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Encyclopedia > Phi (letter)
Look up Φ, φ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Greek alphabet Obsolete letters Α α Alpha Ν ν Nu Β β Beta Ξ ξ Xi Γ γ Gamma Ο ο Omicron Δ δ Delta Π π ϖ Pi Ε ε Epsilon Ρ ρ Rho Ζ ζ Zeta Σ σ ς Sigma Η η Eta Τ τ Tau Θ θ Theta Υ υ Upsilon Ι ι Iota Φ φ Phi Κ κ Kappa Χ χ Chi Λ λ Lambda Ψ ψ Psi Μ μ Mu Ω ω Omega Ϝ ϝ Digamma Ϻ ϻ San Ϙ ϙ Qoppa Ϡ ϡ Sampi Ϛ ϛ Stigma Ϸ ϸ Sho diacritics
Mathematician Mark Barr proposed using the first letter in the name of Greek sculptor Phidias, phi, to symbolize the golden ratio. Usually, the lowercase form (φ) is used. Sometimes, the uppercase form (Φ) is used for the reciprocal of the golden ratio, 1/φ.

The lower-case letter φ (or often its variant, ) is used as a symbol for:

The upper-case letter Φ is used as a symbol for: The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. ... The first thousand values of Ï†(n) In number theory, the totient (n) of a positive integer n is defined to be the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and coprime to n. ... In mathematics, a probability density function (pdf) serves to represent a probability distribution in terms of integrals. ... The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)) is a probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. ... == // == Dimensionless temperature in transport phenomena. ... In mathematics, a complex number is a number of the form where a and b are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit, with the property i 2 = âˆ’1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article describes some of the common coordinate systems that appear in elementary mathematics. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... In Aerospace engineering, the dihedral is the angle that the two wings make with each other. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. ... The work function is the minimum energy (usually measured in electron volts) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point immediately outside the solid surface. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... A mutant, (formerly called a monster) is an individual, organism, or new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a sudden structural change within the DNA of a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not... Phi value analysis is an experimental protein engineering method used to study the structure of the folding transition state in small protein domains that fold in a two-state manner. ... First-order logic (FOL) is a universal language in symbolic science, and is in use everyday by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, computer scientists and practitioners of artificial intelligence. ...

In Unicode, there are multiple forms of the phi letter: Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...

• lower case:
• U+03C6 (φ): letter phi, used in Greek texts.
• U+03D5 (ϕ): phi symbol, for mathematical and technical contexts. [1]
• U+0278 (ɸ): Latin letter phi (IPA symbol).
• upper case:
• U+03A6 (Φ): Greek capital letter phi

In HTML/XHTML, the upper and lower case phi character entity references are &Phi; (Φ in your browser) and &phi; (φ) respectively. In LaTeX, the math symbols are Phi (Φ), phi (φ), and varphi (). Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but a stricter syntax. ... HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ...

## References

Look up Phi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Results from FactBites:

 Welcome to Phi Sciences -- Why Phi Sciences: Mission (193 words) "Phi" is the Greek letter that refers to the golden ratio. Phi is a fascinating proportion that appears repeatedly in DNA and living organisms (e.g., humans, trees, shellfish). Copyright © 2003-2004 Phi Sciences All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective owners.
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