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Encyclopedia > Phenotype
Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes.
Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes.

A phenotype describes any observed quality of an organism, such as its morphology, development, or behaviour, as opposed to its genotype - the inherited instructions it carries, which may or may not be expressed. This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.[1][2] The distinction is similar to that proposed by August Weismann, who distinguished between germ plasm (heredity) and somatic cells (the body). A more modern version is Francis Crick's Central dogma of molecular biology. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x3000, 1582 KB) Coquina shells. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x3000, 1582 KB) Coquina shells. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Species A genus of mollusc that has a species found on the beaches along the East Coast of Australia (Donax deltoides), but also found in other countries. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The genotype-phenotype distinction refers to the fact that while genotype and phenotype of an organism are related, they do not necessarily coincide. ... Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (February 3, 1857 - November 11, 1927) was a Danish botanist. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ... The germ plasm (or polar plasm) is a zone found in the the cytoplasm of the egg cells of some model organisms (such as C. elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus), which contains determinants that will give rise to the germ cell lineage. ... A somatic cell is a type of cell in an organism, such as the human body. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of...


Despite its seemingly straightforward definition, the concept of the phenotype has some hidden subtleties. In the first place, most of the molecules and structures coded by the genetic material are not visible in the appearance of an organism, yet are part of the phenotype. Human blood groups are an example. Therefore, by extension, the term phenotype must include characteristics that can be made visible by some technical procedure. A further, and more radical, extension would add inherited behaviour to the phenotype. A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ...

Biston betularia morpha typica, the standard light-coloured Peppered Moth.
Biston betularia morpha typica, the standard light-coloured Peppered Moth.
Biston betularia morpha carbonaria, the melanic Peppered Moth, illustrating discontinuous variation.
Biston betularia morpha carbonaria, the melanic Peppered Moth, illustrating discontinuous variation.

Second, the phenotype is not simply a product of the genotype, but is influenced by the environment to a greater or lesser extent (see also phenotypic plasticity). And, further, if the genotype is defined narrowly, then it must be remembered that not all heredity is carried by the nucleus. Mitochondria, for example, divide in unison with the nucleus, but transmit their own DNA directly, not via the nucleus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1318 KB) Description: Biston betularia Source: picture taken by Olaf Leillinger at 2006-06-14 License: CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1318 KB) Description: Biston betularia Source: picture taken by Olaf Leillinger at 2006-06-14 License: CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1001 KB) Description: (Linnaeus, 1758) Source: picture taken by Olaf Leillinger at 2006-06-13 License: CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1001 KB) Description: (Linnaeus, 1758) Source: picture taken by Olaf Leillinger at 2006-06-13 License: CC-BY-SA-2. ... We dont have an article called Phenotypic plasticity Start this article Search for Phenotypic plasticity in. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


The phenotype is composed of traits or characteristics [3]. Some phenotypes are controlled entirely by the individual's genes. Others are controlled by genes but are significantly affected by extragenetic or environmental factors. Almost all humans inherit the capacity to speak and understand language, but which language they learn is entirely an environmental matter. In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...


Phenotypic variation

Phenotypic variation (due to underlying heritable genetic variation) is a fundamental prerequisite for evolution by natural selection. It is the living organism as a whole that contributes (or not) to the next generation, so natural selection affects the genetic structure of a population indirectly via the contribution of phenotypes. Without phenotypic variation, there would be no evolution by natural selection. Genetic variation is the variation in the genetic material of a population, and includes the nuclear, mitochodrial, ribosomal genomes as well as the genomes of other organelles. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


The interaction between genotype and phenotype has often been conceptualized by the following relationship:

genotype + environment → phenotype

A slightly more nuanced version of the relationships is:

genotype + environment + random-variation → phenotype

An example of random variation in Drosophila flies is the number of ommatidia, which may vary (randomly) between left and right eyes in a single individual as much as they do between different genotypes overall, or between clones raised in different environments. Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... The compound eye of insects is composed of hundreds of unit eyes called ommatidia. ... For other uses, see clone. ...


A phenotype is any detectable characteristic of an organism (i.e., structural, biochemical, physiological, and behavioral) determined by an interaction between its genotype and environment (of this distinction).


According to the autopoietic notion of living systems by Humberto Maturana, the phenotype is epigenetically being constructed throughout ontogeny, and we as observers make the distinctions that define any particular trait at any particular state of the organism's life cycle. Look up Autopoiesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. ...


The idea of the phenotype has been generalized by Richard Dawkins in The Extended Phenotype to mean all the effects a gene has on the outside world that may influence its chances of being replicated. These can be effects on the organism in which the gene resides, the environment, or other organisms. For instance, a beaver dam might be considered a phenotype of beaver genes, the same way beaver's powerful incisor teeth are phenotype expressions of their genes. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ...


The concept of phenotype can be extended to variations below the level of the gene that effect an organism's fitness. For example, silent mutations that do not change the corresponding amino acid sequence of a gene may change the frequency of guanine-cytosine base pairs (GC content). These base pairs have a higher thermal stability (melting point, see also DNA-DNA hybridization) than adenine-thymine, a property that might convey, among organisms living in high-temperature environments, a selective advantage on variants enriched in GC content. Silent mutations or synonymous mutations are DNA mutations that, although they alter a particular codon, they do not alter the final amino acid, and hence do not affect the final protein. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... In genetics, the guanine-cytosine content (GC content) is the ratio of guanine and cytosine to the total number of nucleotides of a given genome. ... DNA-DNA hybridization is a method in genetics to measure the degree of genetic similarity between DNA sequences. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ...


References

  1. ^ Churchill F.B. 1974. William Johannsen and the genotype concept. J History of Biology 7, 5-30.
  2. ^ Johannsen W. 1911. The genotype conception of heredity. American Naturalist 45, 129-159
  3. ^ Sydney Brenner and Jeffrey H. Miller. 2002. Encyclopedia of Genetics San Diego: Academic Press.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phenotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (305 words)
The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, eye color, or behavior that varies between individuals.
Phenotype is determined to some extent by genotype, or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes.
A phenotype is any detectable characteristic of an organism (i.e., structural, biochemical, physiological and behavioral) determined by an interaction between its genotype and environment (see genotype-phenotype distinction and phenotypic plasticity for a further elaboration of this distinction).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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