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Encyclopedia > Philip II of Spain
Philip II
King of Spain and Portugal, King of Napels, Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, Duke of Milan
Reign January 16, 1556September 13, 1598
Born May 21, 1527(1527-05-21)
Birthplace Valladolid, Spain
Died September 13, 1598 (aged 71)
Place of death Madrid, Spain
Predecessor Charles I of Spain (Spain)
Cardinal Henry of Portugal (Portugal)
Anthony, Prior of Crato (Portugal, disputed)
Successor Philip III of Spain
Consort Maria of Portugal
Mary I of England
Elisabeth of Valois
Anna of Austria
Issue Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias
Isabella Clara Eugenia
Catalina Micaela
Philip III of Spain
Royal House House of Habsburg
Father Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Isabella of Portugal

Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de España; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count) from 1556 until 1581, King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I) from 1580 until 1598 and King of Chile from 1554 until 1556. Philip II is considered one of the greatest sovereigns in the History of Spain. During his time the Spanish Empire led global exploration and colonial expansion across the Atlantic and the Pacific, and became for a time the foremost global power. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This image is the most famous portrait of Philip II (1527-1598), with the emblem of the Golden Fleece and holding his rosary. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of Manuel I, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 crisis (struggle for the throne of Portugal... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Maria Manuela of Portugal Maria Manuela of Portugal (pron. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Élisabeth de Valois, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 Élisabeth de Valois (April 13, 1545 – October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain Anna of Austria (Cigales, Valladolid, November 1, 1549 - Badajoz, October 26, 1580), was Queen of Spain and Portugal. ... Don Carlos (1545-1568) Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Infanta Catalina Micaela and her older sister in 1570 Catherine Michelle (Spanish:Infanta Catalina Micaela), Duchess of Savoy, was the younger daughter of King Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois, Princess of France. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Reino de Chile, also known as the Captaincy General of Chile, was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire from 1541 to 1818, the year in which it declared itself independent, converting itself into the Republic of Chile. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...

Contents

Early life and background

Philip was born in Valladolid on the 21st of May 1527 and was the only legitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, by his wife Isabella of Portugal. He was educated by Roman Catholic clergymen, whose influence shaped his policies as king. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ...


Marriage and issue

Philip's first marriage (1543) was to his cousin Princess Maria of Portugal, who bore him a son, Don Carlos (15451568). Maria died in 1545. // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Maria of Portugal (English: Mary) as a Portuguese Princess daughter of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Habsburg. ... Don Carlos (1545-1568) Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ...


Philip sought an alliance with the Kingdom of England, marrying his first cousin once removed, Queen Mary I of England. Under the terms of the marriage, Philip became king consort during the lifetime of his spouse. The marriage, unpopular with Mary's subjects, was a purely political alliance as far as Philip was concerned, though the older Mary believed it to be a passionate love-match. On January 16, 1556, Philip succeeded to the throne of Spain, as a result of his father's abdication, but he did not choose to reside in the country until his father's death two years later. After Mary died childless in 1558, Philip showed an interest in marrying her Protestant younger half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but this plan fell through for a number of reasons. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... A cousin couple is a pair of cousins with a romantic or sexual relationship. ... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


In 1559 the 60-year war with France ended with the signing of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. A key element in the peace negotiations was Philip's marriage to Princess Elisabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, who had originally been promised to Philip's son, Carlos. Philip and Carlos were never particularly close, or not at all close. When Carlos made plans to leave Spain, Philip had him imprisoned in his room. When the prince died shortly thereafter, from starving himself to death in protest, Philip's enemies accused him of having ordered Carlos's murder. Elisabeth (1545-1568) did not bear Philip a son, but did give him two daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela. January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is an agreement reached between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometres south-east of Cambrai, that ended... Élisabeth de Valois, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 Élisabeth de Valois (April 13, 1545 – October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Infanta Catalina Micaela and her older sister in 1570 Catherine Michelle (Spanish:Infanta Catalina Micaela), Duchess of Savoy, was the younger daughter of King Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois, Princess of France. ...


Philip's fourth marriage was to his niece Anna, daughter of Emperor Maximilian II, who bore him an heir, Philip III in 1578. Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain Anna of Austria (Cigales, Valladolid, November 1, 1549 - Badajoz, October 26, 1580), was Queen of Spain and Portugal. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ...



Although under his reign global expansion and trade flourished this was not necessarily a good thing because it led to inflation and a massive amount of debt.


Revolt in the Netherlands

Flag of Spain under Philip II
Flag of Spain under Philip II
Main article: Dutch Revolt

The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Oath of Abjuration of their Spanish-based king, who was also Sovereign over the Netherlands, in 1581. The Netherlands at this time had been a personal union under King Philip since the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549; he was lord of each separate Dutch Province (e.g., Duke of Guelders and Count of Holland). The rebel leader, William I, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) was outlawed by Philip, and assassinated in 1584 by a Catholic fanatic after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed William the Silent, calling him a 'pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race'. Nevertheless, the Dutch forces continued to fight on, and increasingly used their substantial naval resources to plunder Spanish ships and blockade the Spanish-controlled southern provinces. Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... The Oath of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This point meant a climax in the Dutch Revolt, a point of no return, in which the Low Countries asserted they... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was an edict, promulgated by The Emperor Charles V reorganizing the Seventeen Provinces. ... William I (William the Silent) William (I) of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent, was born in the house of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. ...


Economic troubles

Aside from draining state revenues for failed overseas adventurism, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain, and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline. However, Charles V had left Philip with a debt of 36 million ducats and a deficit of 1 million ducats a year. For one, far too much power was concentrated in Philip's hands. Spain was subject to separate assemblies: the Cortes in Castile along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which jealously guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited from the time they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions cumbersome to rule. While France was divided by regional states, it had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to a great deal of power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervention as the final arbiter. To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carried out instructions of the crown. Philip, a compulsive micro-manager, presided over specialized councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition. A distrustful sovereign, Philip played royal bureaucrats against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that would manage state affairs in a very inefficient manner, sometimes damaging state business (leading to the Perez affair - see Antonio Perez). Calls to move the capital to Lisbon from the Castilian stronghold of Madrid — the new capital Philip established following the move from Valladolid — could have perhaps led to a degree of decentralization, but Philip adamantly opposed such efforts. The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... External links Kodak Bio redirect Antonio Pérez Categories: Business bio stubs ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...


Philip's regime severely neglected farming in favor of sheep ranching, thus forcing Spain to import large amounts of grain and other foods by the mid-1560s. Presiding over a sharply divided conservative class structure, the Church and the upper classes were exempt from taxation (to be expected, considering their lack of parliamentary powers) while the tax burden fell disproportionately on the classes engaged in trade, commerce, and industry. Species See text. ...


Due to the inefficiencies of the Spanish state structure, industry was also greatly over-burdened by government regulations, though this was the common defect of all governments of the times. The dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada (motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim invasion) had serious negative economic effects, particularly in the region it affected. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ...


Inflation throughout Europe in the sixteenth century was a broad and complex phenomenon, but the flood of bullion from the Americas was the main cause of it in Spain. Under Philip's reign, Spain saw a fivefold increase in prices. Due to inflation and a high tax burden for Spanish manufacturers and merchants Spanish industry was harmed and Spain’s riches were frittered away on imported manufactured goods by an opulent, status-obsessed aristocracy and Philip's wars. Increasingly the country became dependent on the revenues flowing in from the mercantile empire in the Americas, leading to Spain's first bankruptcy (moratorium) in 1557 due to the rising costs of military efforts. Dependent on sales taxes from Castile and the Netherlands, Spain's tax base, which excluded the nobility and the wealthy church, was far too narrow to support Philip's grand plans. Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. By the end of his reign, interest payments on these loans alone accounted for 40% of state revenue. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ...


Philip becomes King of Portugal

Decada Qvarta de Asia (Fourth Decade of Asia), by Diogo Do Couto, Lisbon 1602. Written by mandate of the Invincible Monarch of Spain, Dom Felipe, King of Portugal first of this name.
Decada Qvarta de Asia (Fourth Decade of Asia), by Diogo Do Couto, Lisbon 1602. Written by mandate of the Invincible Monarch of Spain, Dom Felipe, King of Portugal first of this name.
Further information: Iberian Union

Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugal and was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... District or region Santarém Mayor   - Party António Paiva PSD Area 351. ...


In 1580, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family had ended when Sebastian of Portugal died following a disastrous campaign in Morocco. Philip spoke Portuguese mostly until his mother died. His power helped him to seize the throne, which would be kept as a personal union for sixty years. Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Sebastian I, King of Portugal the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I, pron. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ...


Philip famously remarked upon his acquisition of the Portuguese throne: "I inherited, I bought, I conquered", a variation on Julius Caesar and Veni, Vidi, Vici. Thus, Philip added to his possessions a vast colonial empire in Africa, Brazil, and the East Indies, seeing a flood of new revenues coming to the Habsburg crown; and the success of colonization all around his empire improved his financial position, enabling him to show greater aggression towards his enemies. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Veni, vidi, vici (IPA or ) is a famous Latin phrase spoken by Julius Caesar in 47 BC. The phrase appears in Plutarch and Suetonius (Plut. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives...


Turkish threat in the Mediterranean

Further information: Ottoman-Habsburg wars

In the early part of his reign, Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire...


In 1558 Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale PaÅŸa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Barbarossa Khair ad Din Pasha Barbarossa Khair ad Din Pasha (circa 1475-1546) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and privateer who served in the Ottoman Empire and in the Barbary Coast. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


In 1560 Philip II organized a Holy League between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria who had lost three major battles against the Turks in 1538, 1541 and 1552. Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ...


On March 12, 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on May 9, 1560. The battle lasted until May 14, 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. The Holy League lost 60 ships (30 galleys) and 20,000 men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria could barely escape with a small vessel. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Alvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a relief force, which drove the Ottomans, exhausted from a long siege, away from the island. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale PaÅŸa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... // Combatants Christian Alliance: Spain Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Giovanni Andrea Doria Piyale Pasha Turgut Reis Strength 50-60 galleys 40 other vessels 12,000-14,000 soldiers 90 galleys 30 galliots 20,000 soldiers Casualties 30 galleys... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... The Island of Malta The Siege of Malta was a significant military event during World War II that occurred between 1940 and 1942 on the island of Malta. ...


The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. A fleet sent by Philip, again commanded by Don John, reconquered Tunis from the Ottomans in 1573. However, the Turks soon rebuilt their fleet and in 1574 Uluç Ali Reis managed to recapture Tunis with a force of 250 galleys and a siege which lasted 40 days. However Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of complete Ottoman control of that sea. // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Ulaj Ali (also, Uluj or Uluj, in Turkish: Uluç Ali Pasha) - 16th century Muslim Ottoman admiral and privateer. ...


In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans. 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ...


War with England

Further information: Anglo-Spanish War (1585)

Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation achieved a clear boost in 1554, when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. However, they had no children; Queen Mary, or "Bloody Mary" as she came to be known in English Protestant lore, died in 1558 before the union could revitalize the Catholic Church in England. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...


The throne went to Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics, who did not recognize divorce and who claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great-granddaughter of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne. Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587 ended Philip's hopes of placing a Catholic on the English throne. He turned instead to more direct plans to return England to Catholicism by invasion. His opportunity came when England provided support for the Dutch rebels. In 1588 he sent a fleet of vessels, the Spanish Armada, to lead an invasion. The fact that the Spanish fleet had no deep bay in which it could deploy its main fleet meant that it was unable to land and was vulnerable to the smaller English ships. The absence of a backup from the troop carrying ships that were unable to link up with the Armada meant that they were isolated and open to the English fire ships and close range artillery. It was by no means a slaughter; it was a tightly fought battle, but the Spanish were caught in an awkward position and were forced back into retreat. Nonetheless, the operation had little chance of success from the beginning with huge delays, lack of communication between Philip II and his two commanders and of course the obvious lack of a deep bay. Eventually, three more Armadas were deployed; two were sent to England (1596 and 1597), both of which also failed; the third (1599) was diverted to the Azores and Canary Islands to fend off raids there. This Anglo-Spanish war (1585-1604) would be fought to a grinding end, but not until both Philip II (d. 1598) and Elizabeth I (d. 1603) were dead. Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ...


The stunning defeat of the Spanish Armada gave great heart to the Protestant cause across Europe. The storm that smashed the retreating armada was seen by many of Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Many Spaniards blamed the admiral of the armada for its failure, but Philip, despite his complaint that he had sent his ships to fight the English, not the elements, was not among them. A little over a year later, in a chat with a monk working in his garden, Philip remarked that: Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000...

"It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride, Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it."

The Spanish navy was rebuilt, and intelligence networks were improved. An example of the character of Philip II can be given by the fact that he personally saw that the wounded of the Armada were treated and received a pension, which was unusual for the time.


While the invasion had been averted, England was unable to take advantage of this success. An attempt to use her newfound advantage at sea with a counter armada the following year failed disastrously. Likewise, English buccaneering and attempts to seize territories in the Caribbean were defeated by Spain's rebuilt navy and her intelligence networks (although Cadiz was destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch force after a failed attempt to seize the treasure fleet.) The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). ...


Even though Philip was bankrupt by 1596 (for the fourth time, after France had declared war on Spain), in the last decade of his life more silver and gold were shipped safely to Spain than ever before. This allowed Spain to continue its military efforts, but led to an increased dependency on the precious metals. Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ...


War with France

From 1590 to 1598 Philip was also at war against Henry IV of France, joining with the Papacy and the Duke of Guise in the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion. Philip's interventions in the fighting - sending Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma to relieve the siege of Paris in 1590 – and again into Rouen in 1592 - to aid the Catholic faction, resulted in refortifying the French defenses. Henry IV of France was also able to use his propagandists to identify the Catholic faction with a foreign enemy (Philip and Spain). In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; this caused most French Catholics to rally to his side against the Spanish forces. In June 1595 the redoubtable French king defeated the Spanish-supported Holy League in Fontaine-Française in Burgundy and reconquered Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. The 1598 Treaty of Vervins was largely a restatement of the 1559 Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis; meanwhile, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which offered a high degree of religious toleration for French Protestants. The military intervention in France thus ended in a disappointing fashion for Philip, as it failed to either oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France. However, the conversion of Henry ensured that Catholicism would remain France's majority faith. Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 - 1592) was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V. Thus Alessandro was the nephew of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria. ... This article is about the Italian city. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2, 1598. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Legacy

Statue of Philip II at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (F. Castro, 1753).
Statue of Philip II at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (F. Castro, 1753).

Under Philip II Spain reached the peak of its power but also met its limits. Having nearly reconquered the rebellious Netherlands, Philip's unyielding attitude led to their loss, this time permanently, as his wars expanded in scope and complexity. So in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. Early in his reign the Dutch might have laid down their weapons if he had desisted in trying to suppress Protestantism, but his devotion to Roman Catholicism and the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, as laid down by his father, would not permit him. He was a fervent Roman Catholic, and exhibited the typical 16th century disdain for religious heterodoxy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 289 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (494 × 1024 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Philip II of Spain (1527–1598) at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (Spain). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 289 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (494 × 1024 pixel, file size: 345 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Philip II of Spain (1527–1598) at the Sabatini Gardens in Madrid (Spain). ... Sabatini Gardens, ca. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...


One of the long term consequences of his striving to enforce Catholic orthodoxy through an intensification of the Inquisition was the gradual smothering of Spain's intellectual life. Students were barred from studying elsewhere and books printed by Spaniards outside the kingdom were banned. Even a highly respected churchman like Archbishop Carranza, was jailed by the Inquisition for seventeen years merely for ideas that seemed sympathetic in some degree to Protestant reformism. Such strict enforcement of orthodox belief was successful and Spain avoided the religiously inspired strife tearing apart other European dominions, but this came at a heavy price in the long run, as her great academic institutions were reduced to third rate status under Philip's successors.


Philip's wars against what he perceived to be heresies led not only to the persecution of Protestants, but also to the harsh treatment of the Moriscos, causing a massive local uprising in 1568. The damage of these endless wars would ultimately undermine the Spanish Habsburg empire after his passing. His endless meddling in details, his inability to prioritise, and his failure to effectively delegate authority hamstrung his government and led to the creation of a cumbersome and overly centralised bureaucracy. Under the weak leadership of his successors the Spanish ship of state would drift towards disaster. Yet such was the strength of the system he and his father had built that this did not start to become clearly apparent until a generation after his death. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ...


However, Philip II's reign can hardly be characterized as a failure. He consolidated Spain's overseas empire, succeeded in massively increasing the importation of silver in the face of English, Dutch and French privateering, and ended the major threat posed to Europe by the Ottoman navy (though peripheral clashes would be ongoing). He succeeded in uniting Portugal and Spain through personal union. He dealt successfully with a crisis that could have led to the secession of Aragon. His efforts also contributed substantially to the success of the Catholic Counter-Reformation in checking the religious tide of Protestantism in Northern Europe. Philip was a complex man, and though given to suspicion of members of his court, was not the cruel tyrant that he has been painted by his opponents. Philip was known to intervene personally on behalf of the humblest of his subjects. Above all a man of duty, he was also trapped by it. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


Anglo-American societies have generally held a very low opinion of Philip II. The traditional approach is perhaps epitomized by James Johonnot's Ten Great Events in History, in which he describes Philip II as a "vain, bigoted, and ambitious" monarch who "had no scruples in regard to means... placed freedom of thought under a ban, and put an end to the intellectual progress of the country" [1] Spanish apologists generally classify this analysis as part of the Black Legend. James Johonnot (1823-1888) was a historian and scientist, with links to Japan. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ...


The defense of the Roman Catholic Church and the defeat and destruction of the Protestantism was one of his most important goals. He didn't totally accomplish this; England broke with Rome after the death of Mary, the Holy Roman Empire remained partly Protestant and the revolt in Holland continued. Nevertheless, he prevented Protestantism from gaining a grip in Spain and Portugal and the colonies in the New World, successfully reimposed Catholicism in the reconquered southern half of the Low Countries and forced the French monarchy to abandon Protestantism. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


Philip II died in 1598 due to an unspecified type of cancer in El Escorial, (near Madrid) and was succeeded by his son, King Philip III. He is remembered in the name of The Philippines, a former Spanish colony. Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Ancestors

House of Habsburg
Spanish line

Emperor Charles V
(King Charles I)
Children
   Philip II of Spain
   Maria, Holy Roman Empress
   Joan of Spain
   Don John (illegitimate)
   Margaret of Parma (illegitimate)
Philip II
Children include
   Carlos, Prince of Asturias
   Isabella of Spain
   Catherine, Duchess of Savoy
   Philip III of Spain
Philip III
Children include
   Anne, Queen of France
   Philip IV of Spain
   Maria Ana, Holy Roman Empress
   Infante Carlos
   Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Philip IV
Children include
   Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias
   Maria Theresa, Queen of France
   Margaret, Holy Roman Empress
   Charles II of Spain
Charles II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Eleanor of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Philip I of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Charles, Duke of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Mary of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Isabella of Bourbon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. John II of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Ferdinand II of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Juana Enriquez
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Joanna of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. John II of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Isabella of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Isabel of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Philip II of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Edward of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Leonor of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Manuel I of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Infante João, Lord of Reguengos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Beatriz of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Ferdinand I of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Isabella of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. John II of Aragon (= 20)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Ferdinand II of Aragon (= 10)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Juana Enriquez (= 21)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Maria of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. John II of Castile (= 22)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Isabella of Castile (= 11)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Isabel of Portugal (= 23)
 
 
 
 
 
 

During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (854 × 1397 pixel, file size: 403 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{Information File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Philip II of Spain Philip... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Maria of Spain (Madrid, June 21, 1528 - Villa Monte, February 26, 1603) was the oldest daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. ... Joan of Habsburg Joanna of Austria (in Castilian, Juana, 24 June 1535 - 7 September 1573), Infanta of Spain, of the Habsburg family. ... Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan De Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was the illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and a military leader whose most famous victory was at the Battle of Lepanto. ... Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 - 18 January 1586), duchess of Parma and regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567, was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V. Her mother, Johanna Maria von der Gheest, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming. ... Don Carlos (1545-1568) Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Catherine Micaela of Spain was the daughter of King Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth of Valois, Princess of France. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Louis XIII by Philippe de Champaigne Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain. ... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ... Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/16101 in Escorial near Madrid, Spain - 9 November 1641 in Brussels) (also known as Fernando and as Ferdinand von Österreich), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Cardinal, Infante of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo (1619-41), and commander during the Thirty Years War... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... The Prince Baltasar Carlos by Velazquez, 1635 Balthasar Charles of Spain, Prince of Asturias and Portugal (Spanish:Baltasar Carlos; Portuguese:Baltazar Carlos) was the eldest son of King Philip IV of Spain and III of Portugal and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bourbon. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... Margaret of Spain in Mourning Dress 1666 by Juan Bautista Martinez del Mazo. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Leonor of Portugal by a disciple of Hans Burgkmair the Elder Eleanor of Portugal (pron. ... Philip the Handsome redirects here. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ... Mary of Burgundy. ... Isabelle de Bourbon ( 1436 - 1465) was a daughter of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes de Bourgogne. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... John II the Great (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was the King of Aragon (1458–1479) and a King of Navarre (1425–1479). ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Juana Enriquez was John II of Aragons second wife. ... Joanna of Aragon and Castile (Spanish: ) (November 6, 1479 – April 12, 1555), called Joan the Mad (Juana La Loca), Queen regnant of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the second daughter of Ferdinand, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen regnant of Castile, and was born... Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu Ferdinand, Prince of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1433–, Portuguese: Fernando, pron. ... Eleanor of Aragon was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... John of Portugal (Portuguese: João, pron. ... Beatrice of Portugal, in Portuguese Beatriz (pron. ... Fernando I (pron. ... Isabella of Portugal (1503 - 1539) was princess of Portugal. ... John II the Great (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was the King of Aragon (1458–1479) and a King of Navarre (1425–1479). ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Juana Enriquez was John II of Aragons second wife. ... Mary of Aragon or Mary of Spain or even Mary of Castile (June 29, 1482-March 7, 1517) was an Aragonese princess, second wife of Portuguese King Manuel I and because of that queen consort of Portugal from 1500 until her death. ... Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Philip in fiction

Philip II is a central character in Friedrich Schiller's play Don Carlos and Giuseppe Verdi's operatic adaption of the same. He is depicted more sympathetically in the opera than in the play. Philip II is one of the greatest roles for bass in opera and Verdi composed one of his greatest arias, "Ella giammai m'amó!", for the character. Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... A dramatic play by Friedrich Schiller, on the basis of which several operas have been composed: 1844 opera by Michael Costa (libretto Leopold Tarentini, London) 1847 opera by Pasquale Bona (libretto Giorgio Giacchetti, Milan) 1850 opera by Antonio Buzzola (libretto Francesco Maria Piave, Venice) 1862 opera by Vincenzo Moscuzza (libretto... “Verdi” redirects here. ... This article refers to the opera Don Carlos by Giuseppe Verdi (and its revised Italian version, known as Don Carlo). ...


Charles de Coster's 1867 The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak, considered a masterpiece of 19th Century Belgian literature, depicts the Dutch War of Independence in an extremely partisan manner, though it was an event nearly three centuries old at the time of writing. Accordingly, Philip II is depicted as a total caricature, a vicious moron with not the slightest redeeming feature - a depiction seemingly drawing on hostile Dutch and other Protestant sources of Philip's own time. Charles-Theodore-Henri De Coster (20 August 1827 - 7 May 1879) was a Belgian novelist whose efforts laid the basis for a native Belgian literature. ... The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak (full French title La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses dUlenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs) is an 1867 novel by Charles De Coster. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country. ...


Philip II is played by Jordi Molla in Shekhar Kapur's 2007 film Elizabeth: The Golden Age. He also appears in the opening scene of the 1940 adventure film The Sea Hawk and is played by Montagu Love. Philip's marriage to Elisabeth and the subsequent episode with his son are strongly alluded to in Lope de Vega's Castigo sin venganza (1631). Jordi Mollá is an actor, film maker and artist represented by Carmen De la Guerra Gallery in Madrid and Cold Creation Gallery in Barcelona. ... Shekhar Kapur, born 6 December 1945 is a renowned film director and producer from India. ... The Golden Age is the movie sequel to the film Elizabeth, starring Cate Blanchett. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1940s paperback edition The Sea Hawk is a novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1915. ... Montagu Love, also known as Montague Love (15 March 1877 - 17 May 1943) was an English screen, stage and vaudeville actor. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ...


A good novelised account of Philip's personal life and character appears in The Spanish Bridegroom by Jean Plaidy. The plot of Carlos Fuentes's 1975 novel, Terra Nostra, revolves around the construction of Philip II's monastery/palace of San Lorenzo de El Escorial in the Sierra de Guadarrama near Madrid. Philip II also appears in Actus Fidei, a play by Steven Breese which premiered at Christopher Newport University in 2007. Eleanor Alice Burford (September 01, 1906 - January 08, 1993), Mrs. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Christopher Newport University, locally abbreviated as CNU, is a small liberal arts university located in Newport News, Virginia. ...


In Philippa Gregory's The Queen's Fool, a historical novel set in the court of Mary I of England, Philip - Mary's consort at the time - is depicted as completely captivated by the seductive Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth I) even though "as a brilliant statesman and diplomat, he was well-aware that this fascination with his wife's sister was harmful to his political interests" as the book puts it. Philippa Gregory (born 9 January 1954) is a British novelist, mainly associated with the historical fiction genre. ... The Queens Fool by Philippa Gregory is a 2004 historical fiction novel aimed at young adults. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


In Harry Turtledove's alternate history novel Ruled Britannia, in which the Spanish Armada succeeded in its effort to conquer England, Shakespeare is engaged by the victorious Spanish to write a play glorifying King Philip. Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Ruled Britannia is an alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove, published in 2002. ... Armada may refer to: Armada Española, the Spanish Navy. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...


A verse in G.K. Chesterton's Lepanto speaks of Philip engaging in a strange alchemical ritual. Naupactus is also a scientific name, see Naupactus (beetle) Nafpaktos, Latin: Naupactus or Naupactos (Italian, Lepanto; modern Greek, Ναύπακτος, rarely Epakto), is a town in the nomarchy of Acarnania and Aetolia, Greece, situated on a bay on the north side of the straits of Lepanto. ...


See also

// The Spanish-Portuguese empire in the period of personal union under the Habsburgs (1581-1640) Red/Pink - Spanish Empire Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire The phrase The Empire on which the sun never sets (Spanish: ) was first used to describe the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, and originates with...

References

  • Collin, Martin; Geoffrey Parker (2002). The Spanish Armada. Manchester University Press. ISBN 1-901341-14-3. 

See also

Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, the Patriot, or...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
Born: 21 May 1527 Died: 13 September 1598
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles V
Ruler of the Seventeen Provinces of the Spanish Netherlands
Losing the provinces of Groningen and Ommelanden, Friesland, Overijssel, Lower Guelders and Zutphen, Holland, and Zeeland to the United Provinces after 26 July 1581

16 January 1556-6 May 1598
Succeeded by
Infanta Isabella of Spain and Archduke Albert of Austria
as Co-sovereigns of the Spanish Netherlands
(Titular Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant, Upper Guelders, Limburg, Lothier, Luxembourg, Count of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Hainaut and Namur)
Succeeded by
United Provinces
as sovereign ruler of Groningen and Ommelanden, Friesland, Overijssel, Lower Guelders and Zutphen, Holland, and Zeeland
King of Naples
1554 – 1598
Succeeded by
Philip III of Spain
II of Portugal
King of Spain
1556 – 1598
Preceded by
Anthony
King of Portugal and the Algarves
1581 – 1598
Spanish royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles
Prince of Asturias
1527 – 1556
Succeeded by
Prince Carlos
English royalty
Preceded by
Lord Guilford Dudley
King consort of England
1554 – 1558
Succeeded by
Anne of Denmark
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Groningen can refer to: A province of the Netherlands. ... The ommelanden (In English: surrounding lands) are the parts of the province Groningen, that surround the city Groningen. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... Guelders (Dutch Gelre, German Geldern) is the name of a historical duchy in the Low Countries. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... The Counts of Holland ruled over the county of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Albert and his wife Isabella Archduke Albert Ernst of Austria, Duke of Luxembourg etc (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was appointed for the Spanish monarchy as Governor of the Low Countries in 1595, and from 1598 became joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces with his wife, Infanta Isabella Clara... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Coat of arms of Dukes of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. ... Guelders (Dutch Gelre, German Geldern) is the name of a historical duchy in the Low Countries. ... The title Duke of Brabant was created when the counts of Leuven acquired the duchy of Lower Lorraine after the death of Godfrey of Bouillon. ... The Duchy of Lower Lorraine encompassed part of modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands. ... Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg For other uses of Luxembourg see Luxembourg (disambiguation) The lordship of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and granddukes. ... The County of Artois was a Carolingian county, established by the counts Odalric and Ecfrid of Artois, then integrated into the County of Flanders, first by Baldwin II of Flanders around 898, then by Arnulf I of Flanders. ... This is a list of the counts of Burgundy from 867 to 1678. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... The following is a list of Marquis or Margraves of Namur. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Groningen can refer to: A province of the Netherlands. ... The ommelanden (In English: surrounding lands) are the parts of the province Groningen, that surround the city Groningen. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... Guelders (Dutch Gelre, German Geldern) is the name of a historical duchy in the Low Countries. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... The Counts of Holland ruled over the county of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António) (Lisbon, 1531 – Paris, August 26, 1595), known by The Prior of Crato (and, rarely, as The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of Manuel I, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 crisis (struggle for the throne of Portugal... This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, the Patriot, or... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... HRH The Prince of Asturias The title Prince of Asturias is given to the heir apparent to the Spanish throne, and the earlier kingdom of León. ... Don Carlos (1545-1568) Don Carlos (July 8, 1545 – July 24, 1568), Prince of Asturias was the son of King Philip II of Spain by his first wife Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Guilford Dudley (1536 - 12 February 1554) was a son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and Jane Guilford; and the younger brother of Robert Dudley, the future earl of Leicester. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1654 × 1654 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... King Louis of Spain ( August 25, 1707 - August 31, 1724) ruled less than one year between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favor, and his death from smallpox, both in 1724. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 – August 10, 1759), King of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23, 1713. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Amadeo I (Italian Amedeo, sometimes Latinized as Amadeus) (May 30, 1845 – January 18, 1890) was the 1st Duke of Aosta and King of Spain Biography Amadeo dAosta was born in Turin, Italy. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, the Patriot, or... The House of Burgundy (or Afonsine House) was the first dynasty of Kings of Portugal. ... Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... Sancho I, King of Portugal (pron. ... Afonso II of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), known as the Fat (Port. ... Sancho II of Portugal, the Pious (Port. ... Afonso III of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Dinis of Portugal (in archaic Portuguese Diniz; in English Denis), the Farmer (Port. ... Afonso IV of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin), (February 8, 1291 – May 28, 1357), known as the Brave (Port. ... Pedro I of Portugal (pron. ... Fernando I (pron. ... Infanta Beatrice of Portugal, Beatriz in Portuguese (pron. ... The House of Aviz is a dynasty of kings of Portugal. ... Joao I KG (Portugues: João, IPA pron. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Afonso V of Portugal, Conqueror of African strongholds Afonso V, King of Portugal KG (Portuguese pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Afonso V of Portugal, Conqueror of African strongholds Afonso V, King of Portugal KG (Portuguese pron. ... John II of Portugal João II of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... The House of Aviz is a dynasty of kings of Portugal. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Sebastian I, King of Portugal the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I, pron. ... Henry, the cardinal-king or Henrique (in Portuguese) the Chaste (Port. ... Anthony I of Portugal (Portuguese: António, pron. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... The Royal House of Braganza (Portuguese: Casa Real de Bragança, pron. ... John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal pron. ... Afonso VI, King of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Peter II (Portuguese Pedro, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Maria I of Portugal (pron. ... Pedro III, King-consort of Portugal (pron. ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Maria II, Queen of Portugal, (pron. ... Miguel I, King of Portugal/pron. ... Maria II, Queen of Portugal, (pron. ... Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (October 29, 1816 - December 15, 1885) was king consort to Maria II of Portugal from their marriage in 1836 to her death in 1853. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Pedro V, King of Portugal KG (pron. ... Luís I, King of Portugal KG (pron. ... Carlos I, King of Portugal KG pron. ... King Manuel II (r: 1908–1910) Manuel II, King of Portugal KG GCVO (pron. ... Prince George of Denmark Prince George of Denmark (April 2, 1653 - October 28, 1708) was the Prince consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Guilford Dudley (1536 - 12 February 1554) was a son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and Jane Guilford; and the younger brother of Robert Dudley, the future earl of Leicester. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Catherine Parr or Jane Grey Catherine Parr (c. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Cathrine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard[1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Joanna of Navarre (1370? - 1437) was the daughter of Charles the Bad, King of Navarre. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Anne of Bohemia Anne of Bohemia (1366 - 1394) was the daughter of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Pomerania. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Marguerite of France (1282 – 14 February 1317) was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... // March 1 - The University of Coimbra is founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moves to Coimbra in 1308. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation). ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (right) and John sans Terre Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (Godefroi) (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy by marriage, called Le Bel (The Fair), Martel (The Hammer) or Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) was queen consort of England from 1121 to 1135, the second wife of King Henry I of England. ... Events Concordat of Worms condemns Pierre Abélards writings on the Holy Trinity. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ...

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Luminarium Encyclopedia: Philip II, King of Spain (1527-1598) (1355 words)
PHILIP II, King of Spain, was born at Valladolid on the 21st of May 1527.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance — the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
If Philip II had deserved his name of the Prudent he would have made haste, so soon as his father, who continued to intervene in the government from his retreat at Yuste in Estremadura, was dead, to relieve himself of the ruinous inheritance of the Low Countries.
Philip II (of Spain) - MSN Encarta (552 words)
Philip II (of Spain) (1527-98), Habsburg king of Spain (1556-98), who ruled the country at the height of its power and influence and used that power in the service of the Roman Catholic church and the Counter Reformation.
Philip was born in Valladolid on May 21, 1527, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal and was educated by Roman Catholic clergymen, whose influence shaped his policies as king.
Shortly after Philip's accession, the Spanish forces were victorious over the French at the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558), and the 60-year war with France was concluded by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which was highly favorable to Spain (see Cateau-Cambrésis, Treaty of).
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