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Encyclopedia > Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta Fraternity

ΦΔΘ

Motto: One Man is No Man
Nicknames: Phis, Phi Delts, Phi Deltas

The Coat of Arms For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... This image came from a chapter of Phi Delta Theta. ...

Founded: December 26, 1848 at

Miami University, (Oxford, Ohio) Flag of the United States is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , This article is about the university in Oxford, Ohio. ... Location of Oxford in Butler County, Ohio Oxford is a college town located in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Ohio in northwestern Butler County in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Executive Vice President
  • Robert A. Biggs
General Council President
  • Rudy M. Porchivina
Members 227,000 Alumni,

6,500 Undergraduate

Scope International
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Canada Canada
Cardinal Principles
  • Friendship
  • Sound Learning
  • Moral Rectitude
Official Colors: Azure (Blue) and Argent (White)
Official Flower: Image:white carnation.jpg

White Carnation Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... Image File history File links free license File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name L. The carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ...

Member Badge: Image:phideltbadge.jpg
Pledge Pin: Image:phikeia.jpg
Flag: Image:Phideltflag.jpg
Official Goddess and Mascot: Pallas Athena and her Owl
Phi Delta Theta Fraternity Website

Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ) is an international fraternity founded in 1848 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Its headquarters is located on the Miami University campus. Phi Delta Theta along with Beta Theta Pi and Sigma Chi form the Miami Triad. The fraternity has approximately 150 chapters and colonies in over 40 United States and six Canadian provinces and has initiated more than 227,000 men between 1848 and 2007.[1] There are over 140,000 living alumni. Chartered house corporations own more than 120 houses valued at $50 million. [2] There are nearly 100 recognized alumni clubs across the U.S. and Canada. Image File history File links Badge of the Phi Delta Theta badge. ... Image File history File links Phikeia. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ... , This article is about the university in Oxford, Ohio. ... Location of Oxford in Butler County, Ohio Oxford is a college town located in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Ohio in northwestern Butler County in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... Sigma Chi (ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities. ... The Miami Triad is comprised of three fraternities that were founded at the Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ...


The fraternity was founded by six undergraduate students: Robert Morrison, John Wolfe Lindley, Ardivan Walker Rodgers, Andrew Watts Rogers, John McMillan Wilson and Robert Thompson Drake who are collectively known as the The Immortal Six. Phi Delta Theta was created under three principle objectives: "the cultivation of friendship among its members, the acquirement individually of a high degree of mental culture, and the attainment personally of a high standard of morality".[3] These cardinal principles are contained in The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the document in which every member, known as Phis or Phi Delts, pledges himself to upon his initiation into the fraternity.


Among the most well known members of the fraternity include Benjamin Harrison the 23rd President of the United States, Baseball Hall of Fame member Lou Gehrig, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the first man to walk on the moon Neil Armstrong, and Burt Reynolds. For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... Lou Gehrigs number 4 was retired by the New York Yankees in 1939 Henry Louis (Lou) Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, was an American baseball player in the first half of the twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Burton Leon Reynolds, Jr. ...

Contents

History

Founding

Phi Beta Kappa was the first Greek letter organization founded in the United States when it was created on December 5, 1776, at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was founded at Miami University in Ohio, the first fraternity founded west of the Allegheny Mountains. In protest against the president of the university, members of Beta Theta Pi and another fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi, blocked the entrances of the main educational and administrative building in what became known as the Great Snowball Rebellion of 1847. [4] The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Beta Theta Pi (ΒΘΠ) is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. ... The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ...


The "Immortal Six" of Phi Delta Theta:

Image:robert morrison.jpg Robert Morrison (1822 - 1902) Image:john lindley.jpg John Wolfe Lindley (1826 - 1907)
Image:Ardivan rodgers.jpg Ardivan Walker Rodgers (1824 - 1856) Image:andrew rogers.jpg Andrew Watts Rogers (1833 - 1901)
Image:john wilson.jpg John McMillan Wilson (1825 - 1874) Image:robert drake.jpgRobert Thompson Drake (1822 - 1873)

A year later, after the president expelled most of the students involved in the uprising, Phi Delta Theta was formed. Six men staying in a dormitory the day after Christmas formed the Greek-letter society. Robert Morrison, a senior, proposed to fellow classmate John McMillan Wilson that they bond together to form a secret society. They invited juniors Robert Thompson Drake and John Wolfe Lindley and sophomores Ardivan Walker Rodgers and Andrew Watts Rogers into the fold. These men are known today as "The Immortal Six". The first meeting was held in Wilson's room at Old North Hall, now called Elliot Hall. [4] Image File history File links One of the founders of Phi Delta Theta. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links One of the founders of Phi Delta Theta. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links One of the founders of Phi Delta Theta. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links One of the founders of Phi Delta Theta. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links One of the founders of Phi Delta Theta. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Room where Phi Delta Theta was founded. It is used by undergraduates of the parent chapter in recognition of achievement
Room where Phi Delta Theta was founded. It is used by undergraduates of the parent chapter in recognition of achievement

During the early meetings, the Founders wrote The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, which is the fundamental law of the Fraternity. It has remained unchanged ever since, and so far as is known, it is believed to be the only document of any fraternity of such a character. [1] Morrison designed the shield form of the badge, with the eye as an emblem, while Wilson suggested the scroll with the Greek letters on it. The first branch of Phi Delta Theta was founded at Indiana University in 1849. The activities of the fraternity was sub rosa for its first three years of existence fearing punishment from the university. Eventually as the organization attracted new individuals into their membership including prominent university officials, members began to openly wear their badges indicating their affiliation. Image File history File links Founders_room. ... Image File history File links Founders_room. ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... Look up sub rosa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early years

Phi Delta Theta held its first convention in 1851 in Cincinnati, Ohio when the organization only had four chapters. The event was attended by seven members. Despite the limited number, positive steps were taken for the establishment of new chapters by forming an expansion committee. It was also during the first convention where the chapter at Miami University was designated as the Grand Chapter whose duties were to oversee the overall fraternity operations. Subsequent conventions were held again in Cincinnati five years later; Bloomington, Indiana in 1858; and Danville, Kentucky in 1860. Another convention was held in 1864 in Bloomington during the Civil War. The War Between the States was difficult for all fraternities. Battles put fraternity brother against fraternity brother. 231 Phis fought for the Union Army while 50 Phis fought on the side of the Confederacy [5] 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Location in the state of Indiana Coordinates: County Monroe Mayor Mark Kruzan Area    - City 51. ... Danville is a city in Boyle County, Kentucky, United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


It was not until the 1868 Indianapolis convention that the first steps in the creation of an overall administration took place. The convention was regarded as the first "National Convention" because it was during this time when permanent convention rules were adopted. Twelve years later, the most important of all Phi Delta Theta conventions took place. The Indianapolis Convention of 1880 established new ritual, insignia, and customs that are still used today. [6] Moreover, the convention saw the creation of the General Council, the governing body of the fraternity, with Walter B. Palmer, Emory-Vanderbilt 1877, and George Banta, Franklin-Indiana 1876, becoming the president and historian, respectively. The convention also called for the organization of groups of chapters into provinces which were to be headed by province presidents. This article is about business administration. ... George Banta (1857-1935) was a Phi Delta Theta(ФΔΘ) attending Franklin-Indiana College graduating in 1876, and serving as ФΔΘ national historian. ...


A housing movement began to form during this time. The movement arose out of necessity because it was pointed out that chapter meetings were being conducted in rented halls. Even though the housing movement had been gaining momentum, it wasn't until the 1892 convention where a resolution was passed which advocated that all chapters at least rent a house or own one. [7] In the last two decades of the 19th century over 50 chapter houses were acquired.


For a brief period a resolution was set forth to allow chapters to initiate women. [8]First proposed in 1869, this was considered a radical idea both from a fraternal standpoint and social one as well since women were not allowed to vote until 1920. [9] Though it was met with strong opposition, the issue would not be settled for a number of years. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the two decades from 1870 to 1890, the growth of the fraternity was rapid, due principally to the efforts of Palmer and Banta. The two were given the title “Second Founders” for their work. [10]

50th Anniversary of Phi Delta Theta with Founders Morrison and Lindley in the fore front. From the 1898 Convention.
50th Anniversary of Phi Delta Theta with Founders Morrison and Lindley in the fore front. From the 1898 Convention.

In the 1870s alone, 34 new chapters were established, but this was also a period of uncertainty because of the anti-fraternity sentiment held by many faculty in schools where Phi Delta Theta had chapters. [10] Several chapters became dormant because of this. The fraternity continued steady growth, and by 1889, there were 66 chapters in 27 states. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1048x592, 248 KB) 50th Anniversary of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1048x592, 248 KB) 50th Anniversary of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. ...

First half of the 20th century

With constant expansion into the western United States, Phi Delta Theta became an international fraternity when the organization's first chapter in Canada was installed at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec on April 5, 1902. By 1918, there were 78 chapters with a membership of 77,000. McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...

Members of Phi Delta Theta at West Point in 1917 prior to their deployment in the First World War
Members of Phi Delta Theta at West Point in 1917 prior to their deployment in the First World War

At the outbreak of World War I, college administrators urged its undergraduate members to stay in school. However, many were eager to enlist. The first Phis to fight in the war were members of the chapters at the University of Toronto and McGill University, the fraternity's only Canadian chapters during that period. By the time the United States entered the war in 1917, over 5000 Phis served in the conflict with 155 of them losing their lives. [11] Since many of the undergraduate Phis put their studies on hold many chapter houses either had limited occupants or none at all. To prevent losing the house for when the Phis would return, the housing corporations consented to having the houses used as barracks or for YMCA programs. [11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 490 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 612 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Members of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity at West Point. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 490 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 612 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Members of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity at West Point. ... USMA redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... Not to be confused with YWCA. This article is about the association. ...


During the 1920s and 1930s, expansion was carefully controlled. Focus was placed on re-activating chapters whose charters were revoked years earlier.


World War II exacted a heavy toll on the membership and operations of the fraternity. During this time, thirteen chapters were closed with many of the undergraduate members joining the various military branches. As active membership declined most of the Phi Delt houses were used as women's residence halls or became makeshift military quarters. The fraternity tried its best to keep up to date information regarding the status of its members who were fighting. [12] A news letter, The Fighting Phi News was sent to members whose contact information was known to the fraternity. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Over 14,000 Phis were known to have been in uniform during the conflict. [13] Of that number, over 800 were killed or missing in action, the largest loss of any fraternity during the war.[13] An additional 8,000 veterans were initiated into the fraternity in the immediate subsequent years. There were 50 Phi generals and admirals who served in the United States and Canada during the conflict, the most for any fraternity. [13] Prominent among them were General Edward P. King, leader of the U.S. and Filipino forces in Bataan, Philippines, Admiral Robert L. Ghormley, commander of the Guadalcanal campaign and Admiral John S. McCain, commander of carrier task forces in the Pacific. Members of Phi Delta Theta also received every major military decoration in both the United States and British Commonwealth forces including the Medal of Honor (MOH) awarded to Leon Vance of the Army Air Corps and the Victoria Cross to Robert Hampton Gray, a Canadian naval aviator. (VC). Vance’s MOH was the last to be awarded prior to the D-Day landings while Gray was both the last military personnel to receive the VC in the war as well as being the last Canadian to lose his life during the war. MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Major General Edward P. King Edward P. King was a Major General in the United States Army who gained prominence for leading the defense of the Bataan Peninsula in the Battle of Bataan against the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in WWII. Education He was born in Atlanta, Georgia in... This article is about province of the Philippines. ... Robert Lee Ghormley (15 October 1883 – 21 June 1958) was an admiral of the United States Navy during World War II. VADM Robert L. Ghormley, 1942 Ghormley was born in Portland, Oregon, on 15 October 1883. ... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ... Three generations of notable Americans have shared the name John Sidney McCain: John S. McCain, Sr. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Lt. ... The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... Robert Hampton Gray, VC , DSC was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC) during World War II. The VC is the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...

But the line will not be broken, because the fraternity's life is continuous, with a mystic cord binding one generation to another.
Hilton U. Brown,
Past president of the fraternity speaking on the participation of Phis in WWII
[14]

Members of the fraternity also played a crucial role on the homefront. Among those were Elmer Davis the head of the Office of War Information, Byron Price the head of the Office of Censorship and Ted Gamble, the National Director of the War Finance Division. Elmer Davis Elmer Davis (born January 13, 1890 - May 18, 1958 was prominent newsreporter, the Director of the United States Office of War Information during World War II and a Peabody Award Recipient. ... The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ... Byron Price (1891-1981) was director of the Office of Censorship for the United States government during World War II. For his role, he was recognized with the Pulitzer Prize. ... The Office of Censorship was an emergency wartime agency set up on December 19, 1941 to aid in the censorship of all communications coming into and going out of the United States. ...


When World War II ended, the fraternity experienced a surge in membership as many veterans attended college under the GI Bill. On December 15, 1945 the groundbreaking of the present day General Headquarters building took place. One of the features of the headquarters was a permanent war memorial honoring all Phis who lost their lives not only in WWII but previous wars as well. The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Second half of the 20th century

After the end of World War II the fraternity was confronted with the social changes sweeping college campuses in the United states; mainly civil rights and discrimination. Like many fraternities, Phi Delta Theta had a restrictive clause barring membership to African-Americans, Asians, Jews, and Muslims. [15] Specifically the term "white persons of full Aryan blood" was the subject of strong opposition among many members in light of Nazi ideology in the recently fought war although there had been dissenting voices regarding this long before the clause became controversial among its members. [16] This clause was added to the Code of Phi Delta Theta in 1910. However, by the 1946 convention there was an open discussion regarding this topic. Impassioned sentiment from many alumni as well as undergraduates coupled with the changing demographic of the college scene caused Phi Delta Theta to re-examine its membership. Years of debate continued, however by 1954 Phi Delta Theta eliminated the clause and became one of the first fraternities to eliminate any reference to race, color, or creed. [17] Only a year earlier, Phi Delta Theta suspended its chapters from Amherst and Williams College for pledging minorities. [18] Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... Williams College is a private, liberal arts college located in Williamstown, Massachusetts. ...


The 1950s saw a period of rapid growth and an expansion of the internal operations of the fraternity. During the decade 12 new schools were granted chapter status. An important change in leadership also occurred during this time. In 1955, Paul Beam, the Executive Vice President of the Fraternity (the head of the fraternity's daily operations) unexpectedly died. He had succeeded the position from Arthur R. Priest who had served in from 1923-37. Beam guided the fraternity through eight conventions and through the trials of World War II. Bob Miller, who was Beam's assistant, was eventually chosen to take over by the General Council and assumed the office almost immediately. He would go on to serve for 36 years, which is currently the longest term served in that office.


Two important programs were developed during this period which would profoundly affect the fraternity's services. Before Beam died he and several province presidents proposed a leadership convention for undergraduate members. These conventions would cover topics ranging from chapter organization to effective leadership. The first such convention was set up in 1956. At the time, it only involved 16 chapters. From 1956 until 1987 these sessions were held on a regional basis. The gatherings would form the basis of the Leadership College founded in 1987. 1958 was an important year for the fraternity as they saw the creation of an educational foundation. The main purpose of the foundation was to provide scholarships to deserving students. A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Neil Armstrong, presenting a signed picture of himself walking on the moon to Phi Delta Theta
Neil Armstrong, presenting a signed picture of himself walking on the moon to Phi Delta Theta

During the turbulent times of the 1960s, Phi Delta Theta along with other social fraternities, had to deal with strong anti-fraternity sentiment from people who saw the Greek lettered communities as old world established institutions. [19]Despite overall decline in fraternity membership in the late 60s, Phi Delta Theta continued to expand in to various campuses. However, this time expansion was carefully controlled through a process called "colonization". In 1968, a historic initiation took place when Robert Wise, Academy Award winning director of the Sound of Music and West Side Story was initiated in the Franklin College chapter. Wise had completed all membership requirements in 1932 but was forced to withdraw from college due to lack of funds. Roger D. Branigin, the current Governor of Indiana at the time and Phi Delt member presided over the ceremonies. 1969 was an eventful year for the fraternity as Neil Armstrong, a graduate from the Purdue University chapter, became the first man to walk on the moon. During this event, Armstrong carried with him a fraternity badge which he subsequently donated to the General Headquarters of the fraternity. [20] He also donated a small silk flag of the fraternity which he carried with him on his Gemini flight in 1966. [20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Julie Andrews as Maria, seeks guidance from the Mother Abbess, played by Peggy Wood, in this scene from the 1965 film version. ... This article is about the musical. ... If searching for Franklin College Switzerland in Lugano, Switzerland, use this link: Franklin College Switzerland Franklin College is a liberal arts college in Franklin, Indiana. ... Roger Douglas Branigin (July 26, 1902–November 19, 1975) was a Democratic governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from January 11, 1965 to January 13, 1969. ... List of Indiana Governors Jonathan Jennings Dem. ... Purdue redirects here. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ...

The initiation of film director Robert Wise. From left-right. Elba Branigin, Wise, Gov. Roger Branigin, Robert Miller and Tom Cartmel
The initiation of film director Robert Wise. From left-right. Elba Branigin, Wise, Gov. Roger Branigin, Robert Miller and Tom Cartmel

As war raged in Vietnam, Phis would again serve in the armed forces. With the emergence of new technology, a significant percentage opted to become fighter pilots. The Vietnam War saw a small dip in the Fraternity's membership; however, by 1972, the fraternity had 140 active chapters with over 128,000 initiates. An important change was made during the 70s which gave more autonomy to chapters in terms of membership selection. An amendment was passed wherein the unanimous vote rule to allow a college man to become a pledge was changed to allow individual chapters to decide on their own what method best suited their respective chapters. [21] In 1973, the fraternity celebrated its 125th anniversary. The special occasion was marked by the construction of the University gates at Miami University. To date, there are 9 buildings on the campus which were either constructed by Phi Delta Theta or named after members. [22] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The 1980s saw the fraternity deal with issues such as hazing, rising insurance costs and maintenance of individual chapter operations. The unofficial theme of the 1980 convention was “Eliminate Hazing”. The decade was marked by an increase of lawsuits dealing with hazing and alcohol abuse among many fraternities. [23] To deal with this issue, Phi Delta Theta instituted a comprehensive insurance policy to protect its chapters. It was during the 1980s where an important aspect of the fraternity was created: Leadership consultants. The consultants, who are recent college graduates, would travel to assigned provinces and assist various chapters in many aspects of fraternity life and chapter operations. They would also report the status of each visited chapter to GHQ.


An important leadership change occurred in the beginning of the 90s when Robert Biggs became the 4th Executive Vice President of the fraternity after Robert Miller stepped down. The most important policy to be implemented by the fraternity during the decade was the decision made in 1997 to have all chapter facilities alcohol free by the year 2000. [24]It was an initiative that was strongly pursued by the 1996-98 General Council. The policy was in response to the growing insurance claims against the fraternity, 53% of which were alcohol related, and a return to the core values of the organization. [25]


Governing bodies

All powers of the fraternity, both legislative and supreme, rests within the General Convention, a biannual event where undergraduate chapters, alumni chapters as well as representatives from the various educational foundations are in attendance to discuss and vote on a wide range of issues affecting the fraternity. [26]The convention is held in various cities across North America. It is also during the convention where the General Council is elected.


The General Council is the governing body of Phi Delta Theta. It is an all volunteer organization in which members are elected every two years during the fraternity’s convention. Their chief responsibility is to act as the executive and administrative board of the fraternity. [26] Among their duties include the granting of charters.


The General Headquarters (GHQ) is responsible for the daily operations of the fraternity. They collect dues, distribute supplies and tries to keep up to date information of all its members among other duties. Unlike other entities within the fraternity, the staff of GHQ are paid for their services. While the main offices of GHQ are held by members of the fraternity, support staff need not be members. The head of GHQ is the Executive Vice President, who acts as the secretary to the General Council.


Educational foundation and programs

Phi Delta Theta along with many other fraternities has an educational foundation fund. Part of the foundation's aim is to award scholarships to deserving undergraduate members and those pursuing advanced degrees in various graduate schools. Each year, it provides over $150,000 in scholarships. [27] The foundation is also essential in supporting various programs such as the Emerging Leadership Institute, the Leadership Consultant Program, and portions of the General Convention as well as the Scroll, the official magazine of the fraternity. The foundation, which was established in 1962 with only $4,708, has since grown to over $14 million.[27]


The Accolade

In 2004, the fraternity began a member development program for undergraduates called The Accolade. It is designed to enhance a member's collegiate and overall fraternity experience. Some of the program's personal development activities include goal-setting, time management, and career development. Although the program is intended for new undergraduate members, it is available to all members including senior members and alumni. Though Phi Delta Theta is no longer part of the North American Interfraternity Conference, the Fraternity was recognized by the conference for the 'Best Use of a Foundation Grant for its support of The Accolade. [28]


Emerging Leadership Institute

The Emerging Leadership Institute (ELI) is an annual event held at the Fraternity's headquarters during the summer where newly initiated undergraduates are given instruction in various leadership classes as well as participating in programs that help to improve their respective chapters. It is attended by selected undergraduates from every chapter. It is mainly geared toward newly initiated members. The Institute was established after the Leadership College was dissolved.


Philanthropy

For many years, Phi Delta Theta had no official philanthropy. The Fraternity, however, was long associated with the Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association (ALSA) because of Lou Gehrig, an alumnus who died of the disease. Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a deabilitating neuro-muscular disease and has since become known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Though there had always existed a relationship between ALSA and Phi Delta Theta, it was not until November 2002 when the General Council made the partnership official. [29]Undergraduate as well as alumni chapters from all across North America regularly organize various events raising money for research. Lou Gehrigs number 4 was retired by the New York Yankees in 1939 Henry Louis (Lou) Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, was an American baseball player in the first half of the twentieth century. ... The motor neurone diseases (MND) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurones, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. ...


Leadership Consultants

Phi Delta Theta, along with most all Greek organizations employ Leadership Consultants (LCs) to assist with undergraduate development. The LCs, formerly known as "Traveling Secretaries" help undergraduate chapters identify major problems and challenges. Then, along with chapter leaders, alumni advisors, and university officials develop plans and programs for solving them. LCs serve as liaison between the General Fraternity/GHQ and the chapters. The LCs also work to guide chapter members to realize leadership and achieve, more fully, the ideals,objectives and values of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity.


Literature

The Scroll

The Scroll of Phi Delta Theta is the official magazine for members of the fraternity. The award winning magazine has been continuously published since 1875. It is the second oldest continuously published fraternity magazine behind that of the official magazine of Beta Theta Pi which was first published 3 years before. [30] Members receive lifetime subscriptions to The Scroll. The magazine covers various topics such as current issues relating both to Phi Delta Theta and the fraternity world, news of prominent alumni, alumni club meeting reports and undergraduate chapter reports. Although the magazine is related to Phi Delta Theta interests, readership is open to non-members. Since its inception, issues have been published 2- 4 times a year.

The Palladium

The Palladium was the private magazine specifically for members of Phi Delta Theta. Unlike The Scroll, the Palladium was intended to be read by Phis only. The magazine covered topics such as fraternity policy, reports and minutes to any conventions. It was published only once a year and was a supplement to the Winter edition of The Scroll. The first issue was printed in 1894 and the last issue was released in the mid 1960s.


The pledge manual

The first three pledge manuals of the fraternity were written by Walter B. Palmer. The idea for the manual was conceived by J. Marshall Mayer, City College of New York 1884 who at the time was the managing editor of the Scroll. The first pledge manual was printed in 1886 and contained only 56 pages. Since very few copies were published and it is the first membership manual of any fraternity, it is regarded as one of the most rare and valuable books if its kind. [31] The 4th-6th editions were authored by Arthur R. Priest. Much of the present day material is derived from these editions.

Role in the fraternity world

Phi Delta Theta has played an important role in the fraternity movement. Chiefly among these was being a founding member of the North American Interfraternity Conference which was established in 1910 (an organization which they subsequently left in 2002) and leading the initiative to ban alcohol from Phi Delt houses. Throughout their history, the fraternity became a pioneer in establishing traditions as well as having individual members shape the formation of similar women's organizations. The fraternity has also been the first fraternity to establish itself on over 25 campuses. [32] Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Historical ties with sororities

Even though Phi Delta Theta technically does not have a sister sorority, it has the distinction of having close connections with two sororities: Delta Gamma and Delta Zeta. [33] George Banta Sr., a Phi Delt from Franklin-Indiana, was instrumental in helping to expand the Delta Gamma sorority. For his efforts, he was the only man ever initiated into Delta Gamma. [34] Banta would later perform initiation ceremonies for new members of the sorority, including that of Lillian Vawter, his fiancée. Guy Potter Benton, a graduate of the Phi Delt chapter at Ohio Wesleyan University, was president of Miami University in 1902 when he helped with the founding of Delta Zeta. Dr. Benton aided in the preparation of a ritual, badge, and colors. [34] He was a great assistance to Delta Zeta and at one point chased down a man who stole the newly formed ritual of the sorority. For his work, Delta Zeta named him the Grand Patron of the sorority and is the only man to ever wear the Delta Zeta badge. To this day, an amiable friendship exists between Phi Delta Theta and these two sororities. [33] Delta Gamma (ΔΓ) is one of the oldest and largest womens fraternities[1] in the United States and Canada, with its Executive Offices based in Columbus, Ohio. ... Delta Zeta (ΔΖ) is a college sorority founded on October 24, 1902, at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. ... The Reverend Dr. Guy Potter Wharton Benton (born May 26, 1865) was an American educator who served as president of Miami University from 1902-1911, the University of Vermont from 1911-1920, and the University of the Philippines from 1921-1925. ... “OWU” redirects here. ...


Famous firsts

Phi Delta Theta instituted several policies and traditions which are not only still used by the fraternity today but has also has become standards among almost all fraternities as well as sororities. [22][35]

  • First fraternity to adopt a pledge pin. - Adopted by the 1894 convention in Indianapolis, IN
  • First fraternity to adopt an alumnus pin. - Adopted by the 1894 convention in Indianapolis, IN
  • First fraternity to adopt a pledge manual. - Authored by Walter B. Palmer in 1886
  • First fraternity to adopt a National Day of Celebration - Adopted by the General Council in 1889
  • First fraternity to adopt life subscriptions to the fraternity magazine - Instituted by William Bates, the first editor of The Scroll in 1875
  • First fraternity to expand west of the Mississippi River. - A charter was given to Austin College in 1853

Austin College is a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA located in Sherman, Texas, an hour north of Dallas. ...

Current issues

North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC)

In 2002, Phi Delta Theta, along with Kappa Sigma and Phi Sigma Kappa left the North-American Interfraternity Conference due to ideological differences. [36] Fraternity officials had been concerned of the direction of the conference for six years prior to leaving. Phi Delta Theta officials believed that the conference had been placing too much emphasis on individual undergraduates through specific programs such as leadership conferences rather than focusing on the fraternity movement as a whole. [37] ΚΣ (Kappa Sigma) is an international fraternity with currently 234 chapters and 42 colonies in North America. ... Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣK) is a fraternity devoted to three cardinal principles: the promotion of Brotherhood, the stimulation of Scholarship, and the development of Character. ... The North-American Interfraternity Conference (or NIC), (formerly known as the National Interfraternity Conference) is an association of collegiate mens fraternities that was formally organized in 1910, although it began on November 27, 1909. ...


Alcohol free housing policy

In 1997, Phi Delta Theta spearheaded the initiative of having alcohol free housing within its chapters by the year 2000. [25] The policy has since been adopted by other fraternities including Theta Chi and Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI). [38] Theta Chi (ΘΧ) is an international college fraternity for men. ... Phi Gamma Delta (also known as FIJI) is a collegiate social fraternity with 116 chapters and 5 colonies across the United States and Canada. ...


Concern and criticism

When Phi Delta Theta announced the inception of an alcohol free housing policy, the announcement was met both by hope and skepticism. While some viewed that the ban of alcohol in housing facilities was a welcome return to the founding principles of the fraternity, others felt that it would hurt social dynamics because of the drastic cultural shift. The General Council and GHQ had expected resistance from both alumni and undergraduate members when it was first proposed. [25] Among the most vocal chapters against the policy were the University of Virginia chapter where a faction split off from Phi Delta Theta and chose to form a separate local fraternity known as the Phi Society, and the University of the South chapter who formed the Phi Society of 1883 rather than adopt the policy. [39] The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... The University of the South The University of the South is located in Sewanee, Tennessee, and is a private, coeducational liberal arts college. ... Formerly Phi Delta Theta. ...


Alcohol Free Housing Five Year Progress Report

In 2005, the fraternity issued a progress report. There have been significant improvements in many areas of fraternity life and operations. Since the implementation of the Alcohol-free Housing Policy, the all undergraduate grade point average rose from a 2.77 in 2000 to nearly a 3.00 in 2005. The insurance premiums of individual members have also gone down as risk management violations have decreased. Perhaps the most telling area is in membership, where Phi Delta Theta showed an increase of new members. In 2004, Phi Delta Theta had 3,102 new members while other fraternities averaged 2,415. In 1990, chapters of Phi Delta Theta were 18% larger than the typical fraternity chapter. In 2004, they were 30% larger. Also, in 2004, Phi Delta Theta was one of only 13 national/international fraternities to show an increase in total undergraduates from the previous year with an increase of 4.2%. The significance of this is highlighted by that fact that Phi Delta Theta had fewer chapters than other fraternities. Competitively, Phi Delta Theta has remained a constant among others. In terms of new members, it ranked ninth in 1990, eighth in 2000, and ninth in 2004. Many alumni members have credited the alcohol free housing policy in continuing this trend.[40]


Membership

Membership to Phi Delta Theta is open to all qualified men without concern for race, religion or ethnicity. Initial membership to the fraternity is contingent upon receiving an invitation to an interested individual by members of an active chapter. A pledge of Phi Delta Theta is called a Phikiea. The typical pledge period calls for a minimum of 8 weeks although on occasion can be shortened or lengthened depending on the university requirement or with the approval of the General Council. [41] The pledge period is a time where the prospective member learns about the fraternity history, structure, traditions, organization as well as social etiquette. Phi Delta Theta has a strict policy against hazing and does not tolerate chapters who violate the policy. [42] Once a person is initiated, he is entitled to all the rights and privileges entitled to him as a member of the fraternity unless he formally resigns or is expelled. [41] Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ...


Notable Alumni

See Notable Phi Delta Theta Alumni
Baseball Hall of Famer Lou Gehrig was a member of the fraternity's Columbia University chapter. An annual award was instituted in his name by Phi Delta Theta

Members of Phi Delta Theta have held every major political position in the United States including the presidency, vice-presidency and Speaker of the House. In Canada, they have served in many levels of government. Members have won every major award in entertainment and have also gained prominence in areas such as architecture, medicine and sports. Throughout the years, many prominent members have kept a vested interest in the events and operations of Phi Delta Theta. President Harrison, for example, participated in three Phi Delt banquets during his presidency while Medal of Honor recipient General Frederick Funston was the guest speaker at certain chapter installations. [43] [44] The signature of Lou Gehrig indicating his membership into Phi Delta Theta This is a list of prominent alumni of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lou Gehrigs number 4 was retired by the New York Yankees in 1939 Henry Louis (Lou) Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, was an American baseball player in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Brig. ...


By the numbers

The number of members who have either been involved in armed conflict or have achieved prominence within their respective professions have been documented throughout the years.[45] As of August 2007 [46], the following statistics are the involvement of its members in various fields: For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ...

14,000+ (Initiated) Members served in World War II
7 Members have won the Emmy Award
5000+ Members served in World War I 8 Members have won the Pulitzer Prize
400+ Members have played Professional Football 6 Members are enshrined in the MLB Hall of Fame
286 Members served in the Spanish-American War 5 Members are enshrined in the NFL Hall of Fame
281 Members served in the American Civil War 3 Members have been NASA astronauts
200+ Members have obtained the rank of General or Admiral 3 Members have won the Academy Award
107 Members have been United States Congressmen 3 Members have won the Heisman Trophy
32 Members have been United States Governors 3 Members have served on the The US Supreme Court
30 Members have been United States Senators 2 Members have been Canadian Premiers
14 Members have Stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame 1 Member served as the President of the United States
8 Members have received the Medal of Honor 1 Member served as the Vice President of the United States

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An Emmy Award. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... The Pro Football Hall of Fame is actually the National Football Leagues Hall of Fame. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Heisman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...

Sports awards named after members

Grantland Rice (November 1, 1880–July 13, 1954) was an early 20th century American sportswriter. ... Football Writers Association logo The Football Writers Association of America (FWAA) is one of the organizations whose College Football All-America Team is recognized by the NCAA. The organization also selects the Eddie Robinson Coach of the Year, the Bronko Nagurski Trophy winner, the Outland Trophy winner, the Grantland Rice... The Doak Walker Award, first awarded in 1990, honors the nations top college football running back. ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow storm Southern Methodist University (commonly SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas (an enclave of Dallas). ... Football Writers Association logo The Outland Trophy is awarded to the best United States college football interior lineman. ... Football Writers Association logo The Football Writers Association of America (FWAA) is one of the organizations whose College Football All-America Team is recognized by the NCAA. The organization also selects the Eddie Robinson Coach of the Year, the Bronko Nagurski Trophy winner, the Outland Trophy winner, the Grantland Rice... The Lou Gehrig Memorial Award is a award created by the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity to recognize the former Major League Baseball player Lou Gehrig. ... Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in North America. ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ...

Chapters

Undergraduate chapters

See Phi Delta Theta chapters

Since 1848 nearly 260 charters have been granted across The United States and Canada. Today, there are over 165 chapters and colonies. In order to be granted a charter, a colony must complete certain requirements set forth by the General Council. Chief among these are recruiting a certain amount members and achieving a respectable cumulative grade point average among its members. [47] The following is a complete list of active Phi Delta Theta Fraternity chapters. ...


Alumni chapters

Currently Phi Delta Theta has over 100 active alumni clubs. Though at present, all of the clubs are located in North America, alumni clubs have been found all over the world throughout its history. At one point, there were over 165 alumni chapters, some as far away as China. The most Phis to ever assemble on foreign land for an alumni club meeting prior to the fraternity becoming international in 1902, was in Manila, Philippines when 30 Phis gathered in 1899. [48] The alumni club in the Philippines would last for nearly 40 years. For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Beam, Paul C. (1942) The Manual of Phi Delta Theta. 7th Edition. George Banta Company, Inc.
  • Biggs, Robert A. et al. (2000) The Manual of Phi Delta Theta. 34th Edition. Maury Boyd & Associates
  • Collett, Ritter (1998). In the Bond: Phi Delta Theta at 150. Landfall Press
  • Havighurst, Walter E. (1975). From Six at First: A History of Phi Delta Theta 1848-1973. George Banta Company, Inc.
  • Priest, Arthur R. (1932). The Phikeia: His Book. 4th Edition. The Ovid Bell Press
  • Miller, Robert J. (1982). The Manual of Phi Delta Theta 26th Edition. George Banta Company, Inc.

Walter Havighurst (born 28 November 1901 - died 1994) writer and professor of English at the Miami University. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Phi Delta Theta Homepage History. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  2. ^ Phi Delta Theta Organization. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  3. ^ Priest, op. cit. p. 25
  4. ^ a b "Biggs, op. cit. p. 36-37
  5. ^ Collet, op. cit. p 40
  6. ^ Collett, op. cit. p 65-66
  7. ^ Collett, op. cit. p. 78
  8. ^ Havighurst, op. cit. p 14-16
  9. ^ Collett, op. cit. p 49
  10. ^ a b Collett, op. cit. p. 59-64
  11. ^ a b Havighurst 1973, op. cit.25-26.
  12. ^ The Scroll. Vol. 61 No. 1
  13. ^ a b c “The Crew that Sails the Phi” 1946
  14. ^ Havighurst, op. cit., pp. 150
  15. ^ Beam. op. cit. p. 41
  16. ^ The Palladium Number. Vol. 73, No. 5. Part II “Some Questions About the Future”, George Banta Jr.
  17. ^ The Scroll, Vol. 79. No. 3
  18. ^ Thank You, Sir, May I Have Another? By Daniel Balserak. Dartmouth Review. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  19. ^ Collett, op. cit p. 152
  20. ^ a b Havighurst, op. cit. p 110-112
  21. ^ Collett, op. cit. p 153
  22. ^ a b Miller, op. cit. p 27-28
  23. ^ Collett, op. cit. p. 161
  24. ^ Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Nu Will Be Alcohol-Free by 2000. Carina Fung, The Tech, MIT. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  25. ^ a b c Collett, op. cit. p 14
  26. ^ a b Biggs, op. cit.49-59
  27. ^ a b Phi Delta Theta Educational Foundation Program Guide; published by Phi Delta Theta (2002)
  28. ^ The Inner Shield
  29. ^ Partners for Hope. The ALS Association. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  30. ^ Facts about Beta Theta Pi
  31. ^ The Scroll, Vol. 16. No 3
  32. ^ Biggs, op. cit. p 44
  33. ^ a b Delta Gamma - "Brother Fraternity" : Phi Delta Theta. Delta Gamma. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  34. ^ a b Biggs, op. cit. p 32
  35. ^ Biggs, op. cit. p34
  36. ^ Statement regarding Phi Delta Theta's departure from the NIC. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  37. ^ Concerns regarding the NIC from Phi Delta Theta. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  38. ^ Ban of Brothers. Benoit Denizet-Lewis. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  39. ^ The Phi Society of the University of Virginia. Phi Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  40. ^ Alchohol Free Housing. Does it Make a Difference?
  41. ^ a b Biggs, op. cit. p. 146-147
  42. ^ Phi Delta Theta: Anti-hazing Policy. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  43. ^ Collett, op. cit. p. 76
  44. ^ Havighurst, cit. op p. 20
  45. ^ Collett, op. cit. p. 40-41, 82, 96
  46. ^ Famous Phi: Facts Section. Phi Delta Theta. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  47. ^ Biggs, op. cit. 136-137
  48. ^ Havighurst, op. cit. p. 39

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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