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Encyclopedia > Pharmacognosy

Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines from natural sources.


Originally - during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century - the term (used for the first time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in 1811) was used to define the branch of the medicine or even of the commodity sciences ("Warenkunde" in German), which dealt with medicines in their crude, or unprepared, form. This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ...


As "crude drug" it is in fact to be meant here a dried unprepared natural material, which is used in the medicine (the term drug derives in fact originally by the Lower Saxon/Dutch "Droog", which means "dried" and has little to do with the "modern" meaning of the term). Oral medication Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. ...


The word "Pharmacognosy" derives in fact from the Greek words pharmakon (drug), and gnosis or knowledge. Greek (, IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ...


The term "Pharmakognosie" represented for years in the German speaking area - where this term was born and the discipline had and still has its lynch-pin - a synonym of "Drogenkunde" ("science of the crude drugs").


Pharmacognosy is meant today as a branch of the pharmacy, which has its focus on medicines from natural sources (plants, animal-derived products, minerals) and whose scope is the identification or authentication of crude drugs (in dried form) using macroscopical, microscopical, or chemical methods.


It can includes nowadays the study of the botany, ethnobotany, chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical pharmacy of crude drugs, and most of the pharmacognostic studies are generally focused on medicinal plants/herbal medicines. Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


In a few academic contexts, the term has been artficially extended to cover also the study of pure, isolated substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources (although that should be considered a branch of organic chemistry known as "natural product chemistry").


Although today pharmacognosy is taught in very few pharmacy schools in the US and UK, the subject is still obligatory within most pharmacy curricula in continental European universities.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pharmacognosy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (293 words)
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines from natural sources.
As "crude drug" it is in fact to be meant here a dried unprepared natural material, which is used in the medicine (the term drug derives in fact originally by the Lower Saxon/Dutch "Droog", which means "dried" and has little to do with the "modern" meaning of the term).
Pharmacognosy is meant today as a branch of the pharmacy, which has its focus on medicines from natural sources (plants, animal-derived products, minerals) and whose scope is the identification or authentication of crude drugs (in dried form) using macroscopical, microscopical, or chemical methods.
Pharmacognosy in the 21st century (2644 words)
A two-day symposium entitled "Pharmacognosy in the 21st century", organised by the Academy of Pharmaceutical Scientists and the School of Pharmacy at the University of Bradford, was held in Bradford on April 5 and 6.
She referred to pharmacognosy's "long and pleasant history" at Bradford and said that the subject was a growing area that the school did not intend to allow to be under-represented.
Pharmacognosy remains a major part of the pharmacy curriculum in many countries, and it should be." In his view, the increasing interest in botanical products would create additional research opportunities in pharmacognosy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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