Philip Pendleton Barbour (May 25, 1783–February 25, 1841) was a Representative from Virginia and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Barbour was born at "Frascati," near Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia. He attended common and private schools and graduated from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1799. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1800 and commenced practice in Bardstown, Kentucky; in 1801 he returned to Virginia and practiced law in Gordonsville, Orange County.
Barbour was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1812 to 1814; elected as a Republican to the Thirteenth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Dawson; reelected to the Fourteenth and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from September 19, 1814, to March 3, 1825; Speaker of the House of Representatives (Seventeenth Congress); was not a candidate for renomination in 1824; offered the professorship of law in the University of Virginia in 1825, but declined; appointed a judge of the general court of Virginia and served for two years, resigning in 1827; elected to the Twentieth Congress and reelected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first Congress and served from March 4, 1827, until his resignation on October 15, 1830; chairman, U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary (Twentieth Congress); president of the Virginia constitutional convention in 1829; appointed by President Jackson, June 1, 1830, judge of the United States Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, declining the chancellorship and the post of attorney general; refused nominations for judge of the court of appeals, for Governor, and for United States Senator; appointed Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and served from May 12, 1836, until his death in Washington, DC, February 25, 1841; interment in Congressional Cemetery. His brother was James Barbour.