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Encyclopedia > Pheromone
Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive
Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive

A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero "to bear" + ‘ορμόνη "hormone") is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Their use among insects has been particularly well documented, although many vertebrates and plants also communicate using pheromones.[citation needed] Nasonov gland of honeybee Photo by Pollinator, April 2003, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:33, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nasonov gland of honeybee Photo by Pollinator, April 2003, South Carolina Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:33, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive Nasanov pheromone is released by worker bees to orient returning forager bees back to the colony. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Explanation

Pheromones of the pest insect species, such as the Japanese beetle and the gypsy moth, can be used to induce many behaviors. This facilitates trapping for monitoring purposes and population control by creating confusion, disrupting mating and preventing them from laying eggs. Binomial name Newman, 1841 Wikispecies has information related to: Japanese beetle The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is a beetle about 1. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ...


In mammals and reptiles, pheromones may be detected by the vomeronasal organ, or Jacobson's organ, which lies between the nose and mouth and is the first stage of the accessory olfactory system. Some pheromones in these animals are detected by regular olfactory membranes. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Reptilia redirects here. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ... The Accessory olfactory system (AOS) is one of the two olfactory systems commonly found in vertebrates. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ...


The term "pheromone" was introduced by Peter Karlson and Martin Lüscher in 1959, based on the Greek pherein (to transport) and hormon (to stimulate). They proposed the term to describe chemical signals from conspecifics which elicit innate behaviours soon after Butenandt characterized the first such chemical, Bombykol (a chemically well-characterized pheromone released by the female silkworm to attract mates).[1] Conspecificity is a concept in biology. ... Bombykol Many species use pheromone signals to direct essential behaviors such as mating, feeding, combat, flight, and nurturing the young. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ...


Types of pheromones

Aggregation pheromones

Produced by one or the other sex, these pheromones attract individuals of both sexes.


Alarm pheromones

Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator that can trigger flight (in aphids) or aggression (in bees) in members of the same species. Pheromones also exist in plants:certain plants emit alarm pheromones when grazed upon, resulting in tannin production in neighboring plants. These tannins make the plants less appetizing for the herbivore.[2] Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ...


Epideictic pheromones

Recognized in insects, these pheromones are different from territory pheromones. According to Fabre (translated from French), "Females who lay their eggs in these fruits deposit these mysterious substances in the vicinity of their clutch to signal to other females of the same species so that they will clutch elsewhere." Jean Henri Fabre Jean-Henri Casimir Fabre (December 22, 1823 - October 11, 1915) was a French entomologist and author. ...

Aggregation of nymphs of bugs
Aggregation of nymphs of bugs

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1466x939, 933 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pheromone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1466x939, 933 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pheromone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...

Releaser pheromones

Powerful attractant molecules that some organisms may use to attract mates from a distance of 2 miles or more. This type of pheromone generally elicites rapid response but is quickly degraded. In contrast, a primer pheromone would have a slower onset but a longer duration.


Primer pheromones

These pheromones trigger a change of developmental events.


Territorial pheromones

Laid down in the environment, these pheromones mark the boundaries of an organism's territory. In dogs, these hormones are present in the urine, which they deposit on landmarks serving to mark the perimeter of the claimed territory.


Trail pheromones

These pheromones are common in social insects. For example, ants mark their paths with these pheromones, which are non-volatile hydrocarbons. For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Certain ants lay down an initial trail of pheromones as they return to the nest with food. This trail attracts other ants and serves as a guide.[3] As long as the food source remains, the pheromone trail will be continually renewed. The pheromone must be continually renewed because it evaporates quickly. When the supply begins to dwindle, the trailmaking ceases. In at least one species of ant, trails that no longer lead to food are also marked with a repellent pheromone.[4]


Sex pheromones

Sesiidae on a pheromone trap
Sesiidae on a pheromone trap

In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype. Many insect species release sex pheromones to attract a mate and many lepidopterans can detect a potential mate from as far away as 10 km (6.2 miles). Pheromones can be used in gametes to trail the opposite sex's gametes for fertilization. Pheromones are also used in the detection of oestrus in sows. Boar pheromones are sprayed into the sty, and those sows which exhibit sexual arousal are known to be currently available for breeding. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x725, 565 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pheromone ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x725, 565 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pheromone ... Author: Boisduval, 1828 Type species: Sesia apiformis (Hornet moth) Diversity: 123 genera 1,123 species Subfamilies Sesiinae Tinthiinae Genera Sesia Synanthedon and many others The Sesiidae or Clearwing moths are a family of the Lepidoptera in which the wings have hardly any of the normal lepidopteran scales, leaving them transparent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Turn on redirects here. ...


Other pheromones (not yet classified)

This classification, based on the effects on behavior, remains artificial. Pheromones fill many additional functions.

  • Nasonov pheromones (worker bees)
  • Royal pheromones (bees)
  • Calming (appeasement) pheromones (mammals)

Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive Nasanov pheromone is released by worker bees to orient returning forager bees back to the colony. ...

Human pheromones

A few well-controlled scientific studies have been published suggesting the possibility of pheromones in humans. The best-studied case involves the synchronization of menstrual cycles among women based on unconscious odor cues (the McClintock effect, named after the primary investigator, Martha McClintock, of the University of Chicago)[5][6]. This study proposes that there are two types of pheromone involved: "One, produced prior to ovulation, shortens the ovarian cycle; and the second, produced just at ovulation, lengthens the cycle". This is analogous to the Whitten effect,[7][8] a male pheromone mediated modulation of estrus observed in mice. Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive age females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ... The McClintock effect (also known as Menstrual Synchrony) is the observed phenomenon that the menstrual cycles of women who live together (such as in prisons, convents, bordellos, dormitories, etc. ... Veronika che cosa sta succedendo non posso capire ... The Whitten effect is a phenomenon observed by W. K. Whitten (1956, 1966, 1968) whereby male mouse pheromone-laden urine synchronizes the estrus cycle among unisexually grouped females. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


Other studies have suggested that people might be using odor cues associated with the immune system to select mates who are not closely related to themselves. (See Disassortative sexual selection) Using a brain imaging technique, Swedish researchers have shown that homosexual and heterosexual males' brains respond differently to two odors that may be involved in sexual arousal, and that the homosexual men respond in the same way as heterosexual women. The study was expanded to include lesbian women and the results were consistent with previous findings meaning that homosexual women were not as responsive to male identified odors but their response to female cues was similar to heterosexual males.[9] According to the researchers, this research suggests a possible role for human pheromones in the biological basis of sexual orientation.[10] Disassortative sexual selection is a form of sexual selection in which one sex chooses the other, in such a way that the offspring benefits from the diversity of the parental genotypes. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ...


Another study demonstrated that the smell of androstadienone, a chemical component of male sweat, maintains higher levels of cortisol in females. The scientists suggest that the ability of this compound to influence the endocrine balance of the opposite sex makes it a human pheromonal chemosignal.[11] In 2002 a study published in the quarterly journal Physiology and Behavior showed an unnamed synthetic chemical in women's perfume appeared to increase intimate contact with men. The authors hypothesize, but do not demonstrate, that the observed behavioural differences are olfactory mediated. [12] The chemical structure of androstadienone Androstadienone, also known as androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one, is a chemical compounds that has been described as having pheromone-like activities in humans. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...


In 2006 it was shown that a second mouse receptor sub-class is found in the olfactory epithelium. Called the trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), some are activated by volatile amines found in mouse urine, including one putative mouse pheromone.[13] Orthologous receptors exist in humans providing, the authors propose, evidence for a mechanism of human pheromone detection.[14] Olfactory receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. ... The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. ... Trace amine-associated receptors, abbreviated TAAR and previously abbreviated TAR and TA, are a class of G protein-coupled receptors identified in 2001. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Orthologs are genes in different species which evolved from a common ancestral gene. ...


Some body spray advertisers claim that their products contain human sexual pheromones which act as an aphrodisiac. In the 1970's "copulins" were patented as products which release human pheromones, based on research on rhesus monkeys.[15] Subsequent to that androstenone, axillary sweat, and "vomodors" have been claimed to act as human pheromones. [16] Despite these claims, no pheromonal substance has ever been demonstrated to directly influence human behavior in a peer reviewed study.[15][17][16] This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780 The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


See also

An Allomone is any chemical produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... chemical structure of androstenone Androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-4-one) is a steroid found in both male and female sweat and urine. ... Bromhidrosis or body odor (also called bromidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia) is the smell of bacteria growing on the body. ... Claus Wedekind is a Swiss biological researcher famous for his 1995 study that determined a major histocompatibility complex dependent mate preference in humans. ... The chemical structure of estratetraenol Estratetraenol, also known as estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol, is a chemical compound that has been described as having pheromone-like activities in humans. ... Cat pheromones are pheromones that are used by cats and other felides for cat communication. ... Honey bee pheromones are mixtures of chemical substances released by individual bees into the hive or environment that cause changes in the physiology and behaviour of other bees. ... A kairomone is a chemical substance produced and released by a living organism that benefits the receiver and disadvantages the donor. ... Pheromones are a popular device in fiction, including the novel Jitterbug Perfume by Tom Robbins and the film Love Potion No. ... Quorum sensing is the process by which many bacteria coordinate gene expression according to the local density of bacteria producing signaling molecules. ... A semiochemical is a generic term used for a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ...

References

  1. ^ Karlson, P., Lüscher, M. (1959). Pheromones: a new term for a class of biologically active substances. Nature 183, 55-56.
  2. ^ J.du P. Bothma, Game ranch management, fourth edition, Van Schaik publishers, 2002
  3. ^ Excited ants follow pheromone trail of same chemical they will use to paralyze their prey. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  4. ^ Study: Ants Use Scents Like Road Signs. Retrieved on 2006-03-14.
  5. ^ McClintock MK (1971). "Menstrual synchrony and suppression". Nature 229 (5282): 244-5. PMID 4994256
  6. ^ Stern K, McClintock MK (1998). "Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones". Nature 392 (6672): 177-9. doi:10.1038/32408. PMID 9515961.
  7. ^ Whitten, M.K. 1957. Effect of exteroceptive factors on the oestrous cycle of mice. Nature. 180(4599):1436. [1]
  8. ^ Gangrade BK, Dominic CJ. 1984. Studies of the male-originating pheromones involved in the Whitten effect and Bruce effect in mice. Biol Reprod. 31(1):89-96.[2]
  9. ^ Savic, I."Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women." PNAS, May 16, 2006
  10. ^ Wade, N. "Gay Men are found to have Different Scent of Attraction." NY Times, May 9, 2005
  11. ^ Wyart C, Webster WW, Chen JH, Wilson SR, McClary A, Khan RM, Sobel N. 2007. Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women. J Neurosci. 27(6):1261-5.[3]
  12. ^ (March 20 2002) "San Francisco State University study shows that synthetic pheromones in women's perfume increase intimate contact with men". San Francisco State University Office of Public Affairs.
  13. ^ Liberles SD, Buck LB. 2006. A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature. 442(7103):645-50. [4]
  14. ^ Pearson H. 2006. Mouse data hint at human pheromones. Nature. 442(7102):495. [5]
  15. ^ a b Wyatt, Tristram D. (2003). Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48526-6. p. 298 Quoting Preti & Weski (1999) "No peer reviewed data supporting the presences of...human...pheromones that cause rapid behavioral changes, such as attraction and/or copulation have been documented."
  16. ^ a b Hays, Warren S. T., Human pheromones: have they been demonstrated? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2003, 54:89-97
  17. ^ Bear, Mark F.; Barry W. Connors, Michael A. Paradiso (2006). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. ISBN 0781760038.  p. 264 ...there has not yet been any hard evidence for human pheromones that might [change] sexual attraction (for members of either sex) [naturally]

This article is about the physical universe. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ...

Further reading

  • Kohl, JV., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B. & Grammer, K. (2001). Human Pheromones: Integrating Neuroendocrinology and Ethology. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 22(5), 319-331. Full text
  • Liberles, S.D., Buck, L.B. (2006). A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Nature, 442, 645-50.
  • McClintock, M.K. (1984). Estrous synchrony: modulation of ovarian cycle length by female pheromones. Physiological Behavior, 32, 701-705.
  • Wilson, E. O., Bossert, W. H. (1963). Chemical communication among animals. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 19, 673-716.
  • Wyatt, Tristram D. (2003). Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48526-6.

Linda B. Buck, Ph. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ...

External links

The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pheromones (582 words)
Pheromones are chemicals emitted by living organisms to send messages to individuals of the same species.
Bombykol, the sex pheromone of the silkmoth, was first synthesized in 1959.
During the past 40 years, pheromones of hundreds of insect species have been chemically elucidated, including the sex pheromone of the codling moth.
PHEROMONES (2489 words)
The use of pheromones in control is similar to methods used for monitoring but involves mechanisms which either kill the insect directly on contact with the trap, or serve to disseminate a chemical or pathogen which later renders them and, depending on the method others they contact, dead.
Pheromones are chemicals which when released result in either attracting or dispersing insects of the same species, that is to say they are intraspecific.
Aggregation pheromones which may or may not be produced by either sex to congregate the species for feeding or reproduction, and alarm pheromones that serve to rapidly disperse a group of insects usually as a response to predation (Nordlund 1981).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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