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Encyclopedia > Philippine Airlines Flight 434
Philippine Airlines Flight 434
Summary
Date  11 December 1994
Cause  In-flight bomb explosion
Site  Minami Daito Island
Origin  Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Last stopover  Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Destination  Narita International Airport
Passengers  273
Crew  20
Injuries  10
Fatalities  1
Survivors  292
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Boeing 747-283B
Operator  Philippine Airlines
Tail number  EI-BWF

Philippine Airlines Flight 434 (PAL434, PR434) was the route designator of a flight from Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Metro Manila, Philippines, to New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport), Narita near Tokyo, Japan, with one stop at Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu. On December 11, 1994, the Boeing 747-283B on the route was on its second leg, from Cebu to Tokyo, when a bomb exploded, killing one passenger. The rest of the passengers and the crew survived. December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Minami Daito (南大東島, Minamidaitō-jima) is the largest of the Daitō Islands located in Shimajiri district, Okinawa, Japan. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) is one of the two international airports serving the Metro Manila Area and the main international gateway of the Philippines. ... Mactan-Cebu International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Mactan-Cebu, Cebuano: Tugpahanang International sa Mactan-Sugbo) (IATA: CEB, ICAO: RPVM) is a major international airport in the Visayas region of the Philippines. ... Narita International Airport ) (IATA: NRT, ICAO: RJAA) is an international airport located in Narita, Chiba, Japan, in the eastern portion of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... Philippine Airlines, also known historically as Philippine Air Lines (PAL), is the national airline of the Philippines. ... Combatants al-Qaeda United States (primary) +other countries Commanders Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri George W. Bush Many others Casualties Unknown 3,500+ dead The Al-Qaeda terror campaign started in 1996 with the Khobar Towers bombing. ... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... The Rizal Day bombings were a series of bombings that occurred in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines on December 30, 2000 within a span of a few hours killing 22 and injuring about a hundred. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The Ghriba synagogue bombing was a deadly bombing carried out in Tunisia by the al-Qaeda terrorist group on the El Ghriba synagogue. ... On October 6, 2002, the Limburg was carrying 397,000 barrels of crude oil from Iran to Malaysia, and was in the Gulf of Aden off Yemen to pick up another load of oil. ... On November 28, 2002, the Mombasa hotel bombing took place. ... The Riyadh compound bombings took place on May 12, 2003, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ... The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ... The Istanbul bombings were two truck bomb attacks carried out on two days in November 2003. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 3/11 and -in Spanish- as 11-M [1]) consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías (commuter train) system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 (three days before Spains general elections), killing 191... In the 29 May 2004 Al-Khobar massacres in Saudi Arabia, four Islamist terrorists attacked two oil industry installations and a foreign workers housing complex, the Oasis Compound, in the Gulf city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia, taking more than 50 hostages and killing 22 of them. ... The 2004 Sinai bombings were three bomb attacks targeting tourist hotels in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, on October 7, 2004. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Wikinews has news related to: Four small explosions strike Londons transport system On 21 July 2005, four attempted bomb attacks disrupted part of Londons public transport system two weeks after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. ... Sharm el-Sheikh is located on the coast of the Red Sea, at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Amman, the capital city of Jordan. ... The seaside town of Dahab is located on the Gulf of Aqaba The Dahab bombings of 24 April 2006 were three bomb attacks on the Egyptian resort city of Dahab. ... Philippine Airlines, also known historically as Philippine Air Lines (PAL), is the national airline of the Philippines. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) is one of the two international airports serving the Metro Manila Area and the main international gateway of the Philippines. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Narita International Airport ) (IATA: NRT, ICAO: RJAA) is an international airport located in Narita, Chiba, Japan, in the eastern portion of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... The street of Narita-san temple Narita ) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Mactan-Cebu International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Mactan-Cebu, Cebuano: Tugpahanang International sa Mactan-Sugbo) (IATA: CEB, ICAO: RPVM) is a major international airport in the Visayas region of the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ...

Contents

The bombing

Authorities later discovered that a passenger on the aircraft's preceding leg was Ramzi Yousef, a master Al-Qaeda bomber and terrorist. He was later convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Yousef boarded the flight under the assumed name of Armaldo Forlani. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: رمزي يوسف ), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: عبد الباسط كريم) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1] is a Kuwaiti of Pakistani descent who was one of the planners of the 1993 World Trade Center... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ...


Yousef assembled a bomb in the lavatory and put it under Seat 26K on the right-hand side of the fuselage, setting the timer to detonate the explosives four hours later. He and 25 other passengers left the plane at Cebu. Flush toilet A toilet is a plumbing fixture devised for the disposal of bodily wastes, including urine, feces, methane, semen and vomit. ...


Two hours before arrival at Tokyo, the bomb exploded at 11:43 A.M. while Flight 434 was 31,000 feet above Minami Daito Island, which is located nearby Okinawa and is 260 miles (420 km) southwest of Tokyo. Minami Daito (南大東島, Minamidaitō-jima) is the largest of the Daitō Islands located in Shimajiri district, Okinawa, Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


The explosion ripped the body of 24-year old Haruki Ikegami, a Japanese businessman occupying the seat, in half. He was an industrial sewing machine maker returning from a trip to Cebu. Flight attendants covered him with a blanket. Ten passengers sitting in front of Ikegami were also injured. The bomb tore out a two square foot (0.2 m²) portion of the cabin floor, revealing the cargo hold underneath, but the fuselage of the plane stayed intact.


The Boeing 747-283B, tail number EI-BWF, made an emergency landing in Naha Airport, Okinawa, one hour after the bomb exploded. When the control columns stopped functioning normally, veteran Captain Eduardo Reyes and his crew resorted to steering via throttle control, reminiscent of United Airlines Flight 232. The aircraft's other 272 passengers and 20 crew members survived. The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... Domestic passenger terminal at Naha Naha Airport (那覇空港 Naha Kuko) is the primary air terminal for passengers and freight traveling to and from Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... United Airlines Flight 232 was a scheduled flight operated by United Airlines between Denver and Philadelphia via Chicago. ...


Location of bomb

The seat where the bomb exploded (seat 26K) would normally be above the center wing fuel tank on an older Boeing 747 but on this particular model of 747 the tank was located slightly further back. Seat 26K was just one row in front of the tank. The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ...


The bomb

United States prosecutors said the device was a "Mark II" "microbomb" constructed using Casio digital watches as described in Phase I of The Bojinka Plot of which this was a test. On Flight 434, Yousef used one tenth of the explosive power he planned to use on eleven U.S. airliners in January 1995. The bomb was, or at least all of its components were, designed to slip through airport security checks undetected. The explosive used was liquid nitroglycerin, which was disguised as a bottle of contact lens fluid. Other ingredients included glycerin, nitrate, sulfuric acid, and minute concentrations of nitrobenzene, silver azide (silver trinitride), and liquid acetone. The wires he used were hidden in the heel of his shoe. At that time, metal detectors used in airports did not go down far enough to detect anything there. For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Casio Computer Co. ... The Bojinka Plot was a planned large-scale terrorist attack on airliners in 1995. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Baggage is scanned using X-ray machines, passengers walk through metal detectors Baggage screening monitoring at Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting airports and by extension aircraft from crime and terrorism. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A U.S. Army soldier uses a metal detector to search for weapons and ammunition in Iraq Metal detectors use electromagnetic induction to detect metal. ...


The aftermath

After the bombing, a man claiming to represent a rebel group said in a telephone call to the Manila office of the Associated Press, "We are Abu Sayyaf Group. We explode one plane from Cebu." [1] Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), or simply Abu Sayyaf, also known as Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is a separatist group of islamist terrorists based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, primarily Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas...


Manila police uncovered his plan on the night of January 6 and the early morning of January 7, 1995, and Yousef was arrested a month later in Pakistan. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Flight 434 today

Today Flight 434 no longer originates in Manila, but instead it is a Cebu-Tokyo flight and uses Airbus A330 aircraft rather than Boeing 747s. Philippine Airlines still operates a Manila-Tokyo route as flight 432. Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... The Airbus A330 is a large-capacity, wide-body, medium-to-long-range commercial passenger airliner. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... Philippine Airlines, also known historically as Philippine Air Lines (PAL), is the national airline of the Philippines. ...


Flight 434 coverage

In addition to the news broadcasts, the popular National Geographic Channel show Air Crash Investigation (also known as Mayday) aired an episode about Philippine Airlines Flight 434 called "Bomb on Board." Air Crash Investigation is a science television program on National Geographic Channel. ...


See also

The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Citing the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board, an aviation accident is defined as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person... There have been aviation incidents in which the control surfaces became unavailable, typically due to loss of hydraulics. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philippine Airlines Flight 434 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (522 words)
Philippine Airlines Flight 434 was the route designator of a flight that flew on a Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila, Philippines - Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu - New Tokyo International Airport (Now Narita International Airport), Narita, Japan near Tokyo route.
On December 11, 1994, Flight 434 was on its second leg from Cebu to Tokyo when a bomb exploded, killing one passenger.
The bomb used on Flight 434 had one-tenth the power of the bombs he planned to use in the first phase of his project which was to bomb 11 aircraft over the Pacific Ocean.
Philippine Airlines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1503 words)
Philippine Airlines, also known as PAL, is the national airline of the Philippines.
The airline was started by a group of businessmen led by Andres Soriano, hailed as one of the Philippines' leading industrialists at the time.
In 2000, Philippine Airlines Flight 812, en route from Davao City to Manila, was hijacked by a man with marital problems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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