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Encyclopedia > Philhellenism

Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. Byron provided some more concrete assistance in commissioning several seagoing war vessels which proved to be useful in the successful Greek War of Independence in the early 1820s. Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


The later nineteenth-century European Philhellenes were largely to be found among the Classicists, in the growing split between anthropological and Classicist approaches to Ancient Greece.

Contents

The legacy of Philhellenism

In the period of political reaction and repression after the fall of Napoleon, when the liberal-minded, educated and prosperous bourgeois class of European societies found the romantic revolutionary ideals of 1789-92 repressed by the restoration of old regimes at home, the idea of the re-creation of a Greek state on the very territories that were sanctified by their view of Antiquity— which was reflected in the furnishings of their own parlors and the contents of their bookcases— offered an ideal, set at a romantic distance. Under these conditions, the Greek uprising constituted a source of inspiration and expectations that could never actually be fulfilled, disappointing what Paul Cartledge called "the Victorian self-identification with the Glory that was Greece". For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Romantics redirects here. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


Another popular subject for of interest in Greek culture at the turn of the nineteenth century, focused on the shadowy Scythian philosopher Anacharsis; the new prominence of Anarcharis was sparked by Jean-Jacques Barthélemy's fanciful Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece (1788), a learned imaginary travel journal, one of the first historical novels, which a modern scholar has called "the encyclopedia of the new cult of the antique" in the late eighteenth century. It had a high impact on the growth of philhellenism in France: the book went through many editions, was reprinted in the United States and translated into German and other languages. It later inspired European sympathy for the Greek struggle for independence and spawned sequels and imitations through the nineteenth century. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. ... Jean-Jacques Barthélemy (1716-1795) French writer and numismatist, was born on the 20th of January 1716 at Cassis, in Provence. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


In the German states, the private obsession with ancient Greece took public forms, institutionalizing an elite Philhellene ethos through the gymnasium, to revitalize German education at home, and providing on two occasions high-minded Philhellene German princes ignorant of modern-day Greek realities, to be Greek sovereigns. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ...


During the later nineteenth century the new studies of archaeology and anthropology began to offer a quite separate view of ancient Greece, which had previously been experienced at second-hand only through Greek literature and Greek sculpture and architecture. Twentieth-century heirs of the nineteenth-century view of an unchanging, immortal quality of "Greekness" are typified in J.C. Lawson's Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion (1910) or R. and E. Blum's The Dangerous Hour: The lore of crisis and mystery in rural Greece (1970); according to the Classicist Paul Cartledge, they "represent this ideological construction of Greekness as an essence, a Classicizing essence to be sure, impervious to such historic changes as that from paganism to Orthodox Christianity, or from subsistence peasant agriculture to more or less internationally market-driven capitalist farming." (Cartledge 1995). Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // Wikisource has original text related to this article: an essay on the transition to written literature in Greece This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century BC and the rise... This is a suggested outline for the article, please amend. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ...


Among the modern historical relativists, the Classical heritage is only one facet of the vision of Greece that is imagined as ancestral. The theme of Nikos Dimou's The Misfortune to be Greek[1] is the perception that the Philhellenic West's projected desire for the modern Greeks to live up to their ancestors' glorious past has always been a burden upon the Greeks themselves. Nikos Dimou (b, 1935 in Athens) is a Greek writer and a broadcaster. ...


Philhellenism and art

Philhellism also created a renewed interest in the artistic movement of Neoclassicism, which idealized fifth-century Classical Greek art and architecture.[2], very much at second hand, through the writings of the first generation of art historians, like Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. The groundswell of the Philhellenic movement was result of two generations of intrepid artists and amateur treasure-seekers, from Stuart and Revett, who published their measured drawings as The Antiquities of Athens and culminating with the removal of sculptures from Aegina and the Parthenon (the Elgin marbles), works that ravished the British Philhellenes, many of whom, however, deplored their removal. Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ...


People associated with Philhellenism

Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 - July 8, 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ...

Philhellenes in Antiquity

The term "philhellen" in English can mostly be attributed to non-Greeks. On the other hand, "philhellen" in Ancient Greek language means "friend of Greeks" and can be attributed to both foreigners and Greeks. Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Examples:

There are many more examples of the Ancient Greek use of the word philhellen for Greeks[6]. Alexander I was ruler of Macedon from 495 BC to 450 BC. He was the son of Amyntas I of Macedon. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Jason of Pherae was the ruler of Thessaly during the period just before Philip of Macedon came to power. ... Euagoras was the king of Salamis (410 - 374 BC) in Cyprus. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


See also

Laconophiles are those who have a love of Lacedaemon or Sparta, in Laconia, and its culture and laws. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Germanophile is a person who is fond of German culture, and Germany in general, exhibiting as it were German nationalism in spite of not being an ethnic German. ... A Francophile is term given to people with a severe mental illness: its symptoms are a craven attitude towards fighting to preserve what is claimed to be loved, a belief that the French Emprie was and is vastly superior to the British (a falsehood) and an habitual insertion of... A Scandophile (or Septentrionalist) is a person of non-Scandinavian origin with an affinity to Scandinavian (North Germanic) culture. ...

Notes

  1. ^ I Dystihia tou na Eisai Ellinas, 1975.
  2. ^ It often selected for its favoured models third and second century sculptures that were actually Hellenistic in origin, and appreciated through the lens of Roman copies: see Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny, Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Antique Sculpture 1500-1900 1981.

The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...

References

  • Paul Cartledge, Clare College Cambridge, "The Greeks and Anthropology" in Classics Ireland 2 (Dublin 1995)

Further reading

  • Suzanne L. Marchand, Down from Olympus : Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970
  • M. Byron Raizis, 1971. American poets and the Greek revolution, 1821-1828;: A study in Byronic philhellenism (Institute of Balkan Studies)
  • Terence J. B Spencer, 1973. Fair Greece! Sad relic: Literary philhellenism from Shakespeare to Byron
  • Emile Malakis, French travellers in Greece (1770-1820): An early phase of French Philhellenism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Philhellenism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (558 words)
In the German states, the private obsession with ancient Greece took public forms, institutionalizing an elite Philhellene ethos through the gymnasium, to revitalize German education at home at home, and providing on two occasions high-minded Philhellene German princes ignorant of modern-day Greek realities, to be Greek sovereigns.
The later nineteenth-century Philhellenes were largely to be found among the Classicists, in the growing split between anthropological and Classicist approaches to Ancient Greece.
The Roman emperors Hadrian and Nero were discribed as philhellenes.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review 97.10.13 (1300 words)
Suzanne Marchand's history of German philhellenism and archaeology appears at a time when the precarious position of classical studies stands in peculiar contrast to the commercial success of Hercules in film and television.
Her project combines social, intellectual, and institutional history in an attempt to expose the nature and impact of "the elitist culture of academic neoclassicism" (xix).
Marchand's account of German philhellenism is explicitly a story of rise and fall (xviii), and there is much to justify such a view, certainly in terms of prestige, and even, for some eras, of intellectual value.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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