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Encyclopedia > Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke
A 1735 portrait of Hardwicke
A 1735 portrait of Hardwicke

Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke (December 1, 1690 - March 6, 1764), English Lord Chancellor, son of Philip Yorke, a barrister, was born at Dover. Image File history File links Philipyorke. ... Image File history File links Philipyorke. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... The legal profession in England and Wales is divided between solicitors and barristers. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ...


Through his mother, Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Gibbon of Rolvenden, Kent, be was connected with the family of Gibbon the historian. At the age of fourteen, after a not very thorough education at a private school at Bethnal Green, where, however, he showed exceptional promise, he entered an attorneys office in London. Here he gave some attention to literature and the classics as well as to law; but in the latter he made such progress that his employer, Salkeld, impressed by Yorke's powers, entered him at the Middle Temple in November 1708; and soon afterwards recommended him to Lord Chief Justice Parker (afterwards earl of Macclesfield) as law tutor to his sons. Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Bethnal Green is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, in the heart of Londons East End. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Aphorism Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Find more information on Law by searching one of Wikipedias sibling projects: Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School... The Middle Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London. ...


In 1715 he was called to the bar, where his progress was, says Lord Campbell, more rapid than that of any other debutant in the annals of our profession, his advancement being greatly furthered by the patronage of Macclesfield, who became lord chancellor in 1718, when Yorke transferred his practice from the king's bench to the court of chancery, though he continued to go on the western circuit. In the following year he established his reputation as an equity lawyer in a case in which Robert Walpole's family was interested, by an argument displaying profound learning and research concerning the jurisdiction of the chancellor, on lines which he afterwards more fully developed in a celebrated letter to Lord Kames on the distinction between law and equity. Through Macclesfield's influence with the duke of Newcastle Yorke entered parliament in 1719 as member for Lewes, and was appointed solicitor-general, with a knighthood, in 1720, although he was then a barrister of only four years standing. // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... John Campbell, 1st Baron Campbell of St Andrews (17 September 1779-1861), was a British politician and Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. ... The Right Honourable Sir Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG , GCB , PC, ( 26 August 1676–18 March 1745 ) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1592 - December 25, 1676) was an English soldier, politician and writer. ... Location within the British Isles Lewes is the county town of East Sussex, England. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


His conduct of the prosecution of Christopher Layer in that year for treason as a Jacobite further raised Sir Philip Yorkes reputation as a forensic orator; and in 1723, having already become attorney-general, he passed through the House of Commons the bill of pains and penalties against Bishop Atterbury. He was excused, on the ground of his personal friendship, from acting for the crown in the impeachment of Macclesfield in 1725, though he did not exert himself to save his patron from disgrace largely brought about by Macclesfield's partiality for Yorke himself. He soon found a new and still more influential patron in the duke of Newcastle, to whom he henceforth gave his political support. He rendered valuable service to Walpole's government by his support of the bill for prohibiting loans to foreign powers (1730), of the increase of the army (1732) and of the excise bill (1733). In 1733 Yorke was appointed lord chief justice of the king's bench, with the title of Lord Hardwicke, and was sworn of the privy council; and in 1737 he succeeded Talbot as lord chancellor, thus becoming a member of Sir Robert Walpole's cabinet. One of his first official acts was to deprive the poet Thomson of a small office conferred on him by Talbot. In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... Francis Atterbury (March 6, 1663 - February 22, 1732), was an English man of letters, politician and bishop. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol (1685 - February 14, 1737) Great Britain, was the eldest son of William Talbot, bishop of Durham, a descendant of the 1st earl of Shrewsbury. ... James Thomson (September 11, 1700 – August 27, 1748) was a Scottish poet. ...


Hardwicke's political importance was greatly increased by his removal to the House of Lords, where the incompetency of Newcastle threw on the chancellor the duty of defending the measures of the government. He resisted Carteret's motion to reduce the army in 1738, and the resolutions hostile to Spain over the affair of Captain Jenkins's ears. But when Walpole bent before the storm and declared war against Spain, Hardwicke advocated energetic measures for its conduct; and he tried to keep the peace between Newcastle and Walpole. There is no sufficient ground for Horace Walpole's charge that the fall of Sir Robert was brought about by Hardwicke's treachery. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville (April 22, 1690 - January 22, 1763), English statesman, commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was the son of George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret (1667 - 1695), by his marriage with Grace Granville (September 3, 1654 - October 18, 1744), daughter of Sir John Granville... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... This article is about Robert Jenkins the English mariner. ...


No one was more surprised than himself when he retained the chancellorship in the foilowing administration, and he resisted the proposal to indemnify witnesses against Walpole in one of his finest speeches in May 1742. He exercised a leading influence in the Wilmington Cabinet; and when Wilmington died in August 1743, it was Hardwicke who put forward Henry Pelham for the vacant office against the claims of Pulteney. For many years from this time he was the controlling power in the government. The Rt. ... The Right Honourable Henry Pelham (25 September 1694–6 March 1754) was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 14 February 1743 to his death about ten years later. ... William Pulteney (1684 - July 7, 1764) was an English politician, created Earl of Bath in 1742 by King George II. The son of William Pulteney by his first wife, Mary Floyd, he was born in April 1684 into an old Leicestershire family. ...


During the king's absences on the continent Hardwicke was left at the head of the council of regency; it thus fell to him to concert measures for dealing with the Jacobite rising in 1745. He took a just view of the crisis, and his policy for meeting it was on the whole statesmanlike. After Culloden he presided at the trial of the Scottish Jacobite peers, his conduct of which, though judicially impartial, was neither dignified nor generous; and he must be held partly responsible for the unnecessary severity meted out to the rebels, and especially for the cruel, though not illegal, executions on obsolete attainders of Charles Radcliffe and (in 1753) of Archibald Cameron. He carried, however, a great reform in 1746, of incalculable benefit to Scotland, which swept away the grave abuses of feudal power surviving in that country in the form of private heritable jurisdictions in the hands of the landed gentry. On the other hand his legislation in 1748 for disarming the Highlanders and prohibiting the use of the tartan in their dress was vexatious without being effective. Hardwicke supported Chesterfield's reform of the calendar in 1751; in 1753 his bill for legalizing the naturalization of Jews in England had to be dropped on account of the popular clamour it excited; but he successfully carried a salutary reform of the marriage law, which became the basis of all subsequent legislation on the subject. // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The Battle of Culloden (April 16, 1746), was the last military clash in mainland Britain, between the forces of the Jacobites and the British Army. ... Events January 8 - Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Stirling April 16 - Battle of Culloden brings an end to the Jacobite Risings October 22 - The College of New Jersey is founded (it becomes Princeton University in 1896) October 28 - An earthquake demolishes Lima and Callao, in Peru Catharine de Ricci (born 1522... Timeline of Scottish history Caledonia List of not fully sovereign nations Subdivisions of Scotland National parks (Scotland) Traditional music of Scotland Flower of Scotland Wars of Scottish Independence National Trust for Scotland Historic houses in Scotland Castles in Scotland Museums in Scotland Abbeys and priories in Scotland Gardens in Scotland... Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (22 September 1694 - 24 March 1773) was a British statesman and man of letters. ...


On the death of Pelham in 1754 Hardwicke obtained for Newcastle the post of prime minister, and for reward was created earl of Hardwicke and Viscount Royston; and when in November 1756 the weakness of the ministry and the threatening aspect of foreign affairs compelled Newcastle to resign, Hardwicke retired with him. He played an important and disinterested part in negotiating the coalition between Newcastle and Pitt in 1757, when he accepted a seat in Pitt's cabinet without returning to the woolsack. After the accession of George III Hardwicke opposed the ministry of Lord Bute on the peace with France in 1762, and on the cider tax in the following year. In the Wilkes case Hardwicke condemned general warrants, and also the doctrine that seditious libels published by members of parliament were protected by parliamentary privilege. He died in London on the 6th of March 1764. 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... The Right Honourable William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (15 November 1708–11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as war minister during the French and Indian War and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Woolsack is the seat of the Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to... Cider (also spelled: cyder) refers to a beverage containing the juice of apples. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


Although for a lengthy period Hardwicke was an influential minister, he was not a statesman of the first rank. On the other hand he was one of the greatest judges who ever sat on the English bench. He did not, indeed, by his three years tenure of the chief-justiceship of the kings bench leave any impress on the common law; but Lord Campbell pronounces him the most consummate judge who ever sat in the court of chancery, being distinguished not only for his rapid and satisfactory decision of the causes which came before him, but for the profound and enlightened principles which he laid down, and for perfecting English equity into a systematic science. He held the office of lord chancellor longer than any of his predecessors, with a single exception; and the same high authority quoted above asserts that as an equity judge Lord Hardwicke's fame has not been exceeded by that of any man in ancient or modern times. His decisions have been, and ever will continue to be, appealed to as fixing the limits and establishing the principles of the great juridical system called Equity, which now not only in this country and in our colonies, but over the whole extent of the United States of America, regulates property and personal rights more than the ancient common law. Hardwicke had prepared himself for this great and enduring service to English jurisprudence by study of the historical foundations of the chancellors equitable jurisdiction, combined with profound insight into legal principle, and a thorough knowledge of the Roman civil law, the principles of which he scientifically incorporated into his administration of English equity in the absence of precedents bearing on the causes submitted to his judgment. His decisions on particular points in dispute were based on general principles, which were neither so wide as to prove inapplicable to future circumstances, nor too restricted to serve as the foundation for a coherent and scientific system. His recorded judgments which, as Lord Campbell observes, certainly do come up to every idea we can form of judicial excellence combine luminous method of arrangement, with elegance and lucidity of language. This article is about concept of equity in Anglo-American jurisprudence. ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law through a philosophical lens. ... Roman Law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...


Nor was the creation of modern English equity Lord Hardwicke's only service to the administration of justice. Born within two years of the death of Judge Jeffreys his influence was powerful in obliterating the evil traditions of the judicial bench under the Stuart monarchy, and in establishing the modern conception of the duties and demeanour of English judges. While still at the bar Lord Chesterfield praised his conduct of crown prosecutions as a contrast to the former bloodhounds of the crown ; and he described Sir Philip Yorke as naturally humane, moderate and decent. On the bench he had complete control over his temper; he was always urbane and decorous and usually dignified. His exercise of legal patronage deserves unmixed praise. As a public man he was upright and, in comparison with most of his contemporaries, consistent. His domestic life was happy and virtuous. His chief fault was avarice, which perhaps makes it the more creditable that, though a colleague of Walpole, he was never suspected of corruption. But he had a keen and steady eye to his own advantage, and he was said to be jealous of all who might become his rivals for power. His manners, too, were arrogant. Lord Waldegrave said of Hardwicke that he might have been thought a great man had he been less avaricious, less proud, less unlike a gentleman. Although in his youth he contributed to The Spectator (1711) over the signature Philip Homebred, he seems early to have abandoned all care for literature, and he has been reproached by Lord Campbell and others with his neglect of art and letters. He married, on May 16, 1719, Margaret, daughter of Charles Cocks (by his wife Mary, sister of Lord Chancellor Somers), and widow of John Lygon, by whom he had five sons and two daughters. His eldest daughter, Elizabeth, married Lord Anson; and the second, Margaret, married Sir Gilbert Heathcote. Three of his younger sons attained some distinction. Charles Yorke, the second son, became like his father lord chancellor; the third, Joseph, was a diplomatist, and was created Lord Dover; while James, the fifth son, became bishop of Ely. There were a few people named George Jeffreys: George Jeffreys was an English organ composer George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys was a British politician, better known as Lord Jeffreys or Judge Jeffreys George Jeffreys founder of the Elim Pentecostal Church This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... The Spectator was a daily publication of 1711‑14, founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Charles Yorke (30 December 1722_20 January 1770) was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. ... The Bishop of Ely is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury The diocese covers the county of Cambridgeshire (with the exception of the Soke of Peterborough) and has its see in the City of Ely, Cambridgeshire, where the seat is located...


In 1939 he purchased Wimpole Hall, the greatest country house in Cambridgeshire.


Hardwicke was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Philip. Philip Yorke, 2nd Earl of Hardwicke (March 9, 1720 - May 16, 1790), and eldest son of the 1st earl, was educated at Cambridge. ...


The contemporary authorities for the life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke are voluminous, being contained in the memoirs of, the period and in numerous collections of correspondence in the British Museum. See, especially, the Hardwicke Papers; the Stowe manuscripts; Hist. manuscripts Commission (Reports 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11); Horace Walpole, Letters (ed. by P Cunningham, 9 vols., London, 1857-1859); Letters to Sir H Mann (ed. by Lord Dover, 4 vols., London, 1843 1844), Memoirs of the Reign of George II (ed. by Lord Holland, 2nd ed. revised, London, 1847); Memoirs of the Reign of George III (ed. by GFR Barker, 4 vols., London, 1894); Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors of England, Scotland and Ireland (ed. by T Park, 5 vols., London, 1806). The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum in London is the United Kingdoms - and one of the worlds - largest and most important museums of human history and culture. ...


Horace Walpole was violently hostile to Hardwicke, and his criticism, therefore, must be taken with extreme reserve. See also the earl Waldegrave, Memoirs 1754-1758 (London, 1821); Lord Chesterfield, Letter (ccl. by Lord Mahon, 5 vols., London, 1892); Richard Cooksey, Essay on John, Lord Somers, and Philip, Earl of Hardwicke (Worcester, 1791); William Coxe, Memoirs of Sir R. Walpole (4 vols., London, 1816); Memoirs of the Administration of Henry Pelham (2 vols., London, 1829); Lord Campbell, Lives of the Lord Chancellors, vol. v. (8 vols,, London, 1845); Edward Foss, The Judges of England, vols. vii. and viii. (9 vols., London, 1848-1864); George Harris, Life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke; with Selections from his Correspondence, Diaries, Speeches and Judgments (3 vols., London, 1847). William Coxe (March 17, 1747 - June 8, 1828), English historian, son of Dr William Coxe, physician to the royal household, was born in London. ... Edward Foss (October 16, 1787 - July 27, 1870) was an English lawyer and biographer. ...


References

Preceded by:
Sir William Thomson
Solicitor General for England and Wales
1720–1724
Succeeded by:
Sir Clement Wearg
Preceded by:
Sir Robert Raymond
Attorney General for England and Wales
1724–1733
Succeeded by:
Sir John Willes
Preceded by:
Sir Robert Raymond
Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench
1733–1737
Succeeded by:
Sir William Lee
Preceded by:
The Lord Talbot of Hensol
Lord Chancellor
1737–1756
Succeeded by:
In Commission


Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law. ... Her Majestys Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known as the Attorney General, is the chief legal adviser of the Crown in England and Wales. ... The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, and the presiding judge of Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, and of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. ... Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol (1685 - February 14, 1737) Great Britain, was the eldest son of William Talbot, bishop of Durham, a descendant of the 1st earl of Shrewsbury. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ...

Preceded by:
New Creation
Earl of Hardwicke Succeeded by:
Philip Yorke

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Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1634 words)
Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke (December 1, 1690 - March 6, 1764), English Lord Chancellor, son of Philip Yorke, a barrister, was born at Dover.
Hardwicke's political importance was greatly increased by his removal to the House of Lords, where the incompetency of Newcastle threw on the chancellor the duty of defending the measures of the government.
Hardwicke supported Chesterfield's reform of the calendar in 1751; in 1753 his bill for legalizing the naturalization of Jews in England had to be dropped on account of the popular clamour it excited; but he successfully carried a salutary reform of the marriage law, which became the basis of all subsequent legislation on the subject.
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