FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Philip Glass

Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. He is considered one of the most influential composers of the late-20th century[1][2][3][4][5] and is widely acknowledged as a composer who has brought art music to the public (apart from precursors such as Kurt Weill and Leonard Bernstein), in creating an accessibility not previously recognized by the broader market. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ...


Glass's music is frequently described as minimalist, though he has distanced himself from that description, calling himself, among other things, a composer of "music with repetitive structures." [6] Though his earliest music could arguably be called minimalist, his later style has evolved significantly enough that the label is probably inappropriate for many of his works.[7] [8] For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about a musical style. ...


Glass is extremely prolific as a composer: he has written ensemble works, operas, symphonies, concertos, film scores, and solo works. Glass counts many visual artists, writers, musicians, and directors among his friends, including Richard Serra, Chuck Close, Doris Lessing, Allen Ginsberg, Robert Wilson, John Moran, actor Bill Treacher, Godfrey Reggio, Ravi Shankar, Linda Ronstadt, David Bowie, the conductor Dennis Russell Davies, and electronic musician Aphex Twin, who have all collaborated with him. Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born 2 November 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Chuck Close (born Charles Thomas Close July 5, 1940, Monroe, Wisconsin) is an American photorealistic painter and photographer. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Persia (now Iran),[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Robert Wilson (born 4 October 1941) is an internationally acclaimed American avant-garde stage director and playwright who has been called [America]s — or even the worlds — foremost vanguard theater artist [1]. Over the course of his wide-ranging career, he has also worked as a choreographer, performer, painter... John Moran is an American composer, author and choreographer. ... Bill as Arthur (EastEnders 1985) Bill Treacher (born 4 June 1930 in London) is a British actor. ... Polaroid by Michael Dare Godfrey Reggio (born March 29, 1940) is an American director of experimental documentary films. ... Pandit Ravi Shankar, Sitar Maestro © www. ... Linda Marie Ronstadt (born July 15, 1946 in Tucson, Arizona) is a popular vocalist with multiple Grammy Awards, numerous multi-platinum albums, an Emmy Award, a Tony Award nomination who has recorded over 30 studio albums and has made guest appearances on over 100 other albums. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... Dennis Russell Davies (born 16 April 1944, Toledo, Ohio, USA) is an American conductor External links Biography Biography (scroll down for English translation) Categories: | ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a British electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ...


He is a strong supporter of the Tibetan cause. In 1987 he co-founded the Tibet House with Columbia University professor Robert Thurman and the actor Richard Gere. He has four children[citation needed]: two (Zachary (b. 1971) and Juliet (b. 1968)) with his first wife, the theater director JoAnne Akalaitis (m. 1965, div. 1980); and two (Marlowe and Cameron) with his current, fourth wife, Holly Critchlow [9]. Glass lives in New York and in Nova Scotia. The Free Tibet logo, one of several that exist The International Tibet Independence Movement (ITIM) is a movement to establish historical Tibet, comprising the three traditional provinces of Amdo, Kham, and Ü-Tsang as an independent kingdom. ... Overview The Tibet House was founded in 1987 by Columbia University professor Robert Thurman, actor Richard Gere and modern composer Philip Glass (among others) at the behest of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. ... Juliet Glass (born 1971) is a writer and food critic, currently residing in Minneapolis. ... Theatre director and writer JoAnne Akalaitis is the winner of five Obie Awards for direction (and sustained achievement) and founder of the critically acclaimed Mabou Mines in New York. ... This article is about the state. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867...

Contents

Life and Work

For a list of works, see List of compositions by Philip Glass

The following is a list of compositions by Philip Glass. ...

Beginnings, education and influences

Glass was born in Baltimore, Maryland as the grandson of Jewish immigrants from Lithuania. His father owned a record store, and consequently Glass's record collection consisted, to a large extent, of unsold records, and thus the composer encountered modern music (Hindemith, Bartók, Shostakovich) and Western classical music (Ludwig van Beethoven's String Quartets and Schubert's two Piano Trios), at a very early age. He then studied the flute as a child at the Peabody Conservatory of Music and entered an accelerated college program at the University of Chicago at the age of 15, where he studied Mathematics and Philosophy. He then went on to the Juilliard School of Music where he switched to primarily playing the keyboard. His composition teachers included Vincent Persichetti and William Bergsma. During this time, in 1959, he was a winner in the BMI Foundation's BMI Student Composer Awards, one of the most prestigious international prizes for young composers. In the summer of 1960, he studied with Darius Milhaud and composed a Violin Concerto for a fellow student, Dorothy Pixley-Rothschild. Baltimore redirects here. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Located in Baltimore, Maryland, the Peabody Conservatory of Music (or just The Peabody) is one of the most prestigious musical institutions in the world, and also the first conservatory in America. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Juilliard School is a performing arts conservatory in New York City, informally but definitively identified as simply Juilliard, and most famous for its musically-trained alumni. ... Vincent Persichetti (June 6, 1915 – August 14, 1987) was a composer and teacher at the Juilliard School whose students included Philip Glass and Thelonious Monk. ... William Laurence Bergsma (April 1, 1921–March 18, 1994) was an American composer. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ...


The next step was Paris, where he studied with the eminent composition teacher Nadia Boulanger from 1963 to 1965, analyzing scores of Johann Sebastian Bach (The Well-Tempered Clavier), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (the Piano Concertos), and Beethoven. Glass later stated in his autobiography Music by Philip Glass (1987) that the new music performed at Pierre Boulez's Domaine Musical concerts in Paris lacked any excitement for him (with notable exceptions of the music by John Cage and Morton Feldman), but he was deeply impressed by performances of new plays at Jean-Louis Barrault's Odéon theatre and the films of the French New Wave, by auteurs such as Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut. This article is about the capital of France. ... Nadia Boulanger (September 16, 1887 – October 22, 1979) was an influential French composer, conductor, and music professor. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Title-page of Das wohtemperierte Klavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohtemperierte Klavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das wohltemperierte Klavier in German -- Klavier means piano, but the English word clavier (which means keyboard) looks more like the German title) consists of two... “Mozart” redirects here. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer, born in New York City. ... Jean-Louis Barrault (September 9, 1910 - January 22, 1994) was a French actor, director and mime artist. ... The Odéon is a theater in Paris, France. ... François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... The term auteur (French for author) is used to describe film directors (or, more rarely, producers or writers) who are considered to have a distinctive, recognizable vision, because they (a) repeatedly return to the same subject matter, (b) habitually address a particular psychological or moral theme, (c) employ a recurring... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ...


After working with Ravi Shankar in France on a film score (Chappaqua), Glass traveled to northern India in 1966, where he came in contact with Tibetan refugees. He met Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, in 1972 . Pandit Ravi Shankar, Sitar Maestro © www. ... Chappaqua is a trippy cult film of 1966, directed by and starring Conrad Rooks. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ...


His distinctive style arose from his work with Ravi Shankar and his perception of rhythm in Indian music as being entirely additive. When he returned home he renounced all his earlier compositions that were written in a moderately modern style comparable to the music of Darius Milhaud, Aaron Copland, and Samuel Barber and began writing pieces based on repetitive structures and a sense of time influenced by Samuel Beckett, whose work he encountered when he was writing for experimental theater. The first of the early pieces in this minimalist idiom was the music for a production of Beckett's play Comédie (1963) in 1965 for two soprano saxophones, a fourth was a string quartet (No.1, 1966). Pandit Ravi Shankar, Sitar Maestro © www. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ...


Minimalism: From Strung Out to Music in 12 Parts

Finding little sympathy from traditional performers and performance spaces, Glass eventually formed an ensemble in New York City in the late 1960s with fellow ex-students Steve Reich, Jon Gibson, and others and began performing mainly in art galleries. These galleries were the only real connection between musical minimalism and minimalist visual art—apart from personal friendships with visual artists, who had similar aesthetic interests, and were supporting Glass's and Reich's musical activities (and often made the posters for concerts). New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Jon Gibson (b. ...


The first concert of Philip Glass's new music was at Jonas Mekas's Film-Makers Cinemathèque (Anthology Film Archives) in 1968. This concert included Music in the Shape of a Square for two flutes (an homage to Erik Satie, performed by Glass and Gibson) and Strung Out for amplified solo violin (performed by the violinist Pixley-Rothschild). The musical scores were tacked on the wall, and the performers had to move while playing. Glass's new works met with a very enthusiastic response by the open-minded audience that consisted mainly of visual and performance artists who were highly sympathetic to Glass's reductive approach. Jonas Mekas (1922 - ) is a Lithuanian filmmaker, writer, and curator who has often been called the godfather of American avant-garde cinema. ... The Anthology Film Archives Building, New York City. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... This article is about Performance art. ...


Apart from performing his music, he worked as a cab driver, had a moving company with Steve Reich, and worked as an assistant for the sculptor Richard Serra. During this time he made friends with other New York based artists such as Sol LeWitt, Nancy Graves, Laurie Anderson, and Chuck Close. After certain differences of opinion with Steve Reich, Glass formed the Philip Glass Ensemble (while Reich formed Steve Reich and Musicians), an amplified ensemble including keyboards, wind instruments (saxophones, flutes), and soprano voices. At first his works continued to be rigorously minimalist, diatonic and repetitively structured, such as Two Pages, Contrary Motion, or Music in Fifths (a kind of an homage to his composition teacher Nadia Boulanger, who spotted out "hidden fifths" in his student works and regarded them as cardinal sins). Eventually Glass's music grew less austere, becoming more complex and dramatic, with pieces such as Music in Similar Motion (1969), Music with Changing Parts (1970). The series culminated in the 4-hour-long Music in Twelve Parts (1971–1974), which began as a sole piece in twelve instrumental parts but developed into a cycle that summed up Glass's musical achievement since 1967, and even transcended it—the last part features a twelve-tone theme, sung by the soprano voice of the ensemble. Though he finds the term minimalist inaccurate to describe his later work, Glass does accept this term for pieces up to and including Music in 12 Parts. For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born 2 November 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Nancy Graves (1940-1995) was an American sculptor, painter, printmaker, and sometimes filmmaker known for her focus on natural phenomena like camels or maps of the moon. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Chuck Close (born Charles Thomas Close July 5, 1940, Monroe, Wisconsin) is an American photorealistic painter and photographer. ... The Philip Glass Ensemble is a musical group founded by composer Philip Glass in 1968 to serve as a performance outlet for his experimental minimalist music. ... Steve Reich and Musicians is a musical ensemble founded and led by the American composer Steve Reich (b. ... Saxophones of different sizes play in different registers. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... This article is about the singing voice part. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... Nadia Boulanger (September 16, 1887 – October 22, 1979) was an influential French composer, conductor, and music professor. ... In music, consecutive fifths (also known as parallel fifths) involve the concurrence of successive intervals of a perfect fifth between two voices in parallel motion; e. ... Music in Twelve Parts is a set of pieces, twelve in total, by contemporary composer Philip Glass. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ...


The Portrait Trilogy: Einstein on the Beach, Satyagraha, and Akhnaten

Glass continued his work on south street with two series of instrumental works, “Another Look at Harmony” (1975) and “Fourth Series” (1978–79), but in turn his music theater works from this time became more famous. The first one was a collaboration with Robert Wilson—a piece of musical theater that was later designated by Glass as the first opera of his portrait opera trilogy: Einstein on the Beach (composed in 1975 and first performed in 1976), featuring his ensemble, solo violin, chorus, and actors. The piece was praised by the Washington Post as "One of the seminal artworks of the century." Robert Wilson (born 4 October 1941) is an internationally acclaimed American avant-garde stage director and playwright who has been called [America]s — or even the worlds — foremost vanguard theater artist [1]. Over the course of his wide-ranging career, he has also worked as a choreographer, performer, painter... Einstein on the Beach is an opera scored and written by Philip Glass and designed and directed by Robert Wilson. ... ...


Glass continued his work for music theater with composing his opera Satyagraha (1980), themed on the early life of Mahatma Gandhi and his experiences in South Africa. This piece also was a turning point for Glass, as it was his first one scored for symphony orchestra after about 15 years, even if the most prominent parts were still reserved for solo voices (but now operatic) and chorus. Satyagraha is an opera by Philip Glass (1980), loosely based on the life of Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


The Trilogy was completed with Akhnaten (1983–1984), a powerful vocal and orchestral composition sung in Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, and Ancient Egyptian. In addition, this opera featured an actor reciting ancient Egyptian texts in the language of the audience. Akhnaten was commissioned by the Stuttgart Opera in a production designed by Achim Freyer. It premiered simultaneously at the Houston Opera in a production designed by Peter Sellars. At the time of the commission, the Stuttgart Opera House was undergoing renovation, necessitating the use of a nearby playhouse with a smaller orchestra pit. Upon learning this, Glass and conductor Dennis Russell Davies visited the playhouse, placing music stands around the pit to determine how many players the pit could accommodate. The two found that they could not fit a full orchestra in the pit. Glass decided to eliminate the violins, which had the effect of "giving the orchestra a low, dark sound that came to characterize the piece and suited the subject very well."[10] In the same year, Glass again collaborated with Robert Wilson on another opera, the CIVIL warS, which premiered at the Opera of Rome. Akhnaten is an opera based on the life and religious convictions of the pharaoh Akhenaten (a. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Peter Sellars Peter Sellars (born September 27, 1957) is an American theater director, renowned for his modern stagings of classical operas and plays. ... Robert Wilson (born 4 October 1941) is an internationally acclaimed American avant-garde stage director and playwright who has been called [America]s — or even the worlds — foremost vanguard theater artist [1]. Over the course of his wide-ranging career, he has also worked as a choreographer, performer, painter... the CIVIL warS: a tree is best measured when it is down is an opera created in the early 1980s by director Robert Wilson to music by Philip Glass and others. ...


Theater music: Glass and Samuel Beckett

Glass's work for theater from this time (apart from his works for his ensemble and music theater) included many compositions for the group Mabou Mines, which he co-founded in 1970 . This work included further music (after the ground-breaking Play) for plays or adaptations from the prose by Samuel Beckett, such as The Lost Ones (1975), Cascando (1975), Mercier and Camier (1979), Endgame (1984), and Company (1984). Beckett approved of the Mabou Mines production The Lost Ones, but vehemently disapproved of the production of Endgame at the American Repertory Theatre (Cambridge, Massachusetts), which featured Joanne Akalaitis's direction and Glass's Prelude for timpani and double bass. In the end, though, he authorized the music for Company, four short, intimate pieces for string quartet that were played in the intervals of the dramatization. This piece was eventually published as a String Quartet (Glass's second) and as a concert piece for string orchestra. Mabou Mines is an avant-garde theatre company founded in 1970 and based in New York City. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... The Lost Ones is a short written work by Samuel Beckett. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... The American Repertory Theatre (or A.R.T.) is housed in the Loeb Drama Center at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Theatre director and writer JoAnne Akalaitis is the winner of five Obie Awards for direction (and sustained achievement) and founder of the critically acclaimed Mabou Mines in New York. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ...


Post minimalism: From the Violin Concerto to the Symphony No.3

Starting with the composition of operas and theater music, Glass has—especially since the late 1980s and early 1990s—written works more accessible to ensembles such as the string quartet and symphony orchestra, in this returning to the structural roots of his student days. In taking this direction his chamber and orchestral works were also written in a more and more traditional and lyrical vein. In these works, Glass occasionally even employs old musical forms such as the Chaconne—for instance in Satyagraha (1980), his Violin Concerto (1987) and Symphony No.3 (1995). In the same way, his pieces often allude to historical styles (Baroque, Western classical, early Romantic, and early 20th Century Western classical music), but mostly without abandoning his highly individual musical style or lapsing into mere pastiche. The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... In music a chaconne is a musical form. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete...


A series of orchestral works that were originally composed for the concert hall commenced with an almost neo-baroque 3-movement Violin Concerto (1987) in the style of Akhnaten. Among its multiple recordings, in 1992, the Concerto was performed and recorded by Gidon Kremer and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. This turn to orchestral music was continued with a large-scale Sibelian symphonic Trilogy (the Light, the Canyon, Itaipu, 1987–1989), The Voyage, commissioned by the Metropolitan Opera, and two 3-movement symphonies, "Low" 1992, and Symphony No.2 (1994). Glass described his Symphony No.2 as a study in polytonality and referred to the music of Honegger, Milhaud, and Villa-Lobos as possible models for his symphony, but the gloomy, brooding, dissonant tone of the piece seemed to be even more evocative of Dmitri Shostakovich's symphonies. The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... Gidon Kremer (Latvian: ; born February 27, 1947) is a Latvian violinist and conductor. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia. ... Itaipu is a four movement symphonic cantata performed by the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. ... The Voyage is an opera in three acts (plus a prologue and an epilogue) by the American composer Philip Glass (born 1937). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Low Symphony is a symphony (also known as Symphony No. ... The musical use of more than one key simultaneously is polytonality. ... Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ...


Central to his chamber music from the same time are the last two from a series of five string quartets that were written for the Kronos Quartet (1989 and 1991), and the piece Music from The Screens (1989). These works show a very different side of Glass's output. The Screens has its roots in a theater music collaboration with the Gambian musician Foday Musa Suso and the director Joanne Akalaitis (Glass's first wife), and is, on occasion, a touring piece for Glass and Suso. Apart from Suso's influence, the musical texture is remotely evocative to classical European chamber music ranging from Bach's Sonatas and partitas for solo violin and the Suites for cello, to French chamber music such as Claude Debussy's and Maurice Ravel's work in this genre. Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Theatre director and writer JoAnne Akalaitis is the winner of five Obie Awards for direction (and sustained achievement) and founder of the critically acclaimed Mabou Mines in New York. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... First Sonata for Solo Violin: Adagio (Autograph 1720) The Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin (BWV 1001–1006) is a set of six works composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Maurice Ravel. ...


With Symphony No.3 (1995), commissioned by the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra, a more transparent, refined, and intimate chamber-orchestral style resurfaced after the excursions of his large-scale symphonic pieces (mirroring similar developments in the work of his contemporary and colleague Steve Reich). In its four movements, Glass treats a 19-piece string orchestra as an extended chamber ensemble, and seems to evoke early classicism, (Bach's string symphonies, and Haydn's early symphonies show some quite similar stylistic features), as well as the neo-classical music of Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, and again Ravel. In particular, the second movement is much freer than anything else before in Glass's output since 1966, whereas in the third, Glass re-uses the Chaconne as a formal device, creating haunting string textures. On the commercial recording of Symphony No.3, its companion piece is another Concerto (also 1995), written for The Raschér Saxophone Quartet, and also possibly inspired by Les Six and Mozart. Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Le Groupe des Six, 1922, by Jacques-Emile Blanche. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Music for Piano: Metamorphosis and the Etudes

Since the late 1980s, Glass has written more works for solo piano, starting with a cycle of five pieces for a theatrical adaptation of Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis (1988), with other pieces such as "Mad Rush"(1979), Witchita Vortex Sutra, A Musical Portrait of Chuck Close (2005) and continuing with his first volume of Etudes for Piano (1994-1995). The first six Etudes were originally commissioned by the conductor and pianist Dennis Russell Davies, but the complete first set is now often performed by Glass. The critic John Rockwell dismissed Metamorphosis (as well as all other works by Glass since Akhnaten) as "simplistic," but praised the Etudes as "powerful," comparing them to Bartók's oeuvre for piano [citation needed]. Most of the Etudes are composed in the post-minimalist/more expressive style of the Second and Third Symphonies, and Saxophone Quartet Concerto as well as the opera triptych from the same period. A short grand piano, with the top up. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... The Metamorphosis (in German: Die Verwandlung) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915, and arguably the most famous of his works along with the longer works The Trial and The Castle. ... An etude (from the French word étude meaning study) is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument. ... Dennis Russell Davies (born 16 April 1944, Toledo, Ohio, USA) is an American conductor External links Biography Biography (scroll down for English translation) Categories: | ... John Rockwell (born 1940 in Washington D.C.) is an important music critic, editor, and dance critic. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ...


A second opera triptych: Orphée, La Belle et la Bête and Les Enfants Terribles

Glass's prolific output continued to include operas, especially a second opera, triptych (1993–1996), based on the work of Jean Cocteau, his prose and his films (Orphée (1949), La Belle et la Bête (1946), and the novel Les Enfants Terribles, 1929, later made into a film by Cocteau and Jean-Pierre Melville, 1950). In the same way it is also a musical homage to the work of a French group of composers associated with Cocteau, Les Six. The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychÄ“ fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Orphée (also known as Orpheus) is a 1949 movie directed by Jean Cocteau starring Jean Marais. ... Beauty and the Beast (in French: La Belle et la Bête) is a French film, made in 1946, based on the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast. The film was directed by Jean Cocteau, and starred his gay lover Jean Marais as the Beast and Josette Day as Beauty. ... Les Enfants Terribles is a 1929 novel by Jean Cocteau. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Pierre Melville (born Jean-Pierre Grumbach) (October 20, 1917 – August 2, 1973) was a noted French director. ... Le Groupe des Six, 1922, by Jacques-Emile Blanche. ...


Furthermore, in the first part of the trilogy, Orphée (1993), the inspiration can be (conceptually and musically) traced to Gluck's opera Orfeo ed Euridice (Orphée et Euridyce, 1762/1774).[11] One theme of the opera, the death of Eurydice, has some similarity to the composer's personal life: the opera was composed about a year after the unexpected death in 1991 of Glass's wife, artist Candy Jernigan: "(...) one can only suspect that Orpheus' grief must have resembled the composer's own."[11] The opera's "transparency of texture, a subtlety of instrumental color"[11] was praised, and The Guardian 's critic remarked "Glass has a real affinity for the French text and sets the words eloquently, underpinning them with delicately patterned instrumental textures."[12]. Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... Orfeo ed Euridice is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. ... In Greek mythology, there were several characters named Eurydice (Eurydíkê, Ευρυδίκη). // The most famous was a woman — or a nymph — who was the wife of Orpheus. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Les Enfants Terribles (1996, scored for voices and three pianos), is indebted in its writing for the piano ensemble, as Orphee, to another key musical work from the 18th century: Bach's Concerto for Four Harpsichords (or four pianos) in A minor, BWV1065. It is perhaps no coincidence that Bach's Concerto was part of the soundtrack for the 1950 film, as was Gluck's opera for Cocteau's 1949 film Orphee. “Bach” redirects here. ... A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ...


Glass's continued activity in opera was a direct result of his original "opera", Einstein on the Beach. The work could only mounted in opera houses, thus the composer because a composer of "operas." With this introduction, the composer embarked what has become the largest part of his output, a composer of operas with now 22 to date.


Influences and connections

Philip Glass is acknowledged to be one of the most influential voices of the 20th Century.[citation needed] A great number of rock musicians (Bowie, Eno), composers of film (Elfman) and concert music, have credited him with influencing the sound of the 2nd half of the 20th Century.


Besides working in the Western classical tradition for the concert hall, opera, theater, and film, his music also has strong ties to rock, ambient music, electronic music, and world music. Early admirers included musicians Brian Eno and David Bowie, who acknowledged the influence of Glass's minimalist style.[13] Years later, Glass, who had become friends with Bowie, composed certain pieces from themes of Bowie and Eno's collaborative albums Low and "Heroes", which were originally written in Berlin in the late 1970, in his first ("Low", 1992) and fourth ("Heroes", 1996) symphonies. In 1997, he released Music for Airports, featuring a live instrumental version of Brian Eno's work of the same name, performed by Bang on a Can All-Stars, on his Philips/PolyGram (now Universal Music Group-distributed on the composer's recording label POINT Music. Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Ambient music refers to a kind of music that envelops the listener without drawing attention to itself [1] // The term ambient music was first coined by Brian Eno in the mid-1970s to refer to music that can be either actively listened to with attention or as easily ignored, depending... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Brian Eno (pronounced ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... Low is a 1977 album by David Bowie, widely regarded as one of his most influential releases. ... Heroes (the quotation marks are part of the title, for reasons of irony)[1] is an album by David Bowie, released in 1977. ... Low Symphony is a symphony (also known as Symphony No. ... Heroes Symphony is a symphony (also known as Symphony No. ... Ambient 1/Music for Airports (1978) is one of Brian Enos first ambient albums. ... Brian Eno (pronounced ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... Bang on a Can is a musical organization based in New York City which was founded in 1987 by three American composers who remain its artistic directors: Julia Wolfe, David Lang, and Michael Gordon. ... Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ...


Glass also collaborated with songwriters such as Paul Simon, Suzanne Vega, Natalie Merchant, and the electronic-music artist Aphex Twin (resulting in an orchestration of Aphex Twin's piece Icct Hedral in 1995). Point Music eventually closed operatations, however, Glass continues to own a recording studio, which is frequented by artists such as David Bowie, Björk, The Dandy Warhols, Lou Reed, Patti Smith, and Iggy Pop. Glass also influenced numerous musicians such as Mike Oldfield (he covered parts from Glass's North Star in Platinum) and bands including Tangerine Dream, Phish, Talking Heads, and Coldplay (“Clocks,” A Rush of Blood to the Head, 2002). Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ... Suzanne Vega (born Suzanne Nadine Vega, 11 July 1959, Santa Monica, California) is an American songwriter and singer known for her highly literate lyrics and eclectic folk-inspired music. ... Natalie Anne OShea Merchant (born October 26, 1963 in Jamestown, New York, U.S.) is a professional musician. ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a British electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... This article is about the musician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lewis Reed[1] (born March 2, 1942) is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... James Newell Osterberg, Jr. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... Platinum is a record album written and mostly performed by Mike Oldfield. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... This article is about the band. ... Talking Heads were an American rock band existing between 1974 and 1991, composed of David Byrne, Chris Frantz, Tina Weymouth and Jerry Harrison. ... Coldplay are an English rock band. ...


In 2002, Glass along with his longtime producer Kurt Munkacsi and artist Don Christensen, started the record label (Orange Mountain Music), dedicated to "establishing the recording legacy of Philip Glass" and have to date released ~40 albums of Philip Glass' music.


Music for film

Music from Naqoyqatsi Image File history File links Philip_Glass-Naqoyqatsi. ...


From Naqoyqatsi by Philip Glass Naqoyqatsi: ÉÀ ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The largest part of Glass's recent activity has been his many film scores, which almost accidentally started with the orchestral score for Koyaanisqatsi (Godfrey Reggio, 1982), and continuing with two biopics, Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (Paul Schrader, 1985, resulting in the String Quartet No.3) and Kundun (Martin Scorsese, 1997) about the Dalai Lama, for which he received his first Academy Award nomination. In 1988, Glass began a collaboration with the filmmaker Errol Morris with his score for Morris's celebrated documentary The Thin Blue Line. He continued composing for the Qatsi trilogy with the scores for Powaqqatsi (Reggio, 1988) and Naqoyqatsi (Reggio, 2002). He even made a cameo appearance in Peter Weir's The Truman Show (1998), which uses music from Powaqqatsi, Anima Mundi and Mishima, as well as three original tracks by Glass, performing at the piano. In 1999, he finished a new soundtrack for the 1931 film Dracula. The Hours (Stephen Daldry, 2002), which earned him a second Academy Award nomination; Taking Lives (D. J. Caruso, 2004); and The Fog of War (Errol Morris, 2003) are his most notable scores for films from the early 2000s, containing older works but also newly composed music. He composed the score for Secret Window (David Koepp, 2004) as well as the music for Candyman (Bernard Rose, 1992) and its sequel, Candyman: Farewell to the Flesh (Bill Condon, 1995), plus a film adaptation of Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent (1996). Most recently, Glass composed the score for Neil Burger's The Illusionist and Richard Eyre's Notes on a Scandal in 2006, garnering his third Academy Award nomination for the latter. Glass's newest film scores include Scott Hicks' No Reservations and Woody Allen's Cassandra's Dream. Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance is a 1982 film directed by Godfrey Reggio with music composed by minimalist composer Philip Glass and cinematography by Ron Fricke. ... Polaroid by Michael Dare Godfrey Reggio (born March 29, 1940) is an American director of experimental documentary films. ... Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters is an episodic, stylized (1985) film based on the life of the Japanese author Yukio Mishima. ... Paul Joseph Schrader (born July 22, 1946 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is a screenwriter and film director, renowned for his characters that fall into desperation while their world crumbles around them. ... Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... The Thin Blue Line is a 1988 documentary film concerning the murder of a Texas police officer who had stopped a car for a routine traffic citation. ... The Qatsi triology is an informal name given to a series of three films produced by Godfrey Reggio and scored by Philip Glass: Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of balance (1983) Powaqqatsi: Life in transformation (1988) Naqoyqatsi: Life as war (2002) The titles of all three films are words from the language... Powaqqatsi: Life in Transformation is the 1988 sequel to the experimental 1983 documentary film Koyaanisqatsi, by Godfrey Reggio. ... Naqoyqatsi: ÉÀ ... Peter Lindsay Weir (born August 21, 1944) is an Australian film director. ... The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ... // Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff Ingagi, starring Sir Hubert Winstead Mata Hari, starring Greta Garbo and Lionel Barrymore City Lights starring Charles Chaplin Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde starring Fredric March Best Picture: Cimarron - MGM Best Actor: Lionel Barrymore - A Free Soul Best Actor: Wallace Beery - The Champ Best Actor: Fredric... Dracula is a 1931 horror film produced by Universal Pictures Co. ... Movie poster for The Hours The Hours is a 2002 drama film about three women of different generations and times whose lives are interconnected by the novel Mrs. ... Stephen David Daldry, CBE (born May 2, 1961 in Dorset, England, United Kingdom) is a British movie director and producer. ... Taking Lives is a 2004 film starring Angelina Jolie and Ethan Hawke. ... D.J. Caruso is a director and producer from Norwalk, Connecticut. ... This article is about the documentary. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... Secret Window is a 2004 thriller starring Johnny Depp and John Turturro. ... David Koepp (born June 9, 1963 in Pewaukee, Wisconsin) is an American screenwriter and director. ... Candyman is a 1992 slasher film movie starring Virginia Madsen, Tony Todd and Xander Berkeley. ... Dr Bernard William George Rose (1916-1996), was variously a student at the Royal College of Music, organist, soldier, and composer. ... William Bill Condon (born New York, October 22, 1955) is an American screenwriter and director. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad Nałęcz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... The Secret Agent is a 1907 novel by Joseph Conrad. ... Neil Burger is a Connecticut-born film director who has filmed the pseudo-documentary, Interview with the Assassin (2002), and the period drama, The Illusionist (2006). ... For the Scar Symmetry song see The Illusionist (song). ... Sir Richard Eyre, (born 28 March 1943), is a British film and theatre director. ... Notes on a Scandal is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated film adapted from the 2003 novel Notes on a Scandal by Zoë Heller. ... No Reservations is a 2007 romantic comedy directed by Scott Hicks, from a screenplay by Carol Fuchs based on an original script by Sandra Nettelbeck. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Cassandras Dream is the next film from the Academy Award-winning director Woody Allen. ...


New directions: symphonies, chamber operas, and concerti

Glass's more lyrical and romantic styles came to a creative high with the Etudes for Piano and Les Enfants Terribles and furthermore in Godfrey Reggio's Naqoyqatsi (2002); in the chamber opera The Sound of a Voice (2003), as well as in the series of Concertos since 2000; and in three symphonies that are centered on the interplay of either vocalist or chorus and orchestra. Two symphonies written in a very similar style, Symphony No.5 "Choral" (1999) and Symphony No.7 "Toltec" (2004) in addition to his large cantata "The Passion of Ramakrishna", are based on religious or meditative themes, whereas Glass's operatic Symphony No.6 Plutonian Ode (2001), commissioned by the Brucknerhaus Linz and Carnegie Hall in honor of Glass's 65th birthday, started as a collaboration with the poet Allen Ginsberg (for reciter and piano—Ginsberg and Glass), based on his poem by the same title. In this piece Glass explored new, more complicated and rich textures in a blend of the composer's most inspired efforts in both his technical expertise as a trained composer and also in reaching a new highpoint of expressiveness. Polaroid by Michael Dare Godfrey Reggio (born March 29, 1940) is an American director of experimental documentary films. ... Naqoyqatsi: ÉÀ ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A Toltec Symphony (also known as Symphony No. ... Plutonian Ode is a poem written by Allen Ginsberg in 1978 against the arms race and nuclear armament of the superpowers. ... Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ...


Encouraged largely by conductor Dennis Russell Davies to pursue concert music, Glass has written eight concertos to date. Beginning with the Violin Concerto of 1987, he wrote a Concerto Grosso in 1992 and a Saxophone Quartet Concerto of the same vein in 1995. Glass has returned to the form frequently since the year 2000. His Tirol Concerto for Piano and Orchestra was premiere by Dennis Russell Davies as conductor and soloist, Glass' Concerto Fantasy for Two Timpanists and Orchestra has become one of his more popular and widely performed concert pieces. His Cello Concerto for cello and orchestra was premiered in Beijing in 2001 by the cellist Julian Lloyd Webber, for whose 50th birthday it was written.[14] This was followed by a neo-baroque Concerto for harpsichord and orchestra which exposed the composer's rigorous classical technique followed two years later with Glass Piano Concerto no.2 "After Lewis and Clark" which was inspired by a celebration of the pioneers' trip across the North American continent. “Peking” redirects here. ... Julian Lloyd Webber (born April 14, 1951) is a British cellist. ...


Recent works: Waiting for the Barbarians, Symphony No.8 and Appomattox

Glass' first opera on a grand scale in eight years, Waiting for the Barbarians, after J.M. Coetzee's novel, with a libretto by Christopher Hampton, was premiered in September 2005. In this work Glass "used very simple means and the orchestration is very clear and very traditional; it's almost classical in sound", as the conductor Dennis Russell Davies described it. [15] J.M. Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced coot-SEE-uh) is a South African author. ... Christopher Hampton (born January 26, 1946) is a British playwright, screen writer and film director. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... Dennis Russell Davies (born 16 April 1944, Toledo, Ohio, USA) is an American conductor External links Biography Biography (scroll down for English translation) Categories: | ...


Two months later, in November 2005, Glass' Symphony No.8, commissioned by the Bruckner Orchester Linz, was premiered at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York City. After three symphonies for voices and orchestra, this piece is a return to purely orchestral composition, and like previous works written for the conductor Dennis Russell Davies (the 1992 Concerto Grosso and the already mentioned Symphony No.3), it features extended solo writing (not unlike Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra). Critic Allan Kozinn described the symphony's chromaticism as more extreme, more fluid, and its themes and textures as continually changing, morphing without repetition, and he especially pointed out the "unpredictable orchestration" of the symphony. Kozinn especially pointed out the "beautiful flute and harp variation in the melancholy second movement."[16] These new orchestral textures surfaced also in the already mentioned orchestral scores for the films The Illusionist and Notes on a Scandal, both composed in 2006. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bruckner Orchestra Linz (German: Bruckner Orchester Linz) is one of the leading orchestras in Austria, situated in the city of Linz. ... Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM) is a major performing arts venue in Brooklyn, a borough of New York City, known as a center for progressive and avant garde performance. ... Dennis Russell Davies (born 16 April 1944, Toledo, Ohio, USA) is an American conductor External links Biography Biography (scroll down for English translation) Categories: | ... The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... The Concerto for Orchestra Sz. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... For the Scar Symmetry song see The Illusionist (song). ... Notes on a Scandal is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated film adapted from the 2003 novel Notes on a Scandal by Zoë Heller. ...


After his Symphony no.8, Glass has turned again to vocal and chamber works. His Passion of Ramakrishna (2006), was composed for the Orange County's Pacific Symphony Orchestra, the Pacific Chorale and the conductor Carl St. Clair. Glass has also worked alongside Leonard Cohen on an adaptation of Cohen's poetry collection Book of Longing. The work, which premiered in June, 2007, in Toronto, Canada, is a piece for seven instruments and a vocal quartet, and contains recorded spoken word performances by Cohen and imagery from his collection. Glass's work "Songs and Poems" for solo cello (2006) was composed for the cellist Wendy Sutter and premiered in 2007. Finally, Appomattox, a new opera, commissioned by the San Francisco Opera (surrounding the events at the end of the American Civil War), premiered on October 5, 2007. As Waiting for the Barbarians and Symphony No.8, it was conducted by Glass' long time collaborator Russell Davies, who noted that "in his recent operas the bass line has taken on an increasing prominence,(...) (an) increasing use of melodic elements in the deep register, in the contrabass, the contrabassoon - he's increasingly using these sounds and these textures can be derived from using these instruments in different combinations. (...) He's definitely developed more skill as an orchestrator, in his ability to conceive melodies and harmonic structures for specific instrumental groups. (...) what he gives them to play is very organic and idiomatic." [17] Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Leonard Norman Cohen, CC (born September 21, 1934 in Westmount, Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. ... Book of Longing is a 2006 book by Leonard Cohen. ... Appomattox is an opera in English based on the American Civil War, composed by Philip Glass, with a libretto by the playwright Christopher Hampton. ... The San Francisco War Memorial Opera House San Francisco Opera (SFO) is the second largest opera company in North America. ... The term contrabass (derived from the Italian contrabbasso) refers to very low musical instruments; generally those pitched one octave below instruments of the bass register. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ...


Among new works in various stages of completion: the symphonies No.9 and No.10; an opera on the life of Johannes Kepler (to be premiered by Dennis Russel Davies, 2009); music for two plays [18]; a second Violin Concerto; and a second Volume of Etudes for piano. “Kepler” redirects here. ... An etude (from the French word étude meaning study) is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument. ...


Films

This section is of films about Philip Glass. See "Music for film", above, for his soundtrack compositions.

  • 1976 - Music With Roots in the Aether: Opera for Television. Tape 2: Philip Glass. Produced and directed by Robert Ashley. New York, New York: Lovely Music.
  • 1983 - Philip Glass. From Four American Composers. Directed by Peter Greenaway.
  • 1985 - A Composer's Notes: Philip Glass and the Making of an Opera. Directed by Michael Blackwood. Michael Blackwood Productions. A co-production of Michael Blackwood Productions, Westdeutscher Rundfunk, Channel Four Television, Nederlandse Omroep Stichting, and Sveriges Television TV I. Released on DVD in 2005.[citation needed]
  • 1986 - Einstein on the Beach: The Changing Image of Opera. Directed by Mark Obenhaus.
  • 2007 - GLASS: a portrait of Philip in twelve parts. Directed by Scott Hicks.

Robert Ashley (born March 28, 1930) is a contemporary composer, best known for his operas and other theatrical works. ... Peter Greenaway, CBE (born 5 April 1942) is a Welsh-born English [1] film director. ... Scott Hicks (b. ...

Awards and Nominations

Academy Awards

Best Original Score

Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Notes on a Scandal is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated film adapted from the 2003 novel Notes on a Scandal by Zoë Heller. ...

BAFTA Awards

Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Golden Globe Awards

Best Original Score

Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... The Truman Show is a 1998 film directed by Peter Weir, written by Andrew Niccol, and starring Jim Carrey and Ed Harris. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Trivia

  • Philip Glass is the first cousin once removed of Ira Glass, host of the nationally syndicated radio show This American Life. Philip Glass's father is Ira Glass's great uncle.[19]
  • Philip Glass is the second cousin once removed of J. Stuart, singer of New York rock group The Cloud Room.
  • He produced the post-punk/new wave group Polyrock and performed on its first two albums.[citation needed]
  • Philip Glass has been mentioned on The Simpsons (in the episodes "A Milhouse Divided," "The Seven-Beer Snitch," and "Dude, Where's My Ranch?") and was lampooned on South Park ("Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo").
  • His opera Akhnaten has been credited with stimulating a resurgence of interest in the radical 18th dynasty pharaoh and in Egyptology generally [citation needed]. The contentious conversion of the state religion to monotheism that Glass incorporated as a theme remains a topic of scholarly debate following recent discoveries.
  • A knock-knock joke often told by musicians pokes fun at the repetitious nature of much of Glass's work.
  • Glass's "Metamorphosis Five" is featured in Valley of Darkness, the second episode of season two of the new version of Battlestar Galactica. In the scene, Starbuck returns to Caprica and plays the piano solo on a CD player in her apartment, claiming that her father was the one playing it.
  • Philip Glass Buys a Loaf of Bread Is the title of a one-act play in David Ives's cycle of one acts titled All in the Timing. It is a scored play about someone seeing Glass in a bakery.
  • "The Canyon" was used as the opener for the 1999 Santa Clara Vanguard Drum & Bugle Corps production Inventions for a New Millennium. The vanguard tied for the 1999 world championship.
  • Philip Glass's original music from the section of the track "Pruit-Igoe", from the film Koyaanisqatsi (Godfrey Reggio, 1982), was used in the first trailer for Grand Theft Auto IV.
  • The "Evil Eye" background music played on the TV series Scrubs (played when Janitor stares at someone to intimidate them) is in fact from Philip Glass Koyaanisqatsi.
  • The art rock/indie rock band Edison Glass takes half of their name from the composer and the other half from Thomas Edison
  • Phil Glass is referenced in the "Rob-A-Bye Baby" episode of Psych when Sean tells Gus to "whistle something by Phil Glass" in order to annoy/influence the receptionist of the "Red Balloon" nanny service, who he noticed taking something for a headache, into letting them wait in the owner/manager's office, which he wished to investigate further. Sean accompanied Gus, who merely whistled one annoyingly high-pitched note repeatedly, with some phlegm-clearing sounds, and the receptionist quickly showed them into the manager's office to wait.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Ira Glass (born March 3, 1959) is an American public radio personality, and host and producer of the radio and television show This American Life. ... This American Life (TAL) is a weekly hour-long radio program produced by Chicago Public Radio. ... The Cloud Room is an American band based in Brooklyn, New York. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Polyrock was an American rock band formed in New York City in 1978 and active until the mid-1980s. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... A Milhouse Divided is an episode of The Simpsons television series. ... The Seven-Beer Snitch is the fourteenth episode of The Simpsons sixteenth season, first aired on April 3, 2005 in the US. While the family visits Shelbyville, the citizens of Shelbyville call Springfields residents hicks. ... Dude, Wheres My Ranch? is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons fourteenth season. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Mr. ... Valley of Darkness is an episode of the reimagined Battlestar Galactica television series. ... Battlestar Galactica. ... Philip Glass Buys a Loaf of Bread is a short play by David Ives, imitating composer Philip Glasss minimalist style; that is to say that comparatively few words and ideas are repeated many times throughout the work. ... David Ives (b. ... All in the Timing was originally a book of six one act plays by David Ives dating from 1987 to 1993. ... Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance is a 1982 film directed by Godfrey Reggio with music composed by minimalist composer Philip Glass and cinematography by Ron Fricke. ... Polaroid by Michael Dare Godfrey Reggio (born March 29, 1940) is an American director of experimental documentary films. ... Grand Theft Auto IV (also known as GTA IV or GTA 4) is the upcoming eleventh instalment, and first in the fourth generation, of the Grand Theft Auto video game franchise, announced for release by Rockstar Games within February–April of 2008 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. ... This article is about the US sitcom. ... The Janitor is a fictional character played by actor Neil Flynn in the American sitcom Scrubs. ... Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance is a 1982 film directed by Godfrey Reggio with music composed by minimalist composer Philip Glass and cinematography by Ron Fricke. ... Art rock is a term used by some to describe rock music that is characterized by ambitious or avant-garde lyrical themes and/or melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic experimentation, often extending beyond standard modern popular music forms and genres, toward influences in jazz, classical, world music or the experimental avant... Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music often used to refer to bands that are on small independent record labels or that arent on labels at all. ... Edison Glass is an indie rock band from Long Island, New York. ... “Edison” redirects here. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Naxos Classical Music Spotlight podcast: Philip Glass Heroes Symphony
  2. ^ New York News and Features: The Influentials: Classical and Dance
  3. ^ Guardian Unlimited: When less means more
  4. ^ Rhapsody Online artist profile of Philip Glass
  5. ^ Andante online: A Composer's Century
  6. ^ http://www.philipglass.com/bio.php
  7. ^ http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/music/pop/reviews/485/
  8. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/arts/music/23smit.html?ex=1348200000&en=572aaa5539914b18&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink
  9. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/arts/music/23smit.html
  10. ^ in Music by Philip Glass, New York: DaCapo Press, 1985, p. 170
  11. ^ a b c K.Robert Schwarz, Minimalists, 1996, p.164
  12. ^ Andrew Clements, The Guardian (London), date?
  13. ^ Raymond McGill, Release notes for the The World of Philip Glass, 2002
  14. ^ Concerto for Cello and Orchestra on ChesterNovello website
  15. ^ Dennis Russell Davies in conversation with Richard Scheinin, Mercury News, 7 October 2007, http://www.mercurynews.com/richardscheinin/ci_7112231
  16. ^ Allan Kozinn, "A First Hearing for a Glass Symphony," New York Times, 4 November 2005
  17. ^ Dennis Russell Davies in conversation with Richard Scheinin, Mercury News, 7 October 2007, http://www.mercurynews.com/richardscheinin/ci_7112231
  18. ^ Cy Musiker, "Philip Glass' 'Appomattox' Makes Its Debut" NPR, 7 October 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15011594
  19. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/04/magazine/04WWLNQ4.t.html

References

  • Bartman, William and Kesten, Joanne (editors). The Portraits Speak: Chuck Close in Conversation with 27 of his subjects, New York: A.R.T. Press, 1997
  • Grimes, Ev, "Interview: Education, 1989", in Richard Kostelanetz and Robert Flemming (Editors), Writings on Glass. Essays, Interviews, Criticism, University of California Press, 1999
  • Jones, Robert T., ed. (1987). Philip Glass. Music By Philip Glass New York: Da Capo Press.
  • Knowlson, James (2004). Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett, New York, Grove Press.
  • Kraynak, Janet (ed.). Please Pay Attention Please: Bruce Nauman's Words, Cambridge & London: MIT Press, 2003 (2005 paperback edition) - Writing and Interviews.
  • La Barbara, Joan. "Phillip Glass and Steve Reich: Two from the Steady State School",(1974) in Richard Kostelanetz and Robert Flemming (Editors), Writings on Glass. Essays, Interviews, Criticism, University of California Press, 1999
  • Potter, Keith (2000). Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge, UK; New York, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schwartz, K. Robert (1996). Minimalists, New York: Phaidon Press.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

The following is a list of compositions by Philip Glass. ... Lithuanian Jews (known in Yiddish and Haredi English as Litvish (adjective) or Litvaks (noun)) are Ashkenazi Jews with roots in Lita, a region including not only present-day Lithuania but also Latvia, much of Belarus and the northeastern Suwałki region of Poland. ... This article is about a musical style. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vɔ ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Meredith Monk (born November 20, 1942, in Lima, Peru[1]) is an American composer, performer, director, vocalist, film-maker, and choreographer. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Louis Andriessen (born June 6, 1939) is a Dutch composer, son of the composer Hendrik Andriessen (1892-1981) and brother of composer Jurriaan Andriessen (1925-1996). ... Interior of the Eaton Centre showing one of Michael Snow and Joyce Wielands best known sculptures, called Flightstop, which depict Canada Geese in flight. ... Peter Greenaway, CBE (born 5 April 1942) is a Welsh-born English [1] film director. ... John Moran is an American composer, author and choreographer. ... Ira Glass (born March 3, 1959) is an American public radio personality, and host and producer of the radio and television show This American Life. ... Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... Robert Wilson (born 4 October 1941) is an internationally acclaimed American avant-garde stage director and playwright who has been called [America]s — or even the worlds — foremost vanguard theater artist [1]. Over the course of his wide-ranging career, he has also worked as a choreographer, performer, painter... Michael Nyman (born March 23, 1944) is a British minimalist composer, pianist, librettist and musicologist, perhaps best known for the many scores he wrote during his lengthy collaboration with the British filmmaker Peter Greenaway. ... Charlemagne Palestine (born August 15, 1945 as Charles Martin in Brooklyn, New York, USA) is a minimalist composer and visual artist. ... Phill Niblock, c. ...

External links

Official site

Other sites

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The All Music Guide (AMG) is a metadata database about music, owned by All Media Guide. ... MusicBrainz (MusicBrainz. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Writings

Interviews

Publisher

  • The Composer's Page at Chester Music & Novello, including a biography and a list of works

Articles, reviews, etc.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philip Glass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4872 words)
Glass is extremely prolific as a composer; he has written ensemble works, operas, symphonies, concertos, film scores and for the piano.
Glass was born in Baltimore, Maryland as the son of Jewish migrants from Lithuania.
Glass described his Symphony No.2 as a study in polytonality and referred to the music of Honegger, Milhaud and Villa-Lobos as possible models for his symphony, but the gloomy, brooding, dissonant tone of the piece seems to be even more evocative of Dmitri Shostakovich's symphonies.
Philip Glass Ensemble - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (167 words)
The Philip Glass Ensemble is a musical group founded by composer Philip Glass in 1968 to serve as a performance outlet for his experimental minimalist music.
After Glass wrote his first opera, Einstein on the Beach, for the Ensemble in 1976, he began to compose for other instrumentation more frequently.
The Philip Glass Ensemble continues to perform and record, under the musical direction of keyboardist Michael Riesman.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m