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Encyclopedia > Phenol
Phenol
IUPAC name Phenol
Other names Carbolic Acid
Benzenol
Phenylic Acid
Hydroxybenzene
Phenic acid
Identifiers
CAS number [108-95-2]
RTECS number SJ3325000
SMILES
InChI
Properties
Molecular formula C6H5OH
Molar mass 94.11 g/mol
Appearance White Crystalline Solid
Density 1.07 g/cm³
Melting point

40.5 °C Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1184, 120 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phenol ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

181.7 °C Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 8.3 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 9.95
Dipole moment 1.7 D
Hazards
EU classification Toxic (T)
Muta. Cat. 3
Corrosive (C)
NFPA 704
2
4
0
 
Flash point 79 °C
Related compounds
Related compounds Benzenethiol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor. It is a significant component in the aroma of Islay scotch whisky.[1] Its chemical formula is C6H5OH and its structure is that of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to a phenyl ring; it is thus an aromatic compound. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of thiophenol. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic manner. ... Simple aromatic rings are aromatic organic compounds (also known as arenes or aromatics) that consist only of conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. ...

Contents

Phenols

Main article: phenols

The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound that contains a six-membered aromatic ring, bonded directly to a hydroxyl group (-OH). In effect, phenols are a class of organic compounds of which the phenol discussed in this article is the simplest member. In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...


Properties

Phenol has a limited solubility in water (8.3 g/100 ml). It is slightly acidic: The phenol molecule has weak tendencies to lose the H+ ion from the hydroxyl group, resulting in the highly water-soluble phenoxide anion C6H5O. Compared to aliphatic alcohols, phenol shows much higher acidity; it even reacts with aqueous NaOH to lose H+, whereas aliphatic alcohols do not. One explanation for the increased acidity is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. In this way, the negative charge on oxygen is shared by the ortho and para carbon atoms[2]. In another explanation, increased acidity is the result of orbital overlap between the oxygen's lone pairs and the aromatic system[3]. In a third, the dominant effect is the induction from the sp² hybridised carbons[clarify]; the comparatively more powerful inductive withdrawal of electron density that is provided by the sp² system compared to an sp³ system allows for great stabilization of the oxyanion. In making this conclusion, one can examine the pKa of the enol of acetone, which is 10.9 in comparison to phenol with a pKa of 10.0.[4] Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resonance in chemistry is a tool used (predominately in organic chemistry) to represent certain types of molecular structures. ... The inductive effect is associated with the dipole moment of the compound R-X. If X is at the negative end of a dipole moment, it will draw electrons from the ring and produce -I effect. ... Four sp3 orbitals. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... Enol (or, more officially, but less commonly: alkenol) is an alkene with hydroxyl group on one of the carbon atoms of the double bond. ... For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ...


Production

Phenol can be made from the partial oxidation of benzene or benzoic acid, by the cumene process, or by the Raschig process. It can also be found as a product of coal oxidation. ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Cumene process is an industrial process of producing phenol (C6H5-OH) and acetone (CH3-CO-CH3) from benzene (C6H6) and propene (C3H6). ... The Raschig process is a commercial process to create phenol. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Uses

Phenol has antiseptic properties, and was used by Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) in his pioneering technique of antiseptic surgery, though the skin irritation caused by continual exposure to phenol eventually led to the substitution of aseptic (germ-free) techniques in surgery. Lister decided that the wounds themselves had to be thoroughly cleaned. He then covered the wounds with a piece of lint covered in carbolic acid. It is also the active ingredient in some oral anesthetics such as Chloraseptic spray. Phenol was also the main ingredient of the Carbolic Smoke Ball, a device marketed in London in the 19th century as protecting the user against influenza and other ailments. In the early part of the 20th century, it was used in the Battle Creek Sanitarium to discourage female masturbation by applying it to the clitoris.[5] An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... Chloraseptic Chloraseptic is a US brand of oral analgesic produced by Prestige Brands Inc, used for the relief of minor sore throat and mouth pain. ... Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 1 QB 256 is one of the most famous leading cases in British law that helped establish the requirements for the formation of a contract. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


It is also used in the production of drugs (it is the starting material in the industrial production of aspirin), herbicides, and synthetic resins (Bakelite, one of the first synthetic resins to be manufactured, is a polymer of phenol with formaldehyde). Exposure of the skin to concentrated phenol solutions causes chemical burns which may be severe; in laboratories where it is used, it is usually recommended that polyethylene glycol solution is kept available for washing off splashes. Washing with large amounts of plain water (most labs have a safety shower or eye-wash) and removal of contaminated clothing are required, and immediate hospital treatment for large splashes. This is particularly important if the phenol is mixed with chloroform(a commonly-used mixture in molecular biology for DNA & RNA purification from proteins). This article is about the drug. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... Bakelite is a material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian-American Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Formaldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO. It is the simplest aldehyde-- an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group: it consists of exactly one carbonyl. ... This article is about the organ. ... A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to an extremely reactive chemical substance such as a strong acid or base. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ...


Phenol is also used in the preparation of cosmetics including sunscreens[6], hair dyes, and skin lightening preparations[7]. Compounds containing phenol moieties can be used to prevent ultraviolet light-induced damage to hair and skin due to the UV-absorbing properties of the aromatic ring of the phenol. These compounds also act as free radical scavengers and can be used to prevent premature aging and cancer caused by oxidative stress. Make-up redirects here. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that is intended to protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... In biology, senescence is the state or process of aging. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. ...


It is also used in cosmetic surgery as an exfoliant, to remove layers of dead skin. It is also used in phenolization, a surgical procedure used to treat an ingrown nail, in which it is applied to the toe to prevent regrowth of nails. 5% Phenol is sometimes injected near a sensory nerve in order to temporarily (up to a year) stop it transmitting impulses in some intractable cases of chronic neuropathic pain. Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ... Something that is typically abrasive that assists in the removal of dead skin cells and particles. ... Onychocryptosis, commonly known as ingrown nails (unguis incarnatus) or ingrowing nails, is a common form of nail disease. ... For other uses, see Nail. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ... Neuropathy is usually short for peripheral neuropathy. ...


Second World War

Injections of phenol have occasionally been used as a means of rapid execution. In particular, phenol was used as a means of extermination by the Nazis before and during the Second World War. Originally used by the Nazis in the 1930s as part of its euthanasia program, phenol, cheap and easy to make and quickly effective, became the injectable drug of choice on through the last days of the War. Though Zyklon-B pellets were used in the gas chambers to exterminate large groups of people, the Nazis learned that extermination of smaller groups was more economical via injection of each victim one at a time with phenol instead. Phenol injections were given to thousands of people in concentration camps, especially at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Injections were administered by medical doctors, their assistants, or sometimes prisoner doctors; such injections were originally given intravenously, more commonly in the arm, but injection directly into the heart, so as to induce nearly instant death, was later preferred [8] . One of the most famous inmates at Auschwitz to be executed by carbolic acid injection was St. Maximilian Kolbe, a Catholic priest who volunteered to undergo three weeks of starvation and dehydration in the place of another inmate and who was finally injected with carbolic acid so that the Nazis could make more room in their holding cells. [8] Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... Empty poison gas canisters, found by the Allies at the end of World War II Zyklon B (IPA: , also spelled Cyclon B) was the tradename of a cyanide-based insecticide notorious for its use by Nazi Germany against civilians in the gas chambers of Auschwitz and Majdanek during the Holocaust. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... In the United States, a Physician Assistant (PA) is a health care professional licensed to practice medicine with the supervision of a licensed physician (either an M.D. or D.O.) [1] PAs are not to be confused with medical assistants, who perform administrative and clinical tasks in hospitals and... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... This article is about upper limb of an animal. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Maximilian Kolbe (January 8, 1894–August 14, 1941), also known as Maksymilian or Massimiliano Maria Kolbe and Apostle of Consecration to Mary, born as Rajmund Kolbe, was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland. ...


Hydrothermal chemistry

Under laboratory conditions mimicking hydrothermal circulation (water, 200 °C, 1.9 GPa), phenol is found to form from sodium hydrogen carbonate and iron powder (1.8% chemical yield)[9]. This discovery made in 2007 may be relevant to the origin of life question as phenol is a fragment of the biomolecule tyrosine. However, as tyrosine is known to result directly from hydroxylation of phenylalanine in modern biological systems,[10] the implications of prebiotic phenol are questionable at best. Hydrothermal circulation in the oceans is the passage of the water through mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) systems. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... Fe redirects here. ... Yield in chemistry, also known as chemical yield and reaction yield, is the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ...


See also

The Bamberger rearrangement is the chemical reaction of N-phenylhydroxylamines with strong aqueous acid, which will rearrange to give 4-aminophenols. ... The Claisen rearrangement is a powerful carbon-carbon bond-forming chemical reaction discovered by Rainer Ludwig Claisen. ... The Fries rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction of a phenyl ester to a hydroxy aryl ketone by catalysis of lewis acids . // Mechanism Despite many efforts a definitive reaction mechanism for the Fries rearrangement is not available. ...

References

  1. ^ Peat, Phenol and PPM, by Dr P. Brossard. Retrieved on 2008-05-27.
  2. ^ Organic Chemistry 2nd Ed. John McMurry ISBN 0534079687
  3. ^ The Acidity of Phenol. ChemGuide. Jim Clark. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  4. ^ For further reading on the fine points of this topic, see David A. Evans's explanation.
  5. ^ Plain Facts for Old and Young, by J.H. Kellog. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  6. ^ A. Svobodová*, J. Psotová, and D. Walterová (2003). "Natural Phenolics in the Prevention of UV-Induced Skin Damage. A Review". Biomed. Papers 147 (2): 137–145. 
  7. ^ DeSelms, R. H.; UV-Active Phenol Ester Compounds; Enigen Science Publishing: Washington, DC, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Killing through phenol injection. Auschwitz - FINAL STATION EXTERMINATION. Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
  9. ^ Hydrothermal Reactions from Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate to Phenol Ge Tian, Hongming Yuan, Ying Mu, Chao He, and Shouhua Feng Org. Lett.; 2007; 9(10) pp 2019 - 2021; (Letter) DOI: 10.1021/ol070597o
  10. ^ THE Medical Biochemistry Page

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External links

An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Acridine, C13H9N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. ... Chemical structure of Acrinol Ethacridine lactate is an aromatic organic compound based on acridine. ... Aminoacridine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Euflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Biguanides (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... An amidine is a functional group or type of chemical compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom with one carbon-nitrogen double bond,exactly its derivate of acid,when suspended the double bond is protonized: HN=CR-NH2. ... Dibrompropamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Propamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Polihexanide is a polymer which functions as an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Hexachlorophene also known as Nabac is an antiseptic agent. ... Policresulen is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dettol. ... 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. ... Nitrofuran is a class of theraputic antibacterial agent (it cures disease) it includes drugs such as Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone, Nitrofurantoin and Furaltadone. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Povidone-iodine (PVPI) is a water-soluble complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with from 9. ... Diiodohydroxypropane is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... This article is about the element. ... Mercuric amidochloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenylmercuric borate is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Mercury(II) chloride, more commonly called Mercuric Chloride (once known as corrosive sublimate (see image at right)), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. ... Mercurochrome chemical formula Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome and Cinfacromin) is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Mercury(II) iodide (HgI2) is a chemical compound with an appearance of red-orange crystals. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tosylchloramide sodium is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol is a mild antiseptic, able to kill bacteria associated with mouth and throat infections. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Hexylresorcinol is a chemical compound with anaesthetic, antiseptic and antihelmintic properties. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Povidone-iodine (PVPI) is a water-soluble complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with from 9. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Tyrothricin is a cyclic polypeptide used in throat lozenges as an antibiotic. ... Fusafungine, also known as fusafungin, is an active agent used in antibiotics for treatment of nasal and throat infection. ... A tube of bacitracin ointment for eyes Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. ... The discontinuous diamer is seen showing the antiparallel hydrogen bonding between the amid hydrogens and carbonyl oxygens. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Dyclonine is an oral anasthetic found in Sucrets which is an over the counter throat lozenger. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
an introduction to phenol (593 words)
Phenol is the simplest member of a family of compounds in which an -OH group is attached directly to a benzene ring.
Phenol itself is the only one of the family that you are likely to need to know about for UK A level purposes.
Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.
Phenol (4471 words)
On exposure to air and light, phenol assumes a pinkish or reddish discoloration; this discoloration is accelerated by the presence of alkalinity or impurities.
Phenol may act as a nonspecific irritant to promote the development of tumors when it is repeatedly applied in large amounts to the skin [Hathaway et al.
Chronic phenol poisoning is characterized by systemic disorders such as digestive disturbances, nervous system effects, and possibly by skin discoloration and eruptions; the prognosis is grave when there is extensive damage to the liver and kidneys [Parmeggiani 1983].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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