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Encyclopedia > Phenylbutazone
Molecule structure

Phenylbutazone, often known as bute, is a crystalline substance having the structure shown at right. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1135x602, 14 KB) Molecule structure of phenylbutazone, typeset with PPCHTeX. definechemical[CH2]{ chemical[ONE,SB1357,Z037][C,H,H] } startchemical chemical[SIX,B,C,MOV6,MOV5,B,C,MOV2,-SB2,+SB6,ADJ1,FIVE,ROT3,B34,SB1,-SB2,+SB5,Z12,R4,ER35...

  • Structural name: 4-butyl-1,2-diphenyl-3,5-pyrazolidinedione
  • Chemical formula: C19H20N2O2

It is used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of chronic pain, including the symptoms of arthritis. Its use is limited by its side-effect of suppressing the production of white blood cells by bone marrow and sometimes causing aplastic anemia. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation) is a group of conditions that affect the health of the bone joints in the body. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough, or any, new cells to replenish the blood cells. ...


The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) places it in Group 3, i.e., "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans". When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ...


Benzone is also used as a class name for the active ingredients in sunscreen that end in "benzone" (such as oxybenzone, dioxybenzone, avobenzone, and sulisobenzone), which are chemically unrelated benzophenone derivatives. These chemicals offer protection against UVB. Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suncream, suntan lotion) is a topical lotion that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, ultimately leading to a lower risk of skin cancer. ... Oxybenzone is a chemical used in sunscreen to block UVB. It is a derivative of Benzophenone. ... Categories: Stub ... Avobenzone (also known as Parsol 1789) is an ingredient used in sunscreen products. ... Benzophenone, also known as diphenylmethanone, phenyl ketone, diphenyl ketone, or benzoylbenzene. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...

Contents


Uses of phenylbutazone in horses

Phenylbutazone is a common NSAID used in horses, mainly for treating pain and to lessen fevers. Applied to horses, the main uses for bute include: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...

  • Musculoskeletal disorders: sprains, muscle pain from overuse, tendonitis, joint pain and injuries, and arthritis, as well as to provide pain relief from injuries or infections, as well as laminitis, and to control fevers. Bute does not work well on colic pain. It works directly on inflamed tissue.
  • Analgesic: Pain relief from injuries or infections, as well as laminitis
  • Antipyretic (fever reducing)

Bute does not work well on colic pain. Laminitis is inflammation of the sensitive lamina of the foot in a horse, the complications of which often result in the horse having to be euthanized. ... Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, characterized by incessant crying. ... Laminitis is inflammation of the sensitive lamina of the foot in a horse, the complications of which often result in the horse having to be euthanized. ... Antipyretics are drugs that prevent or reduce fever by lowering the body temperature from a raised state. ... Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, characterized by incessant crying. ...


Phenylbutazone controls the inflammation of musculoskeletal problems, which reduces the ultimate damage of the problem and alleviates the pain. Control of the pain also allows the horse free range of motion. However, bute will not cure any musculoskeletal problems.


If bute is used to control a fever, it may mask other symptom. Therefore, bute should not be used for that purpose unless a veterinarian has concluded that the horse would not be able to eat or drink without its use, or the fever might hinder the horse's recovery.


Dosage and administration

Bute may be given orally (paste, powder, feed-in) or intravenously. It should not be given intramuscularly or injected in any place other than a vein, as bute can cause tissue damage. Tissue damage may also occur if the drug is always injected into the same vein.


The maximum oral dose recommended by manufacturers is 2 to 4 g/1000 lb (4 to 9 mg/kg) per day. Manufacturers recommend that the dose be divided equally and given every 8 hours for maximum results, although most horse owners give it every 12-24 hours for convenience, usually giving 1-2 grams in the morning and at night.


Intravenously, the maximum daily dose recommended by manufacturers is 1 to 2 g/1000 lb (2 to 4.5 mg/kg). The maximum dose is usually given when treatment with Bute is first begun, and then dosage is decreased. It is important to remember that bute may cause severe tissue damage or loss of tissue if injected outside a vein. The vein itself may be damaged if it is repeatedly used as an injection site. Edema may also occur in the tissues supplied by the vein, should the vein be damaged. Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ...


Bute should never be given in high doses. Always follow a veterinarian's advice on the administration of the drug.


Side effects and disadvantages of phenylbutazone

Bute, like many NSAIDs, can cause gastrointestinal ulcers and kidney damage if overdosed or used for a prolonged time. Bute may also cause lesions on the horse's mouth and tongue, as well as hemorrhages. This is especially true with young, ill, or stressed horses. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Bute may cause severe damage to the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, possibly causing the horse to leak considerable amounts of protein from his blood into his intestine. This may cause edema of the legs and belly. Symptoms of leakage include: decreased appetite, thirst, weight loss, weakness, and if progressed, kidney failure and death.


Do not use Bute in combination with blood thinners or with other NSAIDs (all NSAIDs are additive), or in horses with known kidney or liver problems. When used with other blood thinners (such as Coumadin), such as in horses with laminitis or navicular disease, Phenylbutazone amplifies the anticoagulant effect.


Phenylbutazone should be used cautiously in pregnant or nursing mares, as it may be toxic to the embryo and can be transferred via the umbilical cord and by milk.


High doses of Phenylbutazone may be considered a violation of rules under some equestrian organizations. Bute may remain in the blood stream 4-5 days after received.


History of Phenylbutazone in Racing

In the 1968 Kentucky Derby Dancer's Image, the winner of the race, was disqualified after traces of bute were discovered in a post race urinalysis. Owned by prominent Massachusetts business man Peter Fuller and jockeyed by Bobby Useress, Dancer's Image remains the only horse in history to win the Kentucky Derby and then be disqualified. After many appeals Forward pass was named the winner. Churchill Downs racetrack, 2004 The Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, staged annually in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, capping the three-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... Churchill Downs racetrack, 2004 The Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, staged annually in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, capping the three-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ...


To this day controversy surrounds the 1968 Kentucky Derby. Bute was legal on most tracks around the country in 1968 and was legal at Churchill Downs the year before and after. Also, in the weeks prior to the race Peter Fuller had given his purse to Coretta Scott King the widow of slain Civil Rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. an act that brought on much praise and criticism. Martin Luther King Jr. had set up a sit-in on the Kentucky Derby the year before. Churchill Downs racetrack, 2004 The Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, staged annually in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, capping the three-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... Composite image of Churchill Downs on Derby Day, 1901 Churchill Downs, located on Central Avenue in Louisville, Kentucky, is a thoroughbred racetrack most famous for hosting the Kentucky Derby. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Churchill Downs racetrack, 2004 The Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, staged annually in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, capping the three-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ...


External links

  • IARC monograph on carcinogenicity of phenylbutazone
  • Phenylbutazone For Veterinary Use

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Use of Phenylbutazone (Bute) in Horses (2584 words)
Phenylbutazone is indicated for the treatment of a wide range of musculoskeletal disorders, including muscular sprain and strain, muscular overuse (including both muscular damage and strain/damage of the tendons attaching muscles to bone), tendonitis, acute joint injury/strain/sprain, and arthritic conditions.
Phenylbutazone or its metabolites may be detected in plasma and particularly in urine for longer periods (up to 7 days or longer) after administration of a course of phenylbutazone therapy.
Phenylbutazone may be a cause of heart disease, high blood pressure, blurred vision, bleeding in the back of the eye, detachment of a retina, hearing loss, high blood sugar, thyroid disease, agitation, confusion, or lethargy.
Phenylbutazone * (1851 words)
Phenylbutazone may cause decreased renal blood flow and sodium and water retention, and should be used cautiously in animals with preexisting renal disease or CHF.
Phenylbutazone should therefore be used in pregnancy only when the potential bene­fits of therapy outweigh the risks associated with it.
Phenylbutazone is contraindicated in patients demonstrating previous hypersensitivity re­actions to it, and should be used very cautiously in patients that have a history of allergies to other drugs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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