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Encyclopedia > Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain

Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 - July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and leader of Vichy France. He became a French hero because of his military leadership in World War I, yet he was tried and imprisoned for treason in his old age because of his collaboration with the Germans in World War II. A photo of the French WWI Hero and later Vichy President, General Philippe Pétain The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II. The Vichy position that it was the... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour (in the Pas-de-Calais département, in the north of France) in 1856. He joined the French Army in 1876 and attended the St Cyr Military Academy and the École Supérieure de Guerre (army war college) in Paris. Cauchy-à-la-Tour is a commune of the département of Pas-de-Calais, canton of Auchel, district of Béthune. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, Special Military School of St Cyr) is the foremost French military academy. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


World War I

Pétain was a distinguished veteran of World War I, and in particular the Battle of Verdun. As a result of his brilliant defence at Verdun, he became known as the "saviour of Verdun" and hailed as a French hero. Verdun became a symbol of French determination, inspired by Pétain’s declaration: "ils ne passeront pas!" (They shall not pass!) Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Battle of Verdun Conflict World War I Date 21 February 1916 – 19 December 1916 Place Verdun, France Result Stalemate They shall not pass — Robert Nivelle The Battle of Verdun was a major battle of the Western Front in World War I. The battle was fought between the German and French...


Due to his remarkable ability and high prestige, Pétain rose to be Commander-in-Chief of the French army during World War I; it could be argued that because of his successful defensive strategy, France survived the devastation of German invasion, thus led to the Allied victory in World War I. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Moreover, it was his advocacy of a defensive strategy that led, in large part, to the construction of the Maginot Line. Maginot Line fortification, 2002 The Maginot Line was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along her borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term describes either the entire system or just the...


Between the wars

Pétain emerged from the war as a national hero. He was encouraged to go into politics, and although he had little interest in running for an elected position in 1934 he was appointed to the French cabinet as Minister of War. The following year he was promoted to Secretary of State. 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department. ...


World War II and Vichy France

In the spring of 1940 France was invaded by Nazi Germany. Marshall Pétain was then appointed as Prime Minister of France and granted extraordinary powers. The constitutionality of these actions was later challenged by de Gaulle's regime, but at the time Pétain was widely accepted as France's saviour. On June 22 he signed an armistice with Germany that gave the Nazis control over the north and west of the country, including Paris, but left the rest under an "independent" government that located its capital in the resort town of Vichy. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This page is a list of French prime ministers. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Vichy is a spa and resort town in central France, near Clermont-Ferrand and was the capital of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944. ...


Again the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, constituted in "Assemblée nationale", had an emergency meeting, and voted the allowance of every power--Constitutive, Legislative, Executive and Judicial--to Marshall Pétain, so as to suspend the constitution of the Third Republic and make Pétain supreme dictator. As Pétain despised the republican form of government, mainly in the shape of the 3rd republic, which he considered to be weak and responsible for France's failure in the war, he took "Head of the State" as his only title, and abolished the positions of president and prime minister. Even though Pétain called his regime L'État français (the French State), it was never a State but only a government of fact, not of law. The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) ( 1870/ 75- 1940/ 46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys...


As leader of this dictatorial regime, a personality cult was set up and Pétain's image was spread throughout France, portraying him as a father figure to the nation (le Maréchal = "the Marshal"). Conservative factions within his government used the opportunity as an occasion to launch an ambitious program known as the "National Revolution" in which much of the former Third Republic's secular traditions were overturned in favor of the promotion of a more traditionalist, Catholic society. Pétain immediately used its new powers to order measures of suspension of republican civil servants and to intern opponents and foreign refugees. He also adopted, as early as October 1940, Hitler-inspired laws against Jewish (largely stronger laws than Mussolini's), and against "Francs-Maçons". He organized a "Legion Française des Combattants", where he included "Friends of Legion" and "Cadets of Legion" having never fought, but politically attached to serve his dictatorial regime. Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Pétain never refused any of the requests, by the Germans and his successive Deputies Pierre Laval and Admiral François Darlan, to side with the Axis Powers. Pétain even took the initiative to "collaborate" with the enemy, in an official radio speech on 30 October 1940. Pétain also never resisted pressure to deport large numbers of French Jews to German concentration camps, and his police helped German forces to arrest Jews and resistants . He provided the Axis forces with large supplies of manufactured goods and foodstuffs, and he also ordered Vichy troops in France's colonial empire to resist Allied forces everywhere (in Dakar, Syria, Madagascar, Oran and Morocco), and to receive German forces without any resistance (in Syria, Southern France and Tunisia). Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ... The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... -1...


On 11 November 1942 Germany invaded the unoccupied zone in response to the Allied Operation Torch landings in North Africa. Although Vichy France nominally remained in existence, Pétain became nothing more than a figurehead, as the Nazis abandoned the pretense of an "independent" Vichy government. On September 7, 1944 he and other members of the Vichy cabinet were moved to Sigmaringen and soon after he resigned as leader. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Template:Campaignbox North African Campaign Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November 8, 1942. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ...


Post-war trial

In April 1945 he was returned to France, where he was tried for collaboration (or treason), convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad in July-August 1945. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by Charles de Gaulle on August 17, 1945, on the grounds of his old age. He died in prison on Île d'Yeu, an island off the coast of Brittany, in 1951. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Île dYeu is the island just off Vendée where Philippe Pétain, the French wartime Vichy leader, died in 1951. ... Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Nowadays, in France, the word pétainisme suggests an authoritarian and reactionary ideology, a nostalgy of a rural, agricultural, traditionalist, Catholic society. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... A reactionary (sometimes: reactionist) is someone who seeks to restore conditions to those of a previous era. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... A society is a group of human beings distinguishable from other groups by mutual interests, characteristic relationships, shared institutions and a common culture. ...


Bibliography

  • Henri Michel, Vichy, année 40, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1967.
  • William Langer, Our Vichy gamble, Alfred Knopf, New-York, 1947.
  • Jean-Pierre Azéma et François Bedarida,Vichy et les Français, Paris, Fayard, 1996.
  • Professeur François-Georges Dreyfus, Histoire de Vichy, Éditions de Fallois, 2004.
  • Professeur Yves Maxime Danan, La vie politique à Alger, de 1940 à 1944, L.G.D.J., Paris 1963.
  • Général Albert Merglen, Novembre 1942: La grande honte, L'Harmattan, Paris 1993.

Lists of the successive Pétain governments until 1942

Pétain's First Government, 16 June - 12 July 1940

  • Philippe Pétain - President of the Council
  • Camille Chautemps - Vice President of the Council
  • Paul Baudoin - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Maxime Weygand - Minister of National Defense
  • Louis Colson - Minister of War
  • Charles Pomaret - Minister of the Interior
  • Yves Bouthillier - Minister of Finance and Commerce
  • André Février - Minister of Labour
  • Charles Frémicourt - Minister of Justice
  • François Darlan - Minister of Military and Merchant Marine
  • Bertrand Pujo - Minister of Air
  • Albert Rivaud - Minister of National Education
  • Jean Ybarnegaray - Minister of French Family and Veterans
  • Albert Chichery - Minister of Agriculture and Supply
  • Albert Rivière - Minister of Colonies
  • Ludovic-Oscar Frossard - Minister of Public Works and Transmissions

Changes June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Camille Chautemps, French politician Camille Chautemps (February 1, 1885 at Paris - July 1, 1963 at Washington, US) French Radical Politician of the Third Republic, three times Prime Minister. ... Paul Baudoin (1894-1964) was a French politician. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. Origin of Weygand Weygand was born in Brussels, Belgium. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

  • 23 June - Adrien Marquet and Pierre Laval enter the Cabinet as Ministers of State
  • 27 June 1940 - Adrien Marquet succeeds Pomaret as Minister of the Interior. André Février succeeds Frossard as Minister of Transmissions. Frossard remains Minister of Public Works. Charles Pomaret succeeds Février as Minister of Labour.

June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Pétain's Second Government, 12 July - 6 September 1940

  • Philippe Pétain - Head of State and President of the Council
  • Pierre Laval - Vice President of the Council
  • Paul Baudoin - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Maxime Weygand - Minister of National Defense
  • Louis Colson - Minister of War
  • Adrien Marquet - Minister of the Interior
  • Yves Bouthillier - Minister of Finance
  • René Belin - Minister of Industrial Production and Labour
  • Raphaël Alibert - Minister of Justice
  • François Darlan - Minister of Marine
  • Bertrand Pujo - Minister of Aviation
  • Émile Miraud - Minister of Public Instruction
  • Pierre Caziot - Minister of Agriculture and Supply
  • Henry Lémery - Minister of Colonies
  • Jean Ybarnegaray - Minister of Youth and Family
  • François Piétri - Minister of Communication

July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Paul Baudoin (1894-1964) was a French politician. ... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. Origin of Weygand Weygand was born in Brussels, Belgium. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

Pétain's Third Government, 6 September 1940 - 25 February 1941

  • Philippe Pétain - Head of State and President of the Council
  • Pierre Laval - Vice President of the Council
  • Paul Baudoin - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Charles Huntziger - Minister of National Defense
  • Marcel Peyrouton - Minister of the Interior
  • Yves Bouthillier - Minister of Finance
  • René Belin - Minister of Industrial Production and Labour
  • Raphaël Alibert - Minister of Justice
  • François Darlan - Minister of Marine
  • Jean Bergeret - Minister of Aviation
  • Georges Ripert - Minister of Public Instruction and Youth
  • Pierre Caziot - Minister of Agriculture and Supply
  • Charles Platon - Minister of Colonies
  • Jean Berthelot - Minister of Communication

Changes September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Paul Baudoin (1894-1964) was a French politician. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pierre Étienne Flandin, French politician Pierre Étienne Flandin (April 12, 1889 at Paris, France-June 13, 1958 at Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France) was a French conservative politician of the Third Republic and Prime Minister of France from November 8, 1934 to May 31, 1935. ... Paul Baudoin (1894-1964) was a French politician. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

Pétain's Fourth Ministry, 25 February - 12 August 1941

  • Philippe Pétain - Head of State and President of the Council
  • François Darlan - Vice President of the Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of the Interior, and Minister of Marine
  • Charles Huntziger - Minister of National Defense
  • Yves Bouthillier - Minister of Finance and National Economy
  • Pierre Pucheu - Minister of Industrial Production
  • René Belin - Minister of Labour
  • Joseph Barthélemy - Minister of Justice
  • Jean Bergeret - Minister of Aviation
  • Jérôme Carcopino - Minister of National Education and Youth
  • Pierre Caziot - Minister of Agriculture
  • Jean-Louis Achard - Minister of Supply
  • Charles Platon - Minister of Colonies
  • Jacques Chevalier - Minister of Family and Health
  • Jean Berthelot - Minister of Communication
  • Henri Moysset - Minister of Information

Changes February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

  • 18 July 1941 - Pierre Pucheu succeeds Darlan as Minister of the Interior. Darlan retains his other posts. François Lehideux succeeds Pucheu as Minister of Industrial Production.

July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Pétain's Fifth Government, 12 August 1941 - 18 April 1942

  • Philippe Pétain - Head of State and President of the Council
  • François Darlan - Vice President of the Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of National Defense, and Minister of Marine
  • Pierre Pucheu - Minister of the Interior
  • Yves Bouthillier - Minister of Finance and National Economy
  • François Lehideux - Minister of Industrial Production
  • René Belin - Minister of Labour
  • Joseph Barthélemy - Minister of Justice
  • Jean Bergeret - Minister of Aviation
  • Jérôme Carcopino - Minister of National Education and Youth
  • Pierre Caziot - Minister of Agriculture
  • Paul Charbin - Minister of Supply
  • Charles Platon - Minister of Colonies
  • Serge Huard - Minister of Family and Health
  • Jean Berthelot - Minister of Communication
  • Paul Marion - Minister of Information and Propaganda
  • Henri Moysset - Minister of State
  • Lucien Romier - Minister of State


August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ...

Preceded by:
Paul Reynaud
Prime Minister of France
1940–1942
Succeeded by:
Pierre Laval
Preceded by:
Albert Lebrun
(President)
Head of State
1940–1944
Succeeded by:
Charles de Gaulle
(Chairman of the Provisional Government)
Preceded by:
Albert Lebrun and Justí Guitart i Vilardebó
Co-Prince of Andorra
1940-1944
with Justí Guitart i Vilardebó (1940) and Ramon Iglesias i Navarri (1942-1944)
Succeeded by:
Charles de Gaulle and Ramon Iglesias i Navarri


Reynauds Government, 21 March - 16 June 1940 Paul Reynaud - President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Camille Chautemps - Vice President of the Council Édouard Daladier - Minister of National Defense and War Raoul Dautry - Minister of Armaments Henri Roy - Minister of the Interior Lucien Lamoureux - Minister of Finance... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (June 28, 1883 - October 15, 1945) was a French politician and thrice Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Albert Lebrun (August 29, 1871 - March 6, 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940, and as such was the last president of the Third Republic. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... Albert Lebrun (August 29, 1871 - March 6, 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940, and as such was the last president of the Third Republic. ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as le général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ...


See also

Preceded by:
Ferdinand Foch
Seat 18
Académie française
Succeeded by:
André François-Poncet

 
 

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