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Encyclopedia > Phenolphthalein
Phenolphthalein (pH indicator)
below pH 8.2 above pH 10.0
colorless fuchsia
Phenolphthalein
Systematic name Phenolphthalein
Chemical formula C20H14O4
Molecular mass 318.33 g mol−1
Density 1.299 g cm−3, solid
Melting point 263-265 °C
Boiling point 258 °C
CAS number [77-09-8]
SMILES Oc1ccc(cc1)C3(OC(=O)c2ccccc23)
c4ccc(O)cc4
Disclaimer and references

Phenolphthalein is a sensitive chemical with the formula C20H14O4 (often written as "HIn" in shorthand notation). Often used in titrations, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. If the concentration of indicator is particularly strong, it can appear purple. In solutions containing a pH below 0, phenolphthalein turns a bright orange color. pH measurement with indicator paper. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixel, file size: 424 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein Metadata This file contains additional... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Titration setup: the titrant drops from the burette into the analyte solution in the flask. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is...


In strongly basic solutions, phenolphthalein's pink color undergoes a rather slow fading reaction and becomes colorless again. In other words, the molecule has four forms:

species
In
H2In
In2−
In(OH)3−
structure
model
pH
< 0
0−8.2
8.2−12.0
>12.0
conditions
strongly acidic
acidic or neutral
alkaline
strongly alkaline
color
orange
colorless
pink to fuchsia
colorless
image

The rather slow fading reaction that produces the colorless InOH3− ion is sometimes used in classes for the study of reaction kinetics. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1077 × 1100 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 678 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 973 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1077 × 1100 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 786 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1972 × 1504 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 665 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein User:Benjah...


Phenolphthalein is insoluble in water, and is usually dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is itself a weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule is colorless. However, the phenolphthalein ion is pink. When a base is added to the phenolphthalein, the molecule ions equilibrium shifts to the right, leading to more ionization as H+ ions are removed. This is predicted by Le Chatelier's principle. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... In chemistry, Le Châteliers principle can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. ...


Phenolphthalein is synthesized by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol under acidic conditions (hence the name). It was discovered in 1871 by Adolf von Baeyer. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 152 °C RTECS number TI3150000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry . ...


Uses

Phenolphthalein has been used for over a century as a laxative, but is now being removed from the market because of concerns over carcinogenicity. However, the small amounts usually used in experiments are harmless.[citation needed] Phenolphthalein along with hydrogen peroxide is also commonly used in a mixture, primarily by forensic scientists, to test for the presence of blood. Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Phenolphthalein is used to perform a presumptive blood test, and is commonly known as the Kastle-Meyer test. A dry sample is collected with a swab or filter paper. First a few drops of alcohol, then a few drops of phenolphthalein and finally a few drops of hydrogen peroxide are dripped onto the sample. If the sample turns pink then it is a positive test. This test is nondestructive to the sample; it can be kept and used in further tests at the lab. This test has the same reaction with blood from any animal, so further testing would be required to determine whether it originates from a human. A forensic presumptive blood test, where the chemical indicator Phenolphthalein is used. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ...


Phenolphthalein is used in toys, for example as a component of disappearing inks, or disappearing dye on the Hollywood Hair Barbie hair. In the ink it is mixed with sodium hydroxide, which reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. This reaction leads to the pH falling below the color change threshold as hydrogen ions are released via the reaction: Barbie is a best-selling doll launched at the American International Toy Fair on March 9, 1959. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base. ...

OH (aq) + CO2 (g)CO32− (aq) + H+ (aq)

To develop the hair and "magic" graphical patterns, the ink is sprayed with a solution of hydroxide, which leads to the appearance of the hidden graphics by the same mechanism described above for color change in alkaline solution. The pattern will eventually disappear by the same reaction with carbon dioxide detailed above. Thymolphthalein is used for the same purpose and in the same way, when blue color is desired. [1] Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... For other meanings see gas (disambiguation). ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Thymolphthalein is an acid-base (pH) indicator. ...

Phenolphthalein in alkaline solution

Phenolphtalein is used as an acid or base indicator where in contact or presence of acid it will turn colorless and with base, it will turn into a pinkish violet color. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 665 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein User:Benjah... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 665 pixel, file size: 358 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenolphthalein User:Benjah... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is...


See also

Bromothymol blue (alt: dibromothymolsulfonephthalein, bromthymol blue, BTB) is a chemical indicator for weak acids and bases. ... pH measurement with indicator paper. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

External links

  • Page on different titration indicators, including phenolphthalein
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
PHENOLPHTHALEIN (865 words)
Not classified as an irritant but may be absorbed via moist or oily surfaces.
Suspect cancer hazard; contains phenolphthalein which may cause cancer.
Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an appropriate and approved waste disposal facility.
Phenolphthalein - LoveToKnow 1911 (361 words)
PHENOLPHTHALEIN, in organic chemistry, a compound derived from phthalophenone, or diphenyl phthalide (formula I.), the anhydride of triphenyl-carbinol-ortho-carboxylic acid, which is obtained by condensing phthalyl chloride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.
Phenolphthalein is obtained when phenol and phthalic anhydride are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid.
On fusion with caustic alkali, phenolphthalein yields benzoic acid and para-dihydroxybenzophenone, which shows that in the original condensation the phthalic acid residue has taken the para position to the hydroxyl groups of the phenol.
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