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Encyclopedia > Phenolics

In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol (C6H5OH). Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds that by definition contain carbon. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Phenol, also known under the old name carbolic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ...


Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols (since the hydroxyl group is not bonded to a saturated carbon atom). They have relatively higher acidities due to the aromatic ring tightly coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen. The acidity of the hydroxyl group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids. Loss of a positive hydrogen ion (H+) from the hydroxyl group of a phenol forms a negative phenolate ion. In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... An acid (often represented by the generic formula AH) is typically a water-soluble, sour-tasting chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)-OH, usually written as COOH. The salts and anions of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates generally. ...


Some phenols are germicidal and are used in formulating disinfectants. Others possess estrogenic or endocrine disrupting activity. Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... Endocrine disruptors are substances which interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking, blocking or otherwise disrupting the function of hormones. ...


Phenolic compounds


  Results from FactBites:
 
an introduction to phenol (593 words)
Phenol is the simplest member of a family of compounds in which an -OH group is attached directly to a benzene ring.
Phenol itself is the only one of the family that you are likely to need to know about for UK A level purposes.
Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.
Phenol (4471 words)
On exposure to air and light, phenol assumes a pinkish or reddish discoloration; this discoloration is accelerated by the presence of alkalinity or impurities.
Phenol may act as a nonspecific irritant to promote the development of tumors when it is repeatedly applied in large amounts to the skin [Hathaway et al.
Chronic phenol poisoning is characterized by systemic disorders such as digestive disturbances, nervous system effects, and possibly by skin discoloration and eruptions; the prognosis is grave when there is extensive damage to the liver and kidneys [Parmeggiani 1983].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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