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Encyclopedia > Philadelphia City Hall
Philadelphia City Hall
(U.S. National Historic Landmark)
City Hall from postcard, c. 1900
Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Coordinates: 39°57′8.09″N, 75°9′50.02″W
Area: 630,000 ft² (58,222 m²) [1]
Built/Founded: 1871
Architect: McArthur,John,Jr.; Walter,Thomas U.
Architectural style(s): Second Empire, other
Added to NRHP: December 08, 1976
NRHP Reference#: 76001666 [2]
Governing body: Local
Philadelphia City Hall
Philadelphia City Hall was the world's tallest building from 1901 to 1908.*
Preceded by Ulmer Münster
Surpassed by Singer Building
Information
Location 1 Penn Square
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Status Complete
Constructed 1871-1901
Height
Antenna/Spire 167 m (548 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 9

*Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see world's tallest buildings and structures for other listings.

Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At 167 m (548 ft), including statue, it is the world's tallest masonry building: the weight of the building is borne by granite and brick walls up to 22 feet thick, rather than steel; the principal exterior materials are limestone, granite, and marble. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Philadelphia Town Hall, scanned from postcard, c. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ulm Münster is a Lutheran cathedral and the tallest church in the world, its steeple measuring 161. ... The Singer Building at Liberty Street and Broadway in Manhattan, New York was an office building completed in 1908 as the headquarters of the Singer Manufacturing Company. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario is the worlds tallest freestanding structure on land at 553. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Masonry in action; a Mason at work. ... Structural engineering is the field of civil engineering particularly concerned with the design of load-bearing structures. ... -1... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Venus de Milo, front. ...


It was the tallest building (although surpassed by monuments) in the world from 1901 to 1908 and the tallest in Pennsylvania until 1932 when surpassed by the Gulf Building. In Philadelphia, the Gentleman's Agreement was broken by One Liberty Place in 1984, which was completed in 1987. Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... The One Liberty Place Building is currently the tallest building and skyscraper in the City of Philadelphia and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Design

Bronze statue of William Penn atop City Hall tower
Bronze statue of William Penn atop City Hall tower
City Hall at night, from Broad Street, 2005
City Hall at night, from Broad Street, 2005

The building was designed by Scottish architect John McArthur, Jr., in the Second Empire style, and was constructed from 1871 until 1901 at a cost of $24 million. Originally designed to be the world's tallest building, by the time it was completed it had already been surpassed by the Washington Monument and the Eiffel Tower. With close to 700 rooms, City Hall remains one of the largest municipal buildings in North America. The building houses three branches of government, the Executive (Mayor's Office), the Legislative (City Council), and the Judicial Branch's Civil Courts (Court of Common Pleas). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 493 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Penn Philadelphia City Hall User:JVinocur/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 493 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Penn Philadelphia City Hall User:JVinocur/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2304, 605 KB) Summary Philadelphia City Hall at night, from south on Broad Street. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2304, 605 KB) Summary Philadelphia City Hall at night, from south on Broad Street. ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris, France. ...


The building is topped by an 11.3-m (36 ft, 4 in), 27-ton bronze statue of city founder William Penn, one of 250 sculptures created by Alexander Milne Calder that adorn the building inside and out. The statue is the tallest atop any building in the world. It is said that Calder wished the statue to face south so that its face would be lit by the sun most of the day, all the better to reveal the details that he had included in the work (from Hayes). Local legend has it that residents of the north side of the city paid a bribe to have it face them. A more credible reason (since it actually faces a little northeast) is that the statue faces Penn Treaty Park in the Fishtown section of the city, which commemorates the site where William Penn signed a treaty with the local Native American tribe. Yet another version for why the statue pointed generally north (from Craven) instead of south is that it was the current (1894) architect's way of showing displeasure with the style of the work; that by 1894 it was not in the current, popular Beaux-Arts style; that it was out of date even before it was placed on top of the building. Starting in the 1990s when one of Philadelphia's four major sports teams were close to winning a championship, the statue was decorated with the jersey of that team. William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Alexander Milne Calder (1846 – 1923) Biography American sculptor, born in Aberdeen, Scotland, the son of a tombstone carver. ... Fishtown is a neighborhood in transition. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... The Wachovia Center, current home of the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Philadelphia Flyers ice hockey team. ...


The free outdoor observation deck located directly below the base of the statue offers visitors an expansive view of the city and its surroundings. Penn's statue is hollow, and a narrow access tunnel through it leads to a small (22-inch-diameter) hatch atop the hat. In architecture, a deck is a constructed flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to a floor but typically constructed outdoors and usually (though not always) connected to a building. ...


For many years, City Hall remained the tallest building in Philadelphia, under a "gentlemen's agreement." In 1987, it lost this distinction when One Liberty Place was completed. (The breaking of this agreement is said to be the cause of the so-called Curse of Billy Penn, under the supposed influence of which no major-league Philadelphia sports team has won a championship since 1983.) A Gentlemens agreement is an informal agreement between two parties. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The One Liberty Place Building is currently the tallest building and skyscraper in the City of Philadelphia and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Curse of William Penn is an alleged curse, sometimes used to explain the failure of professional sports teams based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to win championships since the March 1987 addition of the One Liberty Place skyscraper, which exceeded the height of William Penns statue atop Philadelphia City Hall. ...


City Hall is a National Historic Landmark. In 2006, it was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[3] This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a professional body, founded in 1852, to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. ...


Site

City Hall is built on the area designated by William Penn as Centre Square. It was a public square from the city's founding in 1682 until the construction of City Hall began upon the site in 1871. It was one of the five original squares laid out on the city grid by Penn. It lay at the geographic heart of the city from 1682 until the Act of Consolidation, 1854 (although it was never truly the social heart of the city during that long period). William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... Map of Philadelphia County prior to the Act of Consolidation. ...


Weigley et al[4] tell us that Penn planned for Centre Square to be

"a central square or plaza of ten acres to be bordered by the principal public buildings, such as the Quaker meetinghouse, the state house, the market house, and the schoolhouse. Despite the two riverfronts [Delaware and Schuylkill], Penn's city had an inward-facing design, focusing on this central plaza."

However, the Delaware riverfront would remain the de facto economic and social heart of the city for over a century. Weigley et al[5] go on to explain that For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... The Schuylkill River, pronounced SKOO-kull (IPA: ), is a river in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...

"[…] hardly anyone lived west of Fourth Street before 1703. Consequently Penn's design of a center square as the hub of his community had to be abandoned. The large Friends meeting house which was built in 1685 at the midpoint between the rivers was dismantled in 1702. Efforts to develop the Schuylkill waterfront likewise collapsed. Of the merchants, tradesmen, and craftsmen who can be identified as living in Philadelphia around 1690, 123 lived on the Delaware side of town and only 6 on the Schuylkill side. One of the latter, a tailor named William Boulding, complained that he had invested most of his capital in his Schuylkill lot, 'so that he cannot, as others have done, Remove from the same.' Not until the mid-nineteenth century, long after the city had spilled northward and southward in an arc along the Delaware miles beyond its original limits, was the Schuylkill waterfront fully developed. Nor was Centre Square restored as the heart of Philadelphia until the construction of City Hall began in 1871."

See also

Philadelphia Portal

Liberty Bell; public domain. ... Philadelphia skyline as seen from the South Street Bridge in February 2007. ... City Hall from postcard, c. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.aviewoncities.com/building/philadelphiacityhall.htm Technical specs of City Hall
  2. ^ National Register Information System. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service (2006-03-15).
  3. ^ asce_news_Philadelphia City Hall Named as Historic Landmark. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  4. ^ Weigley et al 1982:7.
  5. ^ Weigley et al 1982:16.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Gurney, George, Sculpture of a City—Philadelphia’s Treasures in Bronze and Stone, Fairmont Park Association, Walker Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1974.
  • Hayes, Margaret Calder, Three Alexander Calders: A Family Memoir by Margaret Calder Hayes, Paul S. Eriksson, publisher, Middlebury, Vermont, 1977.
  • Weigley RF et al (eds): (1982). Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-01610-2. 

W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5127 words)
Philadelphia (sometimes referred to as "Philly" or "the City of Brotherly Love") is the fifth most populous city in the United States and the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, both in area and population.
As of June 30, 2005, the population estimate for the city was 1,470,151.
Philadelphia is also one of the largest college/university towns in the United States with over 120,000 students studying within the city limits alone and nearly 300,000 total college and university students in the metropolitan area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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