Movements Topics Related Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the public sector (government) to the private sector (business). ...


The Philippines is a founding member of the Asian Development Bank, playing home to its headquarters. It is also a member of the World Bank, the IMF, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Colombo Plan, and the G-77, among others.[30] The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... APEC can also stand for Atlantic Provinces Economic Council Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. ... -1... The Colombo Plan began in 1951, and is a regional organisation focused on social development. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ...


Demographics

Population growth of the Philippines.
Population growth of the Philippines.

The Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country, with a population of over 90 million as of 2008.[3][5]As of 2007, 8% of Filipinos are living abroad as migrant laborers. Roughly half reside on the island of Luzon. Manila, the capital, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. The literacy rate was 92.6% in 2003,[31][32] and about equal for males and females.[2] Life expectancy is 71.23 years, with 73.6 years for females and 69.8 years for males. Population growth rate in 1995-2000 is 3.21% but then dramatically fell to 1.59% for 2005-2010. Image:Philippines-demography. ... Image:Philippines-demography. ... According to the 2000 Census, the population of the Philippines was 76,504,077. ... Language(s) Filipino, Bikol, Cebuano, English, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and over 100 others Religion(s) Predominantly Roman Catholic Various smaller Christian denominations Significant Muslim minority, Buddhist, others Related ethnic groups Dayak, Indonesian, Malaysian, and all Non-Muslim Indo-Malays Filipinos are the citizens of the... Language(s) Tagalog, Visayan languages, Ilocano, Tausug, other Philippine languages, English Religion(s) Predominantly Catholic; Protestantism; Iglesia Ni Cristo; Islam; Nonreligious Related ethnic groups Filipino people, Filipino American, Filipino Canadian, Filipino Australian, Filipino British, Filipino Hong Konger An Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin who lives outside of... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ...


Ethnic groups

Majority of Filipinos are descended from the various Austronesian-speaking migrants who arrived in successive waves over a thousand years ago from Taiwan, genetically most closely related to the Ami tribe.[33] The Malayo-Polynesian-speaking peoples, a branch of Austronesian, migrated to the Philippines and brought their knowledge of rice agriculture and ocean-sailing technology. Filipinos to this day are composed of various Malayo-Polynesian-speaking ethnic groups, including but not limited to the Visayans, the Tagalog, the Ilocano, the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Bicolano, the Pangasinense, the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Ibanag, the Badjao, the Ivatan, and the Palawan tribes. The Negritos, including the Aetas and the Ati, are considered as the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines though they are estimated to be fewer than 30,000 people (0.03%). As of July 1, 2005, the population of the Philippines is estimated to be 87,857,473. ... The Austronesian people are a population group in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke one of the Austronesian languages. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 [4] 2004: 454,600 [5] Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán Yǔ) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... Bisaya redirects here. ... The Tagalogs are one of the largest Filipino ethnic groups. ... The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnic group. ... █ Bangsamoro territory under Moro control █ Historical extent The Moros form the largest non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising about 5% of the total Filipino population as of 2005. ... The Kapampangans or Capampañgans (Spanish: pampangos or pampangueños) are the eighth largest Filipino ethnic group, numbering at about 2,890,000. ... The Bicolanos are the the fifth-largest Filipino ethnic group. ... See also Pangasinan The Pangasinan people or Pangasinense (a hispanicized term) are the eighth largest Filipino ethnic group. ... Igorot (pronounced ) is the general name for the people of the Cordillera region, in the Philippines island of Luzon. ... For other uses, see Lumad (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ibanags are an ethnic minority numbering a little more than half a million people, who inhabit the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya. ... The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and parts of Sarawak. ... The Ivatan are a Filipino ethnic group predominant in the Batanes Islands of the Philippines. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Negritos include the Atis, and at least 5 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands. ... The Aeta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the Philippines. ... The Ati is a Negrito ethnic group in Panay, which is located in the Visayas, the central portion of the Philippine archipelago. ...


Filipinos of Chinese descent currently forms the largest non-Austronesian ethnic group, claiming about 1.5% of the population [34] followed by Filipinos of Spanish descent. Other significant minorities include British, Americans, Japanese, Asian Indians, Koreans, Arabs and Indonesians. Chinese mestizos are those in the Philippines of mixed Chinese and either indigenous Filipino or Spanish (or both) ancestry. They make up between 10-20% of the country's total population. Filipinos of Spanish descent are a multilingual Filipino ethnic group composed of Philippine citizens with Spanish ancestry. ... Filipinos of American descent constitute of Philippine citizens of American descent, regardless of ethnic or racial affiliation and including but not limited to mestizos. ... Filipinos of Japanese descent constitute a Philippine ethnic group of Japanese descent, including, but not limited to, mestizos. ... According to recent survey, the number of South Asians in the Philippines are approximately 32,500 people. ... Filipinos of Arab descent constitute of Philippine citizens of Arab descent, including, but not limited to, mestizos. ... Indonesias 225 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ...


Throughout the country's history, various ethnic groups as well as immigrants and colonizers have intermarried, producing Filipino mestizos. These mestizos, apart from being of mixed indigenous Austronesian and European ancestry, can be descended from any ethnic foreign forebears. The percentage of Filipinos with foreign ancestry is unknown since there are no credible sources for the percentage of Philippine mestizos residing in the Philippines. The number of Filipino mestizos that reside outside the Philippines is also unknown. However, due to major historical factors, such as the Spanish colonization, the American occupation, and Chinese immigration after World War II; many Filipino mestizos that reside in the Philippines are now of Spanish, American and Chinese descent. Filipino Mestizo is a term used in the Philippines, to designate Filipinos of mixed Native Filipino (Austronesian or Malay), and foreign ancestry. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ...


Languages

Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.
Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.

Filipino and English are the official languages of the Philippines, but more than 180 languages and dialects are spoken in the archipelago, almost all of them belonging to the Borneo-Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian language branch of the Austronesian language family. There are over 170 languages in the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 85 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 85 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ethnolinguistics is a field of linguistic anthropology which studies the language of a particular ethnic group. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


According to the 1987 Constitution, Filipino and English are both the official languages. Many Filipinos understand, write and speak English, Filipino and their respective regional languages. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Filipino is the de facto standardized version of Tagalog spoken in Metro Manila and urban centers and one of the official languages in the country. English, the other official language, is widely used as a lingua franca throughout the country. Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Twelve major regional languages are the auxiliary official languages of their respective regions, each with over one million speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, Bikol, Pangasinan. Kinaray-a, Maranao, Maguindanao and Tausug. Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). ... To view the Ilokano edition of this Wikipedia article, select from the in other languages Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Hiligaynon language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Hiligaynon (or Ilonggo) is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. ... Wáray-Wáray or Waráy (commonly spelled as Waray; also referred to as Winaray or L(in)eyte-Samarnon) is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte (eastern portion), and Biliran in the Philippines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bicolano or Bikol is an Austronesian language used in the Philippines particularly on the Bicol Peninsula on the island of Luzon. ... The Pangasinan language (Pangasinan: salitan Pangasinan; Spanish: idioma pangasinense) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. ... Kinaray-a is an Austronesian language spoken mainly in the Antique Province in the Philippines. ... Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines. ... Maguindanao is an Austronesian language spoken in the provinces of Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Zamboanga del Sur in the Philippines. ... Tausug is spoken in Sulu province in the Philippines. ...


English was imposed by Americans during the U.S. intervention and colonization of the archipelago. English is used in education, churches, religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business, though the number of people who use it as a second language far outnumber those who speak it as a first language. Still, English is the preferred medium for textbooks and instruction for secondary and tertiary levels. Movies and TV programs in English are not subtitled but many films and TV programs are produced in Filipino. English is the sole language of the law courts.


Spanish was the original official language of the country for more than three centuries, and became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Spanish was the language of the Philippine Revolution, and the 1899 Malolos Constitution proclaimed it as the official language. However, Spanish was spoken by a total of 60% of the population in the early 1900s as a first, second or third language. Following the American occupation of the Philippines, its use declined after 1940. Currently, only a few Mestizos of Spanish or Hispanic origin speak it as their first language, although a few others use it together with Filipino and English. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ... Filipino Mestizo is a term used in the Philippines, to designate Filipinos of mixed Native Filipino (Austronesian or Malay), and foreign ancestry. ...


Both Spanish and Arabic are used as auxiliary languages in the Philippines. The use of Arabic is prevalent among Filipino Muslims and taught in madrasah (Muslim) schools. Arabic redirects here. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Filipino Muslims form the largest non-Christian group in the country, comprising 5 % of the total Philippine population as of 2005. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Religion

Manila Cathedral, officially the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, is mother church of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines.

The Philippines is one of two countries in Asia with Roman Catholic majorities; the other being East Timor. The Philippines is separated into dioceses of which the Archdiocese of Manila enjoys primacy. About 90% of Filipinos identify themselves as Christians, with 81% belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. 2% are composed of Protestant denominations and 11% either to the Philippine Independent Church (Aglipayan), Iglesia ni Cristo and others.[35] While Christianity is a major force in the culture of the Filipinos, indigenous traditions and rituals still influence religious practice. There are a number of religions that exist in the Philippines. ... Image File history File links MANILACATHEDRAL.jpg‎ copyright holder: Tam_3rd source: http://www. ... Image File history File links MANILACATHEDRAL.jpg‎ copyright holder: Tam_3rd source: http://www. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila (popularly known as Archdiocese of Manila, formerly known as Diocese of Manila) is a particular church or diocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila (popularly known as Archdiocese of Manila, formerly known as Diocese of Manila) is a particular church or diocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Iglesia ni Cristo (also known as INC, Iglesya ni Kristo or Church of Christ, pronounced ) is a nontrinitarian Christian restorationist religious organization that originated in the Philippines[4] The INC was founded in the Philippines by Felix Y. Manalo on July 27, 1914;[5] The most basic component of...

Philippines religiosity
religion percent
Christianity
 
90%
Islam
 
5%
Others
 
5%

The Philippines is also well-known for its Baroque-style churches. They are a part of the long list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These churches are: San Agustin Church in Intramuros, Manila; Paoay Church in Paoay, Ilocos Norte; Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion (Santa Maria) Church in Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur; and the Santo Tomas de Villanueva (Miag-ao) Church in Miag-ao, Iloilo. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... The inside of the San Agustin Church in Intramuros, with magnificent trompe loeil mural on its ceiling and walls Historical Marker of San Agustin Church. ...


Approximately 5% of Filipinos are Muslims,[35] and are locally known as "Moros", having been dubbed this by the Spanish due to their sharing Islam with the Moors of North Africa. They primarily settle in parts of Mindanao, Palawan and the Sulu archipelago, but are now found in most urban areas of the country. Most lowland Muslim Filipinos practice normative Islam, although the practices of some Mindanao's hill tribe Muslims reflect a fusion with animism. There are also small populations of Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and animists, which, along with other non-Christians, non-Muslims and those with no religion, collectively comprise 2.5% of the population.[32] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ... Buddhism arrived in the Philippines during the existence of Srivijaya empire from the 7th to the 13th centuries. ... OM, a sacred syllable and a quintessential symbol of Hinduism. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Culture

An Ifugao sculpture.
An Ifugao sculpture.

Filipino culture is a fusion of pre-Hispanic indigenous Austronesian civilizations of the Philippines mixed with Hispanic and American. It has also been influenced by Chinese, Arab, and Indianized cultures.[7] The culture of the Philippines reflects the complexity of the history of the Philippines through the blending of the culture of diverse indigenous civilizations with characteristics introduced via foreign influences. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1730x1730, 1385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Philippines Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1730x1730, 1385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Philippines Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... The Austronesian people are a population group in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke one of the Austronesian languages. ... The Hispanic world The term Hispanic culture pertains to cultures found in Spain and to the cultures of any country that was colonized by the early Spanish conquistadors. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, Yunnan and Baluchistan region. ...


The Hispanic influences in Filipino culture are largely derived from the culture of Spain and Mexico as a result of over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule through Mexico. These Hispanic influences are most evident in literature, folk music, folk dance, language, food, art and religion, such as Roman Catholic Church religious festivals.[7] Filipinos hold major festivities known as barrio fiestas to commemorate their patron saints. One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish surnames among Filipinos. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the inhabitants of the Philippines. A Spanish name and surname among the majority of Filipinos does not always denote Spanish ancestry. Spain is a largely mountainous country located in the Iberian Peninsula, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Saints redirects here. ... The Catálogo alfabético de apellidos (English: Alphabetical Catalog of Surnames) is a book of surnames published in the Philippines in the mid-19th century. ... In Spanish-speaking countries (exception made of Argentina), people normally have at least two surnames. ...

The five instruments of gongs and a drum that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition present in southern Philippines
The five instruments of gongs and a drum that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition present in southern Philippines

Names of countless streets, towns and provinces are in Spanish. Spanish architecture also made a major imprint in the Philippines. This can be seen especially in the country's churches, government buildings and universities. Many Hispanic style houses and buildings are being preserved, like the Spanish colonial town in Vigan City, for protection and conservation. The kalesa is a horse-driven carriage introduced by the Spaniards and was a major mode of transportation during the colonial times. It is still being used today. Filipino cuisine is also heavily influenced by Mexican and Spanish cuisine. Kulintang is a term for various musical instruments and musical genres which are indigenous to the South-East Asian islands presently known as Indonesia and the Philippines. ... Sagrada Família church, by Gaudí Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide. ... The City of Vigan is a 5th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. ... Kalesa in Manila A kalesa (sometimes called a karitela) is a horse-driven calash (carriage) used in the Philippines. ... Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malay roots to a cuisine of predominantly Spanish base, due to the many Mexican and Spanish dishes brought to the islands during the colonial period. ...


The use of English language in the Philippines is contemporaneous and is America's visible legacy. The most commonly played sports in the Philippines are basketball and billiards. There is also a wide influence of American Pop cultural trends, such as the love of fast-food and movies; many street corners boast fast-food outlets. Aside from the American commercial giants such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Burger King, KFC, and Shakey's Pizza, local fast-food chains have also sprung up, including Goldilocks, Jollibee, Greenwich Pizza (acquired by Jollibee in 1994[36]), and Chowking (acquired by Jollibee in 2000[36]). Modern day Filipinos also listen to contemporary American music and watch American movies. However, Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and Philippine movies are also widely appreciated. This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... For specific discussion of Western fast food chains, see fast food restaurant. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Pizza Hut Inc. ... Burger King (NYSE: BKC), often abbreviated to BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. ... KFC, also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a food chain based in Louisville, Kentucky, known mainly for its fried chicken. ... Shakeys Pizza is a pizza restaurant chain based in the United States. ... Goldilocks Bakeshop (also known as Goldilocks Bakeshop and Restaurant) is a Philippine-based chain of bakeshops specializing in Filipino cakes and pastry. ... Jollibee Foods Corporation (PSE: JFC) widely known as Jollibee is a fast-food restaurant chain based in the Philippines. ... Greenwich Pizza is the largest pizza chain in the Philippines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cinema of the Philippines has a history that can be traced back to the early days of filmmaking in 1897, when a theater owner named Pertierra screened imported moving pictures. ...


Filipinos honor national heroes whose works and deeds contributed to the shaping of the Filipino nation. José Rizal is the most celebrated ilustrado, a Spanish-speaking reformist visionary whose writings contributed greatly in nurturing a sense of national identity and awareness. His novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo originally written in Spanish, are required readings for Filipino students, and provide vignettes of colonial life under the Spanish rule. For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation). ... Noli Me Tangere is a Spanish-language novel written by José P. Rizal, and published in 1887, in Europe. ... El filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed as the alternative English title) is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. ...


As with many cultures, music (which includes traditional music) and leisure activities are an important aspect of the Filipino society. Various sports are also enjoyed, including boxing, basketball, badminton, billiards, football (soccer) and ten-pin bowling being popular games in the country. The music of the Philippines is a mixture of European, American and indigenous sounds. ... Traditional Music in the Philippines, like the traditional music of other countries, reflects the life of common folk, mainly living in rural areas rather than urban ones. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... The Philippines was among the worlds first basketball-playing nations; and Filipinos are some of the worlds most avid followers of the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Ten-pin bowling. ...


See also

This article is a list of topics related to the people, culture, history, current events, institutions, places, and traditions of the Republic of the Philippines. ... // Railways See main article - Rail transport in the Philippines Most are on Luzon, operated by the Philippine National Railways. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 7. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g General information. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
     Official Website. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g World Factbook — Philippines. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  3. ^ a b c 2000 Census-based Population Projection, National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines, 2006, <http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/popproj_tab1r.html>. Retrieved on 17 April 2008 
  4. ^ Official population count reveals..., National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines, 2008, <http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2008/pr0830tx.html>. Retrieved on 17 April 2008 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (Philippines), International Monetary Funds, 2006, <http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=65&pr.y=8&sy=2005&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDP_RPCH%2CNGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPPPEX%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPCPIE%2CPCPIEPCH%2CLP&grp=0&a=>. Retrieved on 17 April 2008 
  6. ^ Philippines—The Human Development Index - going beyond income, United Nations Development Programme, 2007/2008, <http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_PHL.html>. Retrieved on 14 December 2007 
  7. ^ a b c d Steinberg, David Joel (2007). "Philippines". Encarta.  
  8. ^ a b c d Gregorio F. Zaide, Sonia M. Zaide (2004), Philippine History and Government, Sixth Edition, All-Nations Publishing Company 
  9. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 22
  10. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 64
  11. ^ Joaquin, Nick. 1988. Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Solar Publishing, Metro Manila
  12. ^ US Country Studies: Education in the Philippines
  13. ^ Veltisezar Bautista, “3. The Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)”, The Filipino Americans (1763-Present): Their History, Culture and Traditions (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-931613-17-5, <https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=philrev.html> 
  14. ^ E. San Juan, Jr. (March 22, 2005). U.S. Genocide in the Philippines: A Case of Guilt, Shame, or Amnesia?.
  15. ^ San Juan 2007
  16. ^ Gross, Jane. "Ferdinand Marcos, Ousted Leader Of Philippines, Dies at 72 in Exile", New York Times, September 29, 1989. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  17. ^ a b c Gargan, Edward A.. "Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil", New York Times, December 11, 1997. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  18. ^ Bonner, Raymond; Carlos H. Conde. "U.S. in Wary Diplomacy With Besieged Philippine Leader", New York Times, July 22, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-01-25. 
  19. ^ NCSB Press Release
  20. ^ Climate of the Philippines at PAGASA. Accessed September 30, 2006
  21. ^ Kee-Chai Chong; Ian R. Smith & Maura S. Lizarondo (1982), “III. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds”, Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System, The United Nations University, ISBN 92-808-346-8, <http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80346e/80346E06.htm> 
  22. ^ The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake at City of Baguio. Accessed October 3,2006
  23. ^ Leyte is Famous For... Accessed September 30, 2006
  24. ^ As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines Philippine Daily Inquirer. Accessed October 2, 2006
  25. ^ RP 2007 GDP grows 7.3%; fastest in 31 yrs, ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs, January 31, 2008
  26. ^ Philippines Aims to Boost Growth by 2009. forbes.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-20. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  27. ^ Large Swiss Firm offers to invest in Philippines Manila Standard. Accessed January 27, 2007
  28. ^ RP ready for Global Trade, ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs, accessed February 17, 2007
  29. ^ Beyond Imperial Manila, Manila Standard Today, accessed July 25, 2006
  30. ^ International Organization Participation CIA World Factbook
  31. ^ Human Development Indicators. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  32. ^ a b The Philippines: People, CIA World Factbook, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html#People>. Retrieved on 9 January 2008 
  33. ^ Capelli, C; Cristian Capelli, James F. Wilson, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf, Fiona Gratrix, Stephen Oppenheimer, Peter Underhill, Vincenzo L. Pascali, Tsang-Ming Ko, and David B. Goldstein1 (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania" (pdf). American journal of Human Genetics 68: 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205.  (Table 1, p.434)
  34. ^ The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population. Overseas Compatriate Affairs Commission, R.O.C. (Taiwan). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  35. ^ a b 2000 Census: ADDITIONAL THREE PERSONS PER MINUTE. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original on 2007-04-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  36. ^ a b The Jollibee Phenomenon, Jollibee, Inc., <http://www.jollibee.com.ph/corporate/phenomenon.htm>. Retrieved on 9 January 2008 )

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... E. San Juan, Jr. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The ABS-CBN News & Current Affairs is the News (ABS-CBN News group) and Current Affairs (ABS-CBN Current Affairs group) division of ABS-CBN in the Philippines. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The ABS-CBN News & Current Affairs is the News (ABS-CBN News group) and Current Affairs (ABS-CBN Current Affairs group) division of ABS-CBN in the Philippines. ... Manila Standard Today is the fourth largest broadsheet newspaper in the Philippines as of 2006. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • Official website of the Philippine Government - Gateway to governmental sites

Maps

  • WikiSatellite view of Philippines at WikiMapia

Other

  • WOW Philippines Tourism Ad
  • Washington Post's: How the Philippines Sees America
  • Philippines travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Philippines
  • BBC Country Profile on the Philippines
  • CIA World Factbook: Philippines
  • U.S. Country Studies: Philippines
  • Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages by Wilhelm G. Solheim II (PDF)
  • History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (and indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor)

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Mindoro is considered to be the 7th largest island of the Philippines.
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Rich in natural resources with an abundant area of streams provide the residents with ample supply of fresh water fishes with extensive areas of rich and fertile lands are planted with cassava, corn, rice, coconut and many other root crops makes the inhabitants self sufficient of food supplies.
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The Philippines was less severely affected by the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s than its neighbors, aided in part by its high level of annual remittances from overseas workers, no sustained run-up in asset prices, and more moderate debt prior to the crises.
The Philippines is a member of the UN and some of its specialized agencies, and served a two-year term as a member of the UN Security Council from January 2004-2006, acting as UNSC President in September 2005.
Philippine soldiers and police have participated in a number of multilateral civilian police and peacekeeping operations, and a Philippine Army general served as the first commander of the UN Peacekeeping Operation in East Timor.
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