FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Phentermine" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Phentermine
Phentermine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine and 2-methyl-amphetamine
Identifiers
CAS number 122-09-8
ATC code A08AA01 C01CA11
PubChem 4771
DrugBank APRD00093
Chemical data
Formula C10H15N 
Mol. mass 149.233 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Peak plasma levels occur within 1 to 4.5 hours. Absorption is usually complete by 4 to 6 hours
Protein binding Approximately 96.3%
Metabolism hepatic
Half life 16 to 31 hours
Excretion Urinary elimination
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US) Phentermine structure. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (928 × 622 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A08A Antiobesity preparations, excluding diet products A08AA Centrally acting antiobesity products A08AA01 Phentermine A08AA02 Fenfluramine A08AA03 Amfepramone A08AA04 Dexfenfluramine A08AA05 Mazindol A08AA06 Etilamfetamine A08AA07 Cathine A08AA08 Clobenzorex A08AA09 Mefenorex A08AA10 Sibutramine A08AA56 Ephedrine, combinations A08AB Peripherally... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Legal status

Schedule IV(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Routes Oral

Phentermine is an appetite suppressant of the amphetamine and phenethylamine class. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants, are substances which reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). Used on a short term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over the counter. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ...


It is approved as an appetite suppressant to help reduce weight in obese patients when used short-term and combined with exercise, diet, and behavioral modification. It is typically prescribed for individuals who are at increased medical risk because of their weight and works by helping to release certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite.

Contents

Commercial trade names

  • Adipex P (Immediate release)
  • Anoxine-AM
  • Fastin (discontinued)
  • Ionamin (Slow Release Resin, Australia, discontinued in the US)
  • Duromine (Slow Release Resin, New Zealand & Australia)
  • Obephen
  • Obermine
  • Obestin-30
  • Phentrol
  • Phenterex
  • Phentromin
  • Pro-Fast SA
  • Redusa
  • Panbesy
  • Phentermine Trenker
  • Obenix
  • Oby-Trim

History

In 1959 phentermine first received approval from the FDA as an appetite suppressing drug. Phentermine hydrochloride then became available in the early 1970s. It was previously sold as Fastin from King Pharmaceuticals for SmithKline Beecham, however in 1998 it was removed from the market. Medeva Pharmaceuticals sells the name brand of phentermine called Ionamin® and Gate Pharmaceuticals sells it as Adipex-P. Phentermine is also currently sold as a generic. Since the drug was approved in 1959 there have been almost no clinical studies performed. The most recent study was in 1990 which combined phentermine with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine and became known as Fen-Phen. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) plc is a pharmaceutical and healthcare company, one of the largest in the world, in fact the second largest pharmaceutical company. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). ... Dexfenfluramine, also marketed under the name Redux, is a appetite-suppresant drug. ... Fen-phen was an anti-obesity medication (an anorectic) which consisted of two drugs: fenfluramine and phentermine. ...


A study was published in 1992 that Fen-Phen was more effective than diet and exercise with few side effects. However, in 1997 after 24 cases of heart valve disease in Fen-Phen users, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were voluntarily taken off the market at the request of the FDA. Studies later proved that nearly 30% of people taking fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine had abnormal valve findings. The FDA did not ask manufacturers to remove phentermine from the market.


Phentermine is still available by itself in most countries, including the U.S. However, because it is similar to amphetamines, individuals may develop an addiction to it. Hence, it is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. Internationally, phentermine is a schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[1] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act. Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


Mechanism of action

Phentermine, like many other prescription drugs, works with neurotransmitters in the brain. It is a centrally-acting stimulant and is a constitutional isomer (not to be confused with stereoisomer) of methamphetamine. It stimulates neuron bundles to release a particular group of neurotransmitters known as catecholamines; these include dopamine, epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The anorectic activity seen with these compounds is thus likely due to their effect on the central nervous system, which is consistent with current knowledge about the central nervous system and feeding behavior. This is the same mechanism of action as other stimulant appetite suppressants such as diethylpropion and phendimetrazine. The neurotransmitters signal a fight-or-flight response in the body which, in turn, puts a halt to the hunger signal. As a result, it causes a loss in appetite because the brain does not receive the hunger message. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Diethylpropion (Tenuate®) is a sympathomimetic stimulant drug marketed as an appetite suppressant. ... Phendimetrazine (Bontril®) is a weight loss medication. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ...


Dosing and administration

Generally, it is recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that phentermine should be used short-term (usually interpreted as 'up to 12 weeks'), while following nonpharmacological approaches to weight loss such as healthy dieting and exercise. However, recommendations limiting its use for short-term treatment may be controversial. One reason given behind limiting its use to 12 weeks is drug tolerance, whereby phentermine loses its appetite-suppressing effects after the body adjusts to the drug. On the contrary, it has been shown that phentermine did not lose effectiveness in a 36-week trial.[2] Due to the risk of insomnia, it is generally recommended that the drug be taken either before breakfast or 1-2 hours after breakfast. “FDA” redirects here. ... Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ...


Contraindications and warnings

  • Patients with the following should not use Phentermine:
  • Some medical conditions may interact with Phentermine, patients with the following should consult with their doctor before using phentermine:
    • Are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
    • Are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
    • Have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
    • Have a brain or spinal cord disorder, hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol or lipid levels
  • Some medicines may interact with Phentermine, such as the following:
    • Dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, furazolidone, or MAOIs (eg, phenelzine) because the risk of serious side effects, such as increasing headache, high blood pressure, slow heart rate, elevated temperature, or possibly fatal lung problems, may be increased
    • Serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (eg, fluoxetine) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Phentermine
    • Guanadrel or guanethidine because their effectiveness may be decreased by Phentermine

Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Dexfenfluramine, also marketed under the name Redux, is a appetite-suppresant drug. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ... Guanethidine is an antihypertensive drug. ... MAOI redirects here. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ...

Side effects

Generally, phentermine appears to be relatively well tolerated.[3] It can produce side effects consistent with its catecholamine-releasing properties, e.g., tachycardia (increased heart rate) and elevated blood pressure, but the incidence and magnitude of these appear to be less than with the amphetamines. Because phentermine acts through sympathomimetic pathways, the drug may increase blood pressure and heart rate. It may also cause palpitations, restlessness, and insomnia. Additionally, phentermine has the potential to cause physical and psychological dependence. Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ...


More Common Symptoms

  • Insomnia
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Sense of well-being

Less Common to Rare Symptoms

  • Blurred vision
  • Change in sexual desire
  • Clumsiness
  • Confusion
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Psychosis
  • Skin rash or itching
  • Stomach pain
  • Tiredness
  • Unpleasant taste

Possible Overdose Symptoms

  • Confusion
  • Convulsions (seizures)
  • Dizziness
  • Fast Breathing
  • Fever
  • Hallucinations
  • Hostility with urge to attack
  • Irregular blood pressure
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Lightheadedness or Fainting
  • Mental Depression, following a period of excitement
  • Tremors, Trembling, or Shaking
  • Overactive Reflexes
  • Panic
  • Restlessness
  • Severe nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Stomach cramps
  • Tiredness or Weakness

References

  1. ^ Incb.org (PDF file)
  2. ^ PMID 11054601
  3. ^ Nelson DL, Gehlert DR. (2006). Central nervous system biogenic amine targets for control of appetite and energy expenditure. (HTML). Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):49-60. PubMed. Retrieved on 6 May 2006.

is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A08A Antiobesity preparations, excluding diet products A08AA Centrally acting antiobesity products A08AA01 Phentermine A08AA02 Fenfluramine A08AA03 Amfepramone A08AA04 Dexfenfluramine A08AA05 Mazindol A08AA06 Etilamfetamine A08AA07 Cathine A08AA08 Clobenzorex A08AA09 Mefenorex A08AA10 Sibutramine A08AA56 Ephedrine, combinations A08AB Peripherally... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). ... Diethylcathinone, more commonly called Diethylpropion in the medical field (Tenuate®) is a sympathomimetic stimulant drug marketed as an appetite suppressant. ... Dexfenfluramine, also marketed under the name Redux, is a appetite-suppresant drug. ... Mazindol is a central nervous system simulant. ... Cathine (β-hydroxyamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat). ... Clobenzorex (also known under the brand names Asenlix, Finedal, or Rexigen; or the US slang greenies) is a stimulant drug used as an anorectic (that is, a medication that suppresses appetite). ... Sibutramine (Meridia® in the USA, Reductil® in Europe), usually as sibutramide hydrochloride monohydrate, is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity. ... Rimonabant (SR141716) is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. ... Orlistat (marketed under the trade name Xenical by Roche; or over-the-counter as Alli[1] by GlaxoSmithKline, pronounced , like the English word ally)—also known as tetrahydrolipstatin—is a drug designed to treat obesity. ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m