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Encyclopedia > Pharynx
Pharynx
Head and neck.
Pharynx
Gray's subject #244 1141
Artery ascending pharyngeal, ascending palatine, descending palatine
Vein pharyngeal veins
Nerve pharyngeal plexus
MeSH Pharynx
Dorlands/Elsevier p_16/12633198

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. Image File history File linksMetadata Illu01_head_neck. ... Image File history File links Illu_pharynx. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the Stylopharyngeus. ... The ascending palatine artery is an artery in the head that branches off the facial artery and runs up the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. ... The Descending Palatine Artery descends through the pterygopalatine canal with the anterior palatine branch of the sphenopalatine ganglion, and, emerging from the greater palatine foramen, runs forward in a groove on the medial side of the alveolar border of the hard palate to the incisive canal; the terminal branch of... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The Pharyngeal Veins begin in the pharyngeal plexus on the outer surface of the pharynx, and, after receiving some posterior meningeal veins and the vein of the pterygoid canal, end in the internal jugular. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers supplied by the pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve joining with branches from the glossopharyngeal nerve, sympathetic fibers, and the external laryngeal nerve. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... A human neck. ... Look up Throat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mouth (human). ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Voicebox redirects here. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has a inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-12cm. ...

Contents

Function

It is part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many organisms. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ...


Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or aspiration. In humans the pharynx is important in vocalization. Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[2] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Haha u cant see this b/c wiess The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... Choking is the obstruction of the flow of air into a persons lungs by a foreign object, commonly food. ... In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... In animals, vocalization is a means of communication generated in many cases by their primitive versions of vocal chords. ...


Parts

The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections:


Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx lies behind the nasal cavity. The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...


Postero-superiorly this extends from the level of the junction of the hard and soft palates to the base of skull, laterally to include the fossa of Rosenmuller. Behind the ostium of the auditory tube is a deep recess, the pharyngeal recess (fossa of Rosenmüller). ...


The inferior wall consists of the superior surface of the soft palate.


Oropharynx

The oropharynx lies behind the oral cavity. The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ...

In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The term lateral can refer to: an anatomical definition of direction. ... The tonsils are areas of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat. ... Between the plica triangularis and the surface of the palatine tonsils is a space known as the tonsillar fossa (or tonsillar sinus); in many cases, however, this sinus is obliterated by its walls becoming adherent. ... Look up superior in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... The uvula (IPA: ) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. ...

Hypopharynx

The hypopharynx, also known as the laryngopharynx roughly corresponds to the levels between C3 to C6, it includes the pharyngo-oesophageal junction (postcricoid area), the piriform sinus, and the posterior pharyngeal wall. In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (or piriform recess), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and hyothyroid membrane. ...


Like the oropharynx above it the hypopharynx serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium. H&E stain of biopsy of normal esophagus showing the stratified squamous cell epithelium Section of the human esophagus. ...


It lies directly anterior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge.


At that point the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus posteriorly. The esophagus conducts food and fluids to the stomach; air enters the larynx anteriorly. During swallowing, food has the "right of way", and air passage temporarily stops. In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Additional images

References

  • Human Anatomy and Physiology Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn, Seventh Edition.
  • TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours Sobin LH & Wittekind Ch (eds)Sixth edition UICC 2002 ISBN 0-471-22288-7

Lippincott Williams and Wilkins is a publisher primarily associated with scientific books and journals. ...

See also

Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth. ... Anatomy of the human ear. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... Voicebox redirects here. ... The tonsils are areas of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat. ... Diagram showing the uvula, tonsils, soft palate, and tongue Uvula without tonsils (after tonsillectomy) The uvula (IPA: ) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. ...

External links

Look up Pharynx in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pharynx - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (231 words)
Pharynx is the part of the neck and throat just behind the mouth and nose.
It is situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and is cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea.
Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, special adaptations are necessary to prevent choking or aspiration when food or liquid is swallowed.
XI. Splanchnology. 2c. The Pharynx. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (1400 words)
It is a musculomembranous tube, somewhat conical in form, with the base upward, and the apex downward, extending from the under surface of the skull to the level of the cricoid cartilage in front, and that of the sixth cervical vertebra behind.
As soon as the bolus of food is received in the pharynx, the elevator muscles relax, the pharynx descends, and the Constrictores contract upon the bolus, and convey it downward into the esophagus.
In the nasal part of the pharynx it is covered by columnar ciliated epithelium; in the oral and laryngeal portions the epithelium is stratified squamous.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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