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Encyclopedia > Pharmacy
The mortar and pestle, an internationally recognized symbol to represent the pharmacy profession
The mortar and pestle, an internationally recognized symbol to represent the pharmacy profession

Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences, and it is charged with ensuring the safe use of medication. The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to patient care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize medication use to provide patients with positive health outcomes. Look up pharmacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links PharmacistsMortar. ... Image File history File links PharmacistsMortar. ... A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix substances. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Patient care is part of a nurses role in implementing a care plan. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ...

Contents

Disciplines

Pharmacy, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)
Pharmacy, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)

The field of Pharmacy can generally be divided into three primary disciplines: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1101 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1101 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ...

The boundaries between these disciplines and with other sciences, such as biochemistry, are not always clear-cut; and often, collaborative teams from various disciplines research together. Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with all facets of the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) into a medication able to be safely and effectively used by patients in the community. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines from natural sources. ... Pharmacy practice is the discipline of pharmacy which involves developing the professional roles of pharmacists. ...


Pharmacology is sometimes considered a fourth discipline of pharmacy. Although pharmacology is essential to the study of pharmacy, it is not specific to pharmacy. Therefore it is usually considered to be a field of the broader sciences. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


There are various specialties of pharmacy practice. Specialization in pharmacy practice is typically based on the place of practice or practice roles including: community, hospital, clinical pharmacy, consultant, locum, drug information, regulatory affairs, industry, and academia. Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention [1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. ... A consultant pharmacist is a specialized pharmacist who focuses on reviewing and managing the medication regimens of patients, particularly those in institutional settings such as nursing homes. ... A Locum is a person who temporarily fulfills the duties of another. ...


Other specializations in pharmacy practice recognized by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties include: cardiovascular, infectious disease, oncology, pharmacotherapy, nuclear, nutrition, and psychiatry.[1] The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists in geriatric pharmacy practice. The American Board of Applied Toxicology certifies pharmacists and other medical professionals in applied toxicology. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy (CCGP) is a non-profit organization which has established a national voluntary certification program for pharmacists. ...


Pharmacists

Main article: Pharmacist

Pharmacists are highly-trained and skilled healthcare professionals who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients. Many pharmacists are also small-business owners, owning the pharmacy in which they practice. The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... A small business may be defined as a business with a small number of employees. ...


Pharmacists are represented internationally by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). They are represented at the national level by professional organisations such as the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB), the Pharmacy Guild of Australia (PGA), and the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). See also: List of pharmacy associations. The International Pharmaceutical Federation or Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique, abbreviated as FIP, is an international federation of national organisations that represent pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists. ... A professional body or professional organization is an organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further a particular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests of professionals. ... The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) is the regulatory and professional body for pharmacists in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The American Pharmaceutical Association (previously known as the American Pharmaceutical Association) is a professional society of pharmacists within the United States. ... The following is a list of organizations for professionals involved in the practice of pharmacy. ...


In some cases, the representative body is also the registering body, which is responsible for the ethics of the profession. Since the Shipman Inquiry, there has been a move in the UK to separate the two roles. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


History of pharmacy

Muslim pharmacy

The advances made in the Middle East by Muslim chemists in botany and chemistry led Muslim physicians to substantially develop pharmacology. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865-915), for instance, acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936-1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation. His Liber servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the `simples’ from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used. Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869), was, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments. Al-Biruni (973-1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah (The Book of Drugs), where he gave detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, mode of action and their indications. He devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in The Canon of Medicine. Of great impact were also the works by al-Maridini of Baghdad and Cairo, and Ibn al-Wafid (1008-1074), both of which were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus by `Mesue' the younger, and the Medicamentis simplicibus by `Abenguefit'. Peter of Abano (1250-1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris. Al-Muwaffaq’s contributions in the field are also pioneering. Living in the 10th century, he wrote The foundations of the true properties of Remedies, amongst others describing arsenious oxide, and being acquainted with silicic acid. He made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and also lead compounds. For the story, he also mentions the distillation of sea-water for drinking.[2] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... Sublimation has three separate meanings: Sublimation (physics), the change from solid to gas without passing the liquid state Sublimation (psychology), the transformation of emotions Dye sublimation, the transference of printed images to a synthetic substrate by the application of heat Category: ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian physician [1] from the Academy of Gundishapur. ... Pietro dAbano (1250?‑1316), also known as Petrus de Apono or Aponensis, was an Italian physician, philosopher, and astrologer. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Silicic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of silicon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sulfuric acid. ... This article is about the metal. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ...


Community pharmacy

19th century Italian pharmacy
19th century Italian pharmacy
Modern pharmacy in Norway
Modern pharmacy in Norway

A pharmacy (commonly the chemist in Australia, New Zealand and the UK; or drugstore in North America; or Apothecary, historically) is the place where most pharmacists practice the profession of pharmacy. It is the community pharmacy where the dichotomy of the profession exists—health professionals who are also retailers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 583 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pharmacy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 583 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pharmacy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2030x836, 3690 KB) Summary From Norwegian Pharmacy Photo: Nina Aldin Thune Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pharmacy Opposition to Opus Dei Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2030x836, 3690 KB) Summary From Norwegian Pharmacy Photo: Nina Aldin Thune Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pharmacy Opposition to Opus Dei Metadata This file contains... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ...


Community pharmacies usually consist of a retail storefront with a dispensary where medications are stored and dispensed. The dispensary is subject to pharmacy legislation; with requirements for storage conditions, compulsory texts, equipment, etc., specified in legislation. Where it was once the case that pharmacists stayed within the dispensary compounding/dispensing medications; there has been an increasing trend towards the use of trained pharmacy technicians while the pharmacist spends more time communicating with patients. Pharmacy technician is a job title for a pharmacy staff member who works under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist, and performs many pharmacy-related functions. ...


All pharmacies are required to have a pharmacist on-duty at all times when open. In many jurisdictions, it is also a requirement that the owner of a pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist (R.Ph.). This latter requirement has been revoked in many jurisdictions, such that many retailers (including supermarkets and mass merchandisers) now include a pharmacy as a department of their store. A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... The interior of a typical Macys department store. ...


Likewise, many pharmacies are now rather grocery store-like in their design. In addition to medicines and prescriptions, many now sell a diverse arrangement of additional household items such as cosmetics, shampoo, bandages, office supplies, candy, and snack foods. Make-up redirects here. ... Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... Bandages may refer to: the plural of bandage, a piece of material used to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint Bandages, a song by Hot Hot Heat from their 2002 album Make Up the Breakdown Roronoa Zoros ultimate ability. ... Office supplies is the generic term that refers to all supplies regularly used in offices by businesses and other organizations, from private citizens to governments, who works with the collection, refinement, and output of information (colloquially referred to as paper work). The term includes small, expendable, daily use items such... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... A snack food is seen in Western culture as a type of food that is not meant to be eaten as part of one of the main meals of the day (breakfast, lunch, supper). ...


Hospital pharmacy

Main article: Hospital pharmacy

Pharmacies within hospitals differ considerably from community pharmacies. Some pharmacists in hospital pharmacies may have more complex clinical medication management issues whereas pharmacists in community pharmacies often have more complex business and customer relations issues. Hospital Pharmacy is concerned with pharmacy service to all types of hospital and differs considerably from community pharmacy. ... A hospital today is an institution for professional health care provided by physicians and nurses. ...


Because of the complexity of medications including specific indications, effectiveness of treatment regimens, safety of medications (i.e., drug interactions) and patient compliance issues ( in the hospital and at home) many pharmacists practicing in hospitals gain more education and training after pharmacy school through a pharmacy practice residency and sometimes followed by another residency in a specific area. Those pharmacists are often referred to as clinical pharmacists and they often specialize in various disciplines of pharmacy. For example, there are pharmacists who specialize in haematology/oncology, HIV/AIDS, infectious disease, critical care, emergency medicine, toxicology, nuclear pharmacy, pain management, psychiatry, anticoagulation clinics, herbal medicine, neurology/epilepsy management, paediatrics, neonatal pharmacists and more. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...


Hospital pharmacies can usually be found within the premises of the hospital. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized medications, than would be feasible in the community setting. Most hospital medications are unit-dose, or a single dose of medicine. Hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians compound sterile products for patients including total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and other medications given intravenously. This is a complex process that requires adequate training of personnel, quality assurance of products, and adequate facilities. Several hospital pharmacies have decided to outsource high risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies who specialize in compounding. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. ... Quality assurance (QA) is the activity of providing evidence needed to establish confidence among all concerned, that quality-related activities are being performed effectively. ...


Clinical pharmacy

Main article: Clinical pharmacy

Clinical pharmacists provide direct patient care services that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.[3] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often collaborate with Physicians and other healthcare professionals. Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention [1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. ... Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention [1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Compounding pharmacy

Main article: Compounding

Compounding is the practice of preparing drugs in new forms. For example, if a drug manufacturer only provides a drug as a tablet, a compounding pharmacist might make a medicated lollipop that contains the drug. Patients who have difficulty swallowing the tablet may prefer to suck the medicated lollipop instead. Compounding is the process of mixing drugs by a pharmacist or physician to the unique needs of a patient. ... For other uses, see Lollipop (disambiguation). ...


Compounding pharmacies specialize in compounding, although many also dispense the same non-compounded drugs that patients can obtain from community pharmacies.


Consultant pharmacy

Main article: Consultant pharmacist

Consultant pharmacy practice focuses more on medication regimen review (i.e. "cognitive services") than on actual dispensing of drugs. Consultant pharmacists most typically work in nursing homes, but are increasingly branching into other institutions and non-institutional settings.[4] Traditionally consultant pharmacists were usually independent business owners, though in the United States many now work for several large pharmacy management companies (primarily Omnicare, Kindred Healthcare and PharMerica). This trend may be gradually reversing as consultant pharmacists begin to work directly with patients, primarily because many elderly people are now taking numerous medications but continue to live outside of institutional settings. Some community pharmacies employ consultant pharmacists and/or provide consulting services. A consultant pharmacist is a specialized pharmacist who focuses on reviewing and managing the medication regimens of patients, particularly those in institutional settings such as nursing homes. ... Rest home for seniors in Český Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ... Omnicare is a Fortune 500 company based in Covington, Kentucky. ... Kindred Healthcare Incorporated is a Fortune 500 company located in Louisville, Kentucky. ... PharMerica is a publicly-traded Fortune 1000 company formed in January 2007 from the merger of Kindred Healthcares pharmacy business with a subsidiary of AmerisourceBergen. ...


Internet pharmacy

Main article: Online pharmacy

Since about the year 2000, a growing number of Internet pharmacies have been established worldwide. Many of these pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, and in fact, many of them are actually operated by brick-and-mortar community pharmacies that serve consumers online and those that walk in their door. The primary difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers consider this to be more convenient and private method rather than traveling to a community drugstore where another customer might overhear about the drugs that they take. Internet pharmacies (also known as Online Pharmacies) are also recommended to some patients by their physicians if they are homebound. Recently, a number of pharmacies have begun operating over the internet. ... In the jargon of eCommerce, brick and mortar businesses are companies that have a physical presence (for example, a building made of bricks and mortar) and offer face-to-face consumer experiences, as opposed to an Internet-only presence (see online shop for comparison). ...


While most Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs and require a valid prescription, some Internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs without requiring a prescription. Many customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the "inconvenience" of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications which their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. However, this practice has been criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who feel that only doctors can reliably assess contraindications, risk/benefit ratios, and an individual's overall suitability for use of a medication. There also have been reports of such pharmacies dispensing substandard products. Of course as history has shown, substandard products can be dispensed by both Internet and Community pharmacies, so it is best that the buyer beware. Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Caveat emptor is Latin for Let the buyer beware. Generally Caveat Emptor was the property law doctrine that controlled the sale of real property after the date of closing. Under the doctrine of Caveat Emptor, the buyer could not recover from the seller for defects on the property that rendered...


Canada is home to dozens of licensed Internet pharmacies, many which sell their lower-cost prescription drugs to U.S. consumers, who pay the world's highest drug prices. However, there are Internet pharmacies in many other countries including Israel, Fiji and the UK that serve customers worldwide.


In the United States, there has been a push to legalize importation of medications from Canada and other countries, in order to reduce consumer costs. While in most cases importation of prescription medications violates Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and federal laws, enforcement is generally targeted at international drug suppliers, rather than consumers. There is no known case of any U.S. citizens buying Canadian drugs for personal use with a prescription, who has ever been charged by authorities. “FDA” redirects here. ...


Nuclear pharmacy

Main article: Nuclear pharmacy

Nuclear pharmacy focuses on preparing radioactive materials for diagnostic tests and for treating certain diseases. Nuclear pharmacists undergo additional training specific to handling radioactive materials, and unlike in community and hospital pharmacies, nuclear pharmacists typically do not interact directly with patients. Nuclear Pharmacy involves the preparation of radioactive materials that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases. ...


Military pharmacy

Main article: Military pharmacy

Military pharmacy is an entirely different working environment due to the fact that technicians perform most duties that in a civilian sector would be illegal. State laws of Technician patient counseling and medication checking by a pharmacist do not apply.


Issues in pharmacy

Separation of prescribing from dispensing

In most jurisdictions (such as the United States), pharmacists are regulated separately from physicians. Specifically, the legislation stipulates that the practice of prescribing must be separate from the practice of dispensing.[citation needed] These jurisdictions also usually specify that only pharmacists may supply scheduled pharmaceuticals to the public, and that pharmacists cannot form business partnerships with physicians or give them "kickback" payments. However, the American Medical Association (AMA) Code of Ethics provides that physicians may dispense drugs within their office practices as long as there is no patient exploitation and patients have the right to a written prescription that can be filled elsewhere. 7 to 10 percent of American physician practices reportedly dispense drugs on their own.[5] The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...


In other jurisdictions (particularly in Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore), doctors are allowed to dispense drugs themselves and the practice of pharmacy is sometimes integrated with that of the physician, particularly in traditional Chinese medicine. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up practice, practise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ...


In Canada it is common for a medical clinic and a pharmacy to be located together and for the ownership in both enterprises to be common, but licensed separately.


The reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest. Otherwise, the physician has a financial self-interest in "diagnosing" as many conditions as possible, and in exaggerating their seriousness, because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient. Such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient's interest in obtaining cost-effective medication and avoiding the unnecessary use of medication that may have side-effects. This system reflects much similarity to the checks and balances system of the U.S. and many other governments. Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


A campaign for separation has begun in many countries and has already been successful (like in Korea). As many of the remaining nations move towards separation, resistance and lobbying from dispensing doctors who have pecuniary interests may prove a major stumbling block (e.g. in Malaysia). This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


The future of pharmacy

In the coming decades, pharmacists are expected to become more integral within the health care system. Rather than simply dispensing medication, pharmacists will be paid for their patient care skills.[6]


This paradigm shift has already commenced in some countries; for instance, pharmacists in Australia receive remuneration from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive Home Medicines Reviews. In the United Kingdom, pharmacists (and nurses) who undertake additional training are obtaining prescribing rights. They are also being paid for by the government for medicine use reviews. In the United States, the Clinical pharmacy movement has had an evolving influence on the practice of pharmacy.[7] Moreover, the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree is now required before entering practice and many pharmacists now complete one or two years of residency training following graduation. In addition, consultant pharmacists, who traditionally operated primarily in nursing homes are now expanding into direct consultation with patients, under the banner of "senior care pharmacy."[8] The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ... Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention [1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. ... // In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. ... A consultant pharmacist is a specialized pharmacist who focuses on reviewing and managing the medication regimens of patients, particularly those in institutional settings such as nursing homes. ... Rest home for seniors in Český Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ...


See also

Pharmacy and Pharmacology Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... A Bachelor of Pharmacy (abbreviated BPharm) is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy. ... A Master of Pharmacy (abbreviated MPharm or MPharm(Hons)) is an academic degree in the field of pharmacy. ... // In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. ... Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention [1] Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside Hospitals and clinics. ... A consultant pharmacist is a specialized pharmacist who focuses on reviewing and managing the medication regimens of patients, particularly those in institutional settings such as nursing homes. ... // In Canada the PharmD program is offered in both English and French. ... Pharmaceutical services in developing countries face particular challenges that are significantly different from those faced by pharmacists in the so-called developed world. ... Hospital Pharmacy is concerned with pharmacy service to all types of hospital and differs considerably from community pharmacy. ... This is a list of major pharmacies (also known as chemists and drugstores). ... The following is a list of organizations for professionals involved in the practice of pharmacy. ... This is a list of pharmacy organizations in the United Kingdom. ... This article is a list of pharmacy schools by country. ... Nuclear Pharmacy involves the preparation of radioactive materials that will be used to diagnose and treat specific diseases. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines from natural sources. ... Pharmaconomist (Danish: farmakonom) means expert in pharmaceuticals. ... Sign of the Raeapteek The Raeapteek (English: ) (German: ) is in the center of Tallinn city, Estonia. ... The American Society of Pharmacy Law (ASPL) is an professional organisation of pharmacist-attorneys, pharmacists, attorneys, and students in schools of pharmacy or law who are interested in the law as it applies to pharmacy. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...

Symbols

The two symbols most commonly associated with pharmacy are the mortar and pestle and the (recipere) character, which is often written as "rx" in typed text. Pharmacy organizations often use other symbols, such as the Bowl of Hygieia, conical measures, and caduceuses in their logos. Other symbols are common in different countries: the green Greek cross in France and the United Kingdom, the increasingly-rare Gaper in The Netherlands, and a red stylized letter A in Germany and Austria (from Apotheke, the German word for pharmacy, from the same Greek root as the English word 'apothecary'). A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix substances. ... Look up Rx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bowl of Hygeia with serpent. ... A conical measure is a type of laboratory glassware which consists of a conical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the easy pouring of liquids. ... For the medical symbol often mistakenly referred to as a caduceus, see Rod of Asclepius. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Gaper on the front of Van der Pigge, a pharmacy in Haarlem. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

References

  1. ^ Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties, Current Specialties
  2. ^ Levey M. (1973), ‘ Early Arabic Pharmacology’, E. J. Brill; Leiden.
  3. ^ American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Defined
  4. ^ American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Frequently Asked Questions
  5. ^ American Association of State Compensation Insurance Funds, Prepackaged Drugs in Workers' Compensation
  6. ^ American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Evidence of the Economic Benefit of Clinical Pharmacy Services: 1996–2000
  7. ^ American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Defined
  8. ^ American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, What is a Senior Care Pharmacist?

The American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) is the international professional association that provides leadership, education, advocacy, and resources to advance the practice of senior care pharmacy. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pharmacy
Look up Pharmacy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Navigator History of Pharmacy Collection of internet resources related to the history of pharmacy.
  • RPSGB Museum Information Sheets Illustrated information sheets on objects in the history of pharmacy.
  • History of Pharmacy Web Pages Perbo's History of Pharmacy Web Pages.
  • Soderlund Pharmacy Museum - Information about the history of the American Drugstore
  • The Lloyd Library Library of botanical, medical, pharmaceutical, and scientific books and periodicals, and works of allied sciences
  • American Institute of the History of Pharmacy American Institute of the History of Pharmacy--resources in the history of pharmacy

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Other

  • PharmWeb - Pharmaceutical Information Online.
  • The Virtual Library of Pharmacy - Extensive index of pharmacy-related resources, including information on careers in pharmacy, pharmacy schools, pharmaceuticaul companies, associations and conferences.
  • Pakistan Pharmacists Society - National association of pharmacists to promote and expand their role in public health and patient care in Pakistan.
  • Pharmacist's Letter - Unbiased, research based resource for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians on new developments in drug therapy
  • Online Pharmacy Catalog - Prescription drug information for health care professionals

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