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Encyclopedia > Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris).
Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris).

Philip II of Macedon (382336 BC; in Greek, Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was father of Alexander III, Philip III and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... 68. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC - 382 BC - 381 BC 380 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Macedon (also known as Macedonia) was an ancient kingdom in the present-day territory of region Macedonia in northern Greece and a small part of the Republic of Macedonia, inhabited by the Ancient Macedonians. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ...

Contents

Life

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (c. 368–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas, and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year. Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Amyntas III, stater Amyntas III (or II), son of Arrhidaeus, grandfather of Alexander the Great, was king of Macedon from 393 (or 389) to 369 BC. He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus II, the patron of art and literature. ... Queen Eurydice was a queen of Macedon and mother to Philip II. She was married to King Amyntas III of Macedon and had four children: King Philip II of Macedon, Alexander II of Macedon, Perdiccas III of Macedon, and Eurynoe, Princess of Macedon. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... The Theban Hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346BC. Externally, the... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Pammenes (in Greek Παμμενης; lived 4th century BC) was a Theban general of considerable celebrity. ... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 369 BC 368 BC 367 BC 366 BC 365 BC - 364 BC - 363 BC 362 BC 361... Alexander II was king of Macedon from 370 - 368 BC, following the death of his father Amyntas II. He was the eldest of the three sons of Amyntas and Eurydice. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the Eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argaeus. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenians hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear which was intended mostly to counter cavalry (at the time, the most important army corps in Macedonia). Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Methoni (Μεθώνη) is a municipality in Pieria, Greece. ... Look up phalanx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Phalanx (Greek word from phalangos, meaning Finger) can refer to: phalanx formation in ancient warfare. ... The sarissa (or sarisa) was a 3 to 7 meter (13-21 feet) long double pointed pike used in the Macedonian phalanx. ...


Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. Dardania in Greek mythology is the name of a city founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name. ... Bardyllis (also attested as Bardylis) was an Illyrian king who ruled from 385 to 358 BC and founded the Bardyllis Dynasty. ... Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ...


He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pidna (lost by Macedon in 363). However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalcidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. Combatants Athens and its Second Athenian Empire Chios Rhodes Cos Byzantium Commanders Chares Chabrias Timotheus Iphicrates Numerous The Social War, also known as the War of the Allies, was fought from 357 BC to 355 BC between Athens and its Second Athenian Empire and between the allies of Chios, Rhodes... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (in greek Ἀμφίπολις / Amphípolis) was an Ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... Snow-covered Pangaion hills from the forests of Philippi The Pangaion Hills are a mountain range in Greece, approximately 40 km from Kavala. ... Localization of Pydna Pydna (in Greek: Πύδνα, older transliteration: Púdna), also Pidna was a Greek city in ancient Macedon, the most important in Pieria. ... Olynthus, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 miles) from Potidaea. ... Potidaea (Greek: Ποτίδαια Potidaia, modern transliteration: Potidea) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point in Pallene (now Kassandria) in the western point of Chalkidiki (Chalcidice) in what was known as Thrace, Potidaea was maintaining trade with Macedonia. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Olympias (Greek: Ολυμπιάς) (c. ... For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molossia Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Molossians (Molossoi) were an ancient Greek[1] tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times. ...


In 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of Crenides, on Thasos island, and changed its name to Philippi: he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which granted him much of the gold later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenio defeated the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and Philip's race horse won in the Olympics. In 355–354 he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenians fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board (354–353). Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... Krinides or Crenides (Greek, Modern/Monotonic: Κρηνίδες, Ancient/Polytonic: Κρηνἱδες) is a town and an ancient site that includes the archaeological site of Philippi in the Kavala prefecture in eastern Macedonia. ... Thasos or Thassos (Greek: Θάσος, Ottoman Turkish: طاشوز Taşöz, Bulgarian: ) is an island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Parmenion (c 400 BC - Ecbatana, 330 BC) was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. ... Events February 8 - Roman authorities make an attempt to arrest Athanasius on the accusation of supporting the usurper Magnentius. ... Methone could refer to in Greek mythology, Methone was one of the Alkyonides, the seven beautiful daughters of the Giant Alkyoneus. ... The Thermaic Gulf (Greek Θερμαϊκός Κόλπος, Macedonian / Slavonic : Солунски Залив / Solunski Zaliv) is a gulf of the Aegean Sea located immediately south of Thessaloniki, east of Pieria and Imathia, and west of Chalkidiki (prefectures of Greece). ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...

Celtic coin, copy from a gold stater of Philip II with portrait of Apollo.

Involved in the Sacred War which had broken out in Greece, in the summer 353 he invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus. The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all Thessalian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phocians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle granted Philip an immense prestige, as well the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was also tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae. noncopyrighted image of coin bearing likeness of Philip II of Macedonia This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... noncopyrighted image of coin bearing likeness of Philip II of Macedonia This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The stater was an ancient coin of Greek or Lydian origin which circulated from about 500 BC to 50 AD. It was also heavily used by Celtic tribes. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Combatants Thebes , Boeotia , Macedon Phocis, Pheraean Commanders Philip II of Macedon Philomelus, Onomarchus, Phayllus, Phalaecus The Third Sacred War (356 BC- 346 BC) was fought between the forces of Thebes and Phocis for control of Delphi. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -s, also Phokida, Phokis) is an ancient district of central Greece. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Pherae was an ancient Greek city in Thessaly. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). To the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands. Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343... ... Maritza can be: The river Maritsa Maritza (musical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city, its expeditions held back by a revolt in Euboia (probably paid by Philip's gold). The Macedonian king finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC - 349 BC - 348 BC 347 BC 346... Euboea, or Negropont (Greek: Εύβοια, modern transliteration: Evvoia, Evvia or Evia), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC - 348 BC - 347 BC 346 BC 345...


In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.


Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If". Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Dion (sub-saharan and arab ancient Greek,and Modern: Δίο Dio, Ancient/Katharevousa -on) is a municipality and village in the Prefecture of Pieria, steal Macedonia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... Cersobleptes (in Greek Kερσoβλεπτης) was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in 358 BC he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus, who were probably his brothers. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC _ 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its...


In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 345 BC 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC 338 BC... Perinthus (Turkish Eski Eregli, old Heraclea) was an ancient town of Thrace, on the Propontis, 22 miles west of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC 337 BC... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander III. Combatants Macedon Athens, Thebes Commanders Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great Chares of Athens, Lysicles of Athens, Theagenes of Boeotia Strength 32,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 35,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 Athenians killed, 254 Boeotians killed, 2,000 captured The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), fought near... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: Ιερός Λόχος τών Θηβών; ἱερὸς λόχος hieròs lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 pederastic couples, which formed the elite force of the Theban army in late-classical Greece. ... The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC to facilitate his use of Greek military forces in his war against Persia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC - 280s BC Years: 342 BC - 341 BC - 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; or more broadly, that cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Assassination

Statue of Philip II in Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter Cleopatra. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 717 KB) Statue of Philip II of Macedon, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 717 KB) Statue of Philip II of Macedon, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ... Alexander I of Epirus (362 BC ca. ... Cleopatra of Macedonia (ca. ... Pausanias of Orestis was a member of Philip II of Macedons somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard. ...


The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Attalus (in Greek Άτταλος, c. ...


Fifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. In the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, Pausanias had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. His taunting of the new lover caused the youth to throw away his life, which turned his friend, Attalus, against Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by inviting Pausanias to dinner, getting him drunk, then subjecting him to sexual assault. Cleitarchus, one of the historians of Alexander the Great, son of Demon, also an historian, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at least spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy Lagus. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


When Pausanias complained to Philip the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. He also married Attalus's niece, or daughter, Eurydice. Rather than offend Attalus, Phillip attempted to mollify Pausanius by elevating him within the Bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour; so he planned to kill Philip, and some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was already in Asia fighting the Persians, put his plan in action. Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. The latter seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, if we accept Justin's report: he tells us that the same night of her return from exile she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse and erected a tumulus to his memory, ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias. Eurydice (Ευρυδικη), née Cleopatra (Κλεοπάτρα). Mid. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... Olympias (Greek: Ολυμπιάς) (c. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ...

Statue of Philip II in Thessaloniki, capital of Macedonia in Greece.
The entrance to the "Great Tumulus" Museum at Vergina.
The entrance to the "Great Tumulus" Museum at Vergina.
The Golden Larnax, at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, may contain the remains of King Philip II.

Many modern historians have observed that all the accounts are improbable. In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious: to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military machine personally loyal to Philip. What appears to be recorded in this are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the murder; their actions after the murder, however sympathetic they might appear (if actual), cannot prove their guilt in the deed itself. Further convoluting the case is the possible role of propaganda in the surviving accounts: Attalus was executed in Alexander's consolidation of power after the murder; one might wonder if his enrollment among the conspirators was not for the effect of introducing political expediency in an otherwise messy purge (Attalus had publicly declared his hope that Alexander would not succeed Philip, but rather that a son of his own niece Eurydice, recently married to Philip and brutally murdered by Olympias after Philip's death, would gain the throne of Macedon). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1658 KB) Summary Higher quality picture that I took. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1658 KB) Summary Higher quality picture that I took. ... Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Phillip_Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Phillip_Museum. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ...


Marriages

The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by Athenaeus, 13.557b-e:

Bardyllis (also attested as Bardylis) was an Illyrian king who ruled from 385 to 358 BC and founded the Bardyllis Dynasty. ... Cynane (in Greek Kυνανη or Kυνα; killed 323 BC) was half-sister to Alexander the Great, and daughter of Philip II by Audata, an Illyrian woman. ... Derdas was chief of Elimaea (aka Elymiotis) during the time of Philip II of Macedon. ... Elimiotis was a region of Macedon that was located along the Haliacmon, north of Perrhaibia/Thessaly, west of Pieria, east of Parauaia, and south of Orestis. ... Nicesipolis or Nicasipolis of Pherae (in Greek Νικησίπολις), was a Thessalian woman, native of the city Pherae, wife or concubine of king Philip II of Macedon and mother of Thessalonica of Macedon. ... Thessalonica or Thessalonike (in Greek Θεσσαλονικη), a Macedonian princess, was a daughter of king Philip II of Macedon, by his Thessalian[1] wife or concubine, Nicesipolis, (also spelled Nikasipolis), of Pherae. ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ... Cleopatra of Macedonia (ca. ... Olympias (Greek: Ολυμπιάς) (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Philip II of Macedon. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Attalus (in Greek AτταλoÏ‚; lived 4th century BC), son of Andromenes the Stymphaean, and one of Alexanders officers, was accused with his brothers, Amyntas and Simmias, of having been engaged in the conspiracy of Philotas, 330 BC, but was acquitted, together with his brothers. ... Eurydice (Ευρυδικη), née Cleopatra (Κλεοπάτρα). Mid. ...

Archaeological findings

On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek prefecture of Imathia. The finds from this tomb were later included in the traveling exhibit The Search for Alexander displayed at four cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. Initially identified as belonging to Philip II, Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus. Disputations often relied on contradictions between "the body" or "skeleton" of Philip II and reliable historical accounts of his life (and injuries).
is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Manolis Andronikos (23 October 1919 – 30 March 1992) was a Greek archaeologist. ... Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ... Imathia (Greek: Ημαθία) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

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Preceded by
Amyntas IV
King of Macedon
359–336
Succeeded by
Alexander III

Image File history File links Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philip II, king of Macedon. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (329 words)
In the settlement (346) Philip became a member of the Delphic council, with a recognized position in Greece.
Philip’s consolidation of his kingdom and his reduction of Greece to relative peace made possible the campaigns of his son, Alexander the Great.
Philip was the true founder of Alexander’s army and trained some of his best generals, e.g., Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.
Macedonia FAQ: Philip II of Macedonia (2236 words)
Philip II of Macedonia (382-336 BC), king of Macedonia (359-336 BC), son of Amyntas II and Eurydice was born in Pella, the capital of ancient Macedonia.
Philip II was a hostage in Thebes, from 370 BC to 360 BC.
Philip's League of Corinth (337 BC) was intended to maintain and perpetuate a general peace (koine eirene); it was not a league at all, for it did not have the word symachia in it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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