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Encyclopedia > Philike Etaireia

The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (Ottoman Turkish for the Eternal State) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca...


Eteria members were mainly young Greeks from Russia. Eteria received political and material support from Tsar Alexander I, who had an interest in extending Russian influence in the Balkans. Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


One of the leaders of the Eteria was Alexander Ypsilanti. Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 - January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ...

Contents


The beginnings

In the context of ardent desire for independence of Turkish occupation and with the explicit influence of secret societies from Europe, three Greeks met one another in 1814 in Odessa and decided the constitution of a strictly secret organisation which would prepare the revolution of all Greeks. These men were 42-years old Nikolaos Skoufas from Arta province, 42-years old Emmanuel Ksanthos from Patmos and 26-years old Athanasios Tsakalov from Epirus. Skoufas had already particular contacts with Konstantinos Rados who was initiated into Carbonarism. Ksanthos was initianted in a Free-Masonic Lodge of Lefkada (Society of Free Builders, of St. Mavra), while Tsakalov was a founding member of the "Greek-speaking Hotel", (Ελληνόγλωσσο Ξενοδοχείο or Ellinoglwsso Xenodoxeio) a former but not successful society for the liberation of Greece. 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Odessa (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is a city in the southwestern Ukraine, major port on the Black Sea and the administrative center of countrys Odessa Oblast (province). ... Arta (Greek: Άρτα, Albanian: Artë)is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Patmos is a small island in the Aegean Sea. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the Ambracian Gulf and the province of West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the... The Carbonari (coal-burners) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th century Italy, and instrumental in organising revolution in Italy in 1820, 1830–1831 and 1848. ... the Square and Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


The growth of the Friendly Society is impressive. At the beginning during the 1814-1816 period, there were roughly twenty members. During 1817, the Society developed mainly between the Greeks of Russia and of Moldowallachia (Moldavia and Wallachia), but once again its membership does not exceed thirty. They started doing massive initiations in 1818. In 1820 the Society expanded in almost all regions of Greece and most Greek communities abroad. By the first months of 1821, the membership numbered around one thousand and the Society had exceeded her own limits. Among her members there were tradesmen, clergy, executives of Ottoman Empire from Fanari, chieftains as Theodoros Kolokotronis, Odysseas Androutsos, the metropolite of Old Patrases German and more. 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (Ottoman Turkish for the Eternal State) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca... Phanariotes (from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Istanbul, where the ecumenical patriarchate is situated) were those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed voivodes of the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia). ... Theodoros Kolokotronis (Grk. ...


The organisational structure

The whole structure of Philiki Etaireia was imitating the organisational models of Carbonarism and Freemasonry. The leading team was called the "Invisible Authority" and was surrounded at the first moment with such secret glamour that everybody believed that a lot of important personalities participated, not only Greeks but foreigners like Russian czar Alexander I. The reality was that during the start, the Invisible Authority was only the three founders. Then, from 1815 until 1818, five more were added and after Skoufas' death three more were added. In 1818 the Invisible Authority was renamed to "Authority of Twelve Apostles" and each Apostle shouldered the responsibility of a big region. The Carbonari (coal-burners) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th century Italy, and instrumental in organising revolution in Italy in 1820, 1830–1831 and 1848. ... the Square and Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The whole structure was pyramid-like formed and in the top dominated the "Invisible Authority". No one knew it or had the right to ask who created it. Her commands were executed unquestioned, and members did not have right to make decisions. The society was called «Temple» and it had four levels of initiation: a) brothers or vlamides, b) the recommended, γ) the priests and d) the shepherds. The Priests were charged with the duty of initiation in the first two levels. When the Priest approached somebody, it was first to made sure of his patriotism and catechized him in the aims of society; the last stage was to put him under oath. Coming from the Latin, initiation implies a beginning. ...


Afterwards the initiated were considered neophyte members of the society, with all the rights and obligations of his rank. The Priest immediately had the obligation to reveal all the marks of recognition between the Vlamides or Brothers. Vlamides and Recommended ignored the revolutionary aims of the organisation. They only knew that there existed a society that tried hard for the general good of the nation, which included in its ranks important personalities. This myth was propagated deliberately, in order to stimulate the morale of members and also to make proselytism easier.


The course to the revolt

In 1818, the seat of Philiki Etaireia had migrated from Odessa to Istambul, and Skoufas' death had been a serious loss. The rest of the founders attempted to find a major personality to undertake the reins, one who would give prestige and fresh impetus to the Society. In the beginning of 1818, they had a meeting with the J. Kapodistrias, who not only denied, but later wrote that he considered Philiki Etaireia guilty for the havoc that was foreboded in Greece. Finally, after many contacts, in April 1820 Alexander Ypsilanti undertook the leadership of Philiki Etaireia. This article needs cleanup. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 - January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ...


Recommended Reading

  • Vournas Tasos, Friendly Society: her illegal organisational and persecution by the foreigners, Tolides Bros, (Athens 1982).
  • Metropolite of Old Patrases Germanos, Memoirs, (Introdutory note, index, ref. Ioanna Yiannaropoulos – Tassos Gritsopoulos), (Athens 1975).
  • Yiannis Kordatos, Rigas Feraios and Balkan Federation, (Athens, 1974)
  • Xanthos Em., Memoirs for the Friendly Society, (facsimile reprint of 1834 ed), Vergina, (Athens 1996)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Filiki Eteria (800 words)
The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state.
The whole structure of Philiki Etaireia was imitating the organisational models of Carbonarism and Freemasonry.
In the beginning of 1818, they had a meeting with the J. Kapodistrias, who not only denied, but later wrote that he considered Philiki Etaireia guilty for the havoc that was foreboded in Greece.
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens:ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS (5088 words)
He became a member of the Philike Etaireia in 1820 and during the War of Independence worked to organize the newly established Greek State.
He was active on the social forefront and founded many societies, such as the "Society of the Friends of the People"and the "Philekpaideutike Etaireia." He was married to Eufrosyne Georganta and had four children, Markos (1840-1809), Stephanos (1842-1923), Zoe (1843-1894) and Marika (1846-1941).
Panagis Skouzes (1776-1847), one of the first members of the Philike Etaireia, supplied the first Greek army with guns for the War of Independence of 1821, on his own expenses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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