FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Pharyngitis" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pharyngitis
Pharyngitis
Classification and external resources
Viral pharyngitis.
The oropharynx is swollen and red.
ICD-10 J02., J31.2
ICD-9 462, 472.1
DiseasesDB 24580
MedlinePlus 000655
eMedicine emerg/419 
MeSH D010612

Pharyngitis (IPA: [ˌfarɪnˈdʒʌɪtɪs]) is, in most cases, a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. Infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis) and/or larynx (laryngitis) may occur simultaneously. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1219x913, 180 KB) Viral pharyngitis. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ...


About 90% of cases are caused by viral infection, with the remainder caused by bacterial infection and, in rare cases, oral thrush (fungal candidiasis e.g. in babies). Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by irritation from elements such as pollutants or chemical substances. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Oral candidiasis, also oral thrush, is an infection of yeast fungus, Candida albicans, (or, less commonly, Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis) in the mucous membranes of the mouth. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ...

Contents

Causes

The pharynx is often the first site of infection for many infectious diseases such as the common cold. This is because viruses and bacteria often settle in this part of the body after a person inhales dust or water vapour containing the microorganism. Infection can also arise when a person touches their nose or mouth after having touched an object shared with another person with the disease. The foreign invader reproduces rapidly after settling on the body tissue.


Viral sore throats

These comprise about 90% of all infectious cases and can be a feature of many different types of viral infections. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Flu redirects here. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... An exudate is any thick fluid that is actively secreted by cells as a result of disease. ... ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... A mouth ulcer or canker sore is a painful open sore inside the mouth caused by a break in the mucous membrane. ... The common cold is a mild viral infectious disease of the nose and throat, the upper respiratory system. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ...

Bacterial sore throats

Group A streptococcal

Further information: Strep throat

The most common bacterial agent is streptococcus. Unlike adenovirus, there tends to be greater generalized symptoms and more signs to find. Typically enlarged and tender lymph glands, with bright red, inflamed, and swollen throat of sudden onset with severe pain (often the patient finds it painful to talk or swallow), the patient may have a high temperature, headache, and aching muscles (myalgia) and joints (arthralgia). White or yellow spots on the back of the throat may be present on exam. These spots may also appear on the tonsils when those glands are involved. Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


It may be impossible to distinguish between viral and bacterial causes of sore throat.[1]


Coughing is usually absent in strep throat though a dry, nonproductive cough (similar to how a person clears his or her voice) may appear in some patients; in addition coughing may appear when there is co-infection with a virus. A stuffy nose is also considered uncommon and is more likely due to a virus instead of the strep bacteria.


Some immune-system meditated complications may occur:

  • Scarlet fever with its vivid rash, although the milder disease seen after the 1950s suggests that the bacteria may have mutated to less virulent illness and some doctors now call this scarlatina (literally a "little scarlet fever")[citations needed]
  • Historically the most important complication was of the generalized inflammatory disorder of rheumatic fever which could later result in Rheumatic heart disease affecting the valves of the heart. Antibiotics may reduce the incidence of this complication to under one-third.[2]However the incidence of rheumatic fever in developed-regions of the world remains low even though the use of antibiotics has been declining.[3][4]This may be a result of a change in the prevalence of various strains of bacteria. In underdeveloped regions, untreated streptococcal infection can still give rise to rheumatic heart disease and may be due to environmental factors, or reflect a genetic predisposition of the patient to the disease.
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney. It is disputed whether antibiotics might reduce[5] the small risk of this or not.[2]
  • Very rarely there may occur a secondary infection behind the tonsils which may cause a life-threatening septicaemia (Lemierre's syndrome)[citation needed]

A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes) is responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis and abbreviated GN, is a primary or secondary immune-mediated renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Lemierres syndrome (or Lemierres disease) is a disease usually caused by the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum, and occasionally by other members of the genus Fusobacterium ( etc. ...

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a potentially life threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe. Antibiotics are effective in the early stages, but recovery is generally slow. Binomial name Kruse, 1886 Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Treatment

There are three types of treatment---symptomatic, remedial and preventive. Symptomatic treatments are aimed at reducing pain and symptoms. Remedial treatments attempt to cure pharyngitis by reducing its spread and speeding up the healing process. Preventive treatments attempt to block the start of an infection.


Remedial treatments are mostly effective for bacterial infections such as streptococcal infections. For viral infections, even with treatment, most cases of pharyngitis will still settle spontaneously within a few days. Hence the most popular method of treatment is symptomatic. Many preventive treatments are also remedial, thus those two treatments will be listed in the same section.


Twenty-two non-antibiotic managements for sore throat have been studied in controlled trials.[6]Analgesics are among the most effective, but there are many simple measures that can also be used.


Symptomatic treatments

  • Cayenne pepper is said to provide effective short term relief when mixed with water and gargled.[7][8]
  • Analgesics such as NSAIDs can help reduce the pain associated with a sore throat.[6]
  • Throat sprays such as Cepacol and Chloraseptic.
  • Throat lozenges (cough medicine) are often used for short-term pain relief.
  • Avoid foods and liquids highly acidic in nature, as they will provoke temporary periods of intense pain
  • Warm tea (true or herbal) or soup can help temporarily alleviate the pain of a sore throat.
  • Mouthwash (when gargled) reduces the pain but only for a brief time.
  • Drinking heavy amounts of liquid reduces the pain for a short time.
  • Peppermint candy might help with some cases as well as other hard candies. It will reduce the pain for a short time.
  • Yogurt has been shown to help alleviate the pain temporarily; it is, however, not suggested since it may promote bacterial growth on the affected area.
  • Gargling with warm saline solution may help reduce mucus and the pain.[9] While it is a popular household remedy and commonly used by many school nurses when children present with sore throats without fevers, there is little evidence that it provides any long-term benefit.[citation needed] The effects are temporary at best.

A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... CÄ“pacol was originally a brand of oral anesthetic, world-famous for its cherry flavored throat spray and soother that delivered an instant relief to the aching throats of countless people throughout the world. ... Chloraseptic Chloraseptic is a US brand of oral analgesic produced by Prestige Brands Inc, used for the relief of minor sore throat and mouth pain. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Herbal tea A tisane, ptisan or herbal tea is any herbal infusion other than from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... For the Kate Nash song see Mouthwash (song) For the ska-punk band, see Mouthwash (band) Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Gargling is a common method of cleansing the throat, especially if one has a sore throat or upper-respiratory virus or infection. ...

Remedial and preventive treatments

Performing remedial treatments early when your throat begins to feel scratchy may help the infection from spreading to the rest of the throat and back of the mouth, which can result in difficulty in swallowing. Treatment should begin the first or second day of your illness, however if you have a cold or the flu, the infection may still continue to spread to other areas such as the ears through the eustachian tube (causing an earache) and to the lungs through the trachea (causing a cough). Healthy people who will be in frequent contact with someone with pharyngitis may also try the measures below, of which some can be also be preventive, to help inhibit the start of an infection.

  • The use of antibiotics is a helpful remedial treatment when a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For viral sore throats, antibiotics have no effect and thus viral sore throats are only treated by controlling or relieving symptoms until the virus runs its course.[2] Some doctors may prescribe antibiotics for patients at risk of developing severe complications (such as bacterial pneumonia), but this is not common anymore due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antiviral drugs do not decrease the length of illness and are not used except in cases when the patient's immune system is compromised.
  • Honey has long been used for treating sore throats due to its antiseptic properties.[10]
  • Swallowing a couple teaspoons of raw lemon or lime juice several times a day may help destroy microorganisms in bacteria-related throat infections.[citation needed] This remedy should be started during the first or second day of sickness as citric acid can irritate your throat tissues after the Pharyngitis becomes too widespread. If this is the case, you may try a diluted solution of lemon, honey and tea (or lemon with hot water).[9][11]

Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ...

References

  1. ^ Del Mar C (1992). "Managing sore throat: a literature review. I. Making the diagnosis". Med. J. Aust. 156 (8): 572-5. PMID 1565052. 
  2. ^ a b c Del Mar CB, Glasziou PP, Spinks AB (2004). "Antibiotics for sore throat". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000023. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000023.pub2. PMID 15106140.  - Meta-analysis of published research
  3. ^ "Antibiotics for sore throat to prevent rheumatic fever: Yes or No? How the Cochrane Library can help" (September 28, 2004). CMAJ 171 (7). doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041275.  - Canadian Medical Association Journal commentary on Cochrane analysis
  4. ^ "Treatment of sore throat in light of the Cochrane verdict: is the jury still out?" (2002). MJA 177 (9): 512-515.  - Medical Journal of Australia commentary on Cochrane analysis
  5. ^ Zoch-Zwierz W, Wasilewska A, Biernacka A, et al (2001). "[The course of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis depending on methods of treatment for the preceding respiratory tract infection]" (in Polish). Wiad. Lek. 54 (1-2): 56–63. PMID 11344703. 
  6. ^ a b Thomas M, Del Mar CB, Glasziou P. (2000). "How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?" (PDF). Br J GP 50 (459): 817-820. PMID 11127175. 
  7. ^ Sore Throat Cures. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  8. ^ Cayenne Pepper Sore Throat Cure (includes alternate soup recipe). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  9. ^ a b Sore throat: Self-care - MayoClinic.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  10. ^ Ramoutsaki I, Papadakis C, Ramoutsakis I, Helidonis E (2002). "Therapeutic methods used for otolaryngological problems during the Byzantine period". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 111 (6): 553-7. PMID 12090712. 
  11. ^ Daglia M, Papetti A, Grisoli P, Aceti C, Dacarro C, Gazzani G (2007). "Antibacterial activity of red and white wine against oral streptococci". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (13): 5038–42. doi:10.1021/jf070352q. PMID 17547418. 
The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... Flu redirects here. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... SARS redirects here. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi and may specifically refer to: Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An MRI image showing a congenitally deviated nasal septum A deviated septum commonly occurs when the anterior spine of the maxilla is severed in half. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax - Blood in the chest cavity). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Echovirus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... Rhinorrhea, commonly known as a runny nose, is a symptom of the common cold and allergies (hay fever). ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Muscle weakness (or lack of strength) is a direct term for the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected given the individuals general physical fitness. ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... Complication, in medicine, is a unfavorable evolution of a disease, a health condition or a medical treatment. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Pleconaril is an antiviral drug being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in asthmatic subjects exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Foundation for Faces of Children: First and Second Pharyngeal Arch Syndromes (2176 words)
pharyngeal or visceral arches; they form the crucial bones, skin, nerves, muscle, and other features of the head and neck.
Hemifacial microsomia is known by a variety of other names, including craniofacial microsomia, first and second pharyngeal arch syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, and lateral facial dysplasia.
It occurs when soft tissue and bone from the pharyngeal arches on one side of a child's face fails to develop fully.
Text for Pharyngeal Arch Development (1881 words)
The approximation of the ectoderm of the pharyngeal cleft with the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouch forms the pharyngeal membrane.
The 2nd pharyngeal pouch forms the wall of the pharynx at the level of the palatine tonsils.
The 4th pharyngeal pouch forms in the wall of the pharynx at the level of the laryngeal aditus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m