Mathematician Mark Barr proposed using the first letter in the name of Greek sculptor Phidias, *phi*, to symbolize the golden ratio. Usually, the lowercase form (φ) is used. Sometimes, the uppercase form (Φ) is used for the reciprocal of the golden ratio, 1/φ. **Phi** (uppercase **Φ**, lowercase **φ**), pronounced "f'eye" in modern Greek and sometimes as "fai" (as in "de*fy*") in English, is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greek, it represents [f], a voiceless labiodental fricative. In Ancient Greek it represented [pʰ], an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 500 (φʹ) or 500,000 (͵φ). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...
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Image File history File links Greek_alphabet_phi. ...
Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...
Alpha (uppercase Î‘, lowercase Î±) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
For other uses, see Nu. ...
Beta (upper case Î’, lower case Î²) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Look up Îž, Î¾ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Gamma (uppercase Î“, lowercase Î³) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Omicron (upper case ÎŸ, lower case Î¿, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Look up Î”, Î´ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Î , lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
For the 2005 hurricane, see Hurricane Epsilon. ...
Rho (upper case Î¡, lower case Ï) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Zeta (upper case Î–, lower case Î¶) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ...
Look up Î—, Î· in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Tau (upper case Î¤, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
== // == Dimensionless temperature in transport phenomena. ...
Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
For programming language, see Iota and Jot. ...
For other uses, see Kappa (disambiguation). ...
Chi (upper case Î§, lower case Ï‡) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ...
Look up Î›, Î» in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Look up Î¨, Ïˆ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
For other uses, see Mu. ...
Look up Î©, Ï‰ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ...
San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ...
Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ...
Sampi (Upper case Ϡ, lower case ϡ) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ...
Stigma is a ligature of the Greek letters sigma and tau, sometimes used nowadays to represent the Greek numeral 6. ...
Sho (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ...
In the Greek alphabet, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. ...
Image File history File links Greek_Letter_Phi. ...
Image File history File links Greek_Letter_Phi. ...
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Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ...
The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA // – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. ...
Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ...
The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ...
Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ...
The lower-case letter φ (or often its variant, ) is used as a symbol for: The upper-case letter Φ is used as a symbol for: The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. ...
The first thousand values of Ï†(n) In number theory, the totient (n) of a positive integer n is defined to be the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and coprime to n. ...
In mathematics, a probability density function (pdf) serves to represent a probability distribution in terms of integrals. ...
The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)) is a probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ...
Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ...
Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ...
An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. ...
== // == Dimensionless temperature in transport phenomena. ...
In mathematics, a complex number is a number of the form where a and b are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit, with the property i 2 = âˆ’1. ...
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This article describes some of the common coordinate systems that appear in elementary mathematics. ...
A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ...
In Aerospace engineering, the dihedral is the angle that the two wings make with each other. ...
A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...
Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ...
Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. ...
The work function is the minimum energy (usually measured in electron volts) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point immediately outside the solid surface. ...
In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ...
Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...
The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ...
A mutant, (formerly called a monster) is an individual, organism, or new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a sudden structural change within the DNA of a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not...
Phi value analysis is an experimental protein engineering method used to study the structure of the folding transition state in small protein domains that fold in a two-state manner. ...
First-order logic (FOL) is a universal language in symbolic science, and is in use everyday by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, computer scientists and practitioners of artificial intelligence. ...
See also phi phenomenon. Magnetic flux, is a measure of quantity of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field. ...
In physics, Gausss law gives the relation between the electric flux flowing out a closed surface and the charge enclosed in the surface. ...
In probability theory, the cumulative distribution function (abbreviated cdf) completely describes the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable, X. For every real number x, the cdf is given by where the right-hand side represents the probability that the random variable X takes on a value less than...
The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)) is a probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ...
Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ...
Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ...
For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...
In geometry, a diameter (Greek words diairo = divide and metro = measure) of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center and whose endpoints are on the circular boundary, or, in more modern usage, the length of such a line segment. ...
Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...
Artists impression of the diameter symbol in A.W. Boundys Engineering Drawing This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ...
Artists impression of the diameter symbol in A.W. Boundys Engineering Drawing This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ...
Circle illustration This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ...
The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ...
Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ...
Electrical Engineers design power systemsâ€¦ â€¦ and complex electronic circuits. ...
The phi phenomenon is a perceptual illusion described by Max Wertheimer in his 1912 Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion, in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. ...
## Computing
In Unicode, there are multiple forms of the phi letter: Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...
- lower case:
- U+03C6 (φ):
*letter* phi, used in Greek texts. - U+03D5 (ϕ): phi
*symbol*, for mathematical and technical contexts. ^{[1]} - U+0278 (ɸ): Latin letter phi (IPA symbol).
- upper case:
- U+03A6 (Φ): Greek capital letter phi
In HTML/XHTML, the upper and lower case phi character entity references are `Φ` (Φ in your browser) and `φ` (φ) respectively. In LaTeX, the math symbols are `Phi` (Φ), `phi` (φ), and `varphi` (). Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...
For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ...
The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but a stricter syntax. ...
HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ...
The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ...
## References **^** UTR #25: Unicode and Mathematics — Representative Glyphs for Greek Phi |