FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Phagspa script
The word "Wiki" in Phagspa characters
Enlarge
The word "Wiki" in Phagspa characters

The Phagspa script (also square script) was an Abugida designed by the Lama Phagspa for the emperor Kublai Khan during the Yuan Dynasty in China, as a unified script for all languages within the Mongolian Empire. Its fell out of use after the empire was overturned by the Ming Dynasty. The vast documentation about its use gives modern linguists many clues about the changes of the Chinese languages and other Asian languages during the period. An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: , also spelled as Kubilay Han in Turkic), was a Mongol military leader. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, occasionally known as the Mongol Dynasty. ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was an empire founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

Comparison between characters of the Phagspa script and the korean Hangul script
Enlarge
Comparison between characters of the Phagspa script and the korean Hangul script

Contents

(Top) The Phagspa letters , and their hangul derivatives, g, t, b, j, l . ... (Top) The Phagspa letters , and their hangul derivatives, g, t, b, j, l . ...


History

The Uighur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Mongol language, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese. Therefore, during the Yuan Dynasty (ca. 1269), Kublai Khan asked a Tibetan monk, Phagspa, to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. Phagspa extended his native Tibetan script to encompass Mongol and Chinese. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are primarily known as the Phagspa alphabet. The Uyghur alphabet is any of the following: A descendant of the Sogdian alphabet, used for texts of Buddhist, Manichæan and Christian contents for 700–800 years in East Turkestan. ... The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, occasionally known as the Mongol Dynasty. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215 - February 18, 1294) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: , also spelled as Kubilay Han in Turkic), was a Mongol military leader. ... Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (Tibetan: འགྲོ་མགོན་ཆོས་རྒྱལ་འཕགས་པ་; Wylie: Gro mgon Chos rgyal Phags pa; also written Dongon Choegyal Phakpa, Dromtön Chögyal Pagpa, etc. ... Om Mani Padme Hum, the primary mantra of Tibetan Buddhism written in the Tibetan script, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ...


Despite its origin, the script was written vertically (top to bottom) like the previous mongolian scripts. It did not receive wide acceptance and fell into disuse with the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368. After this it was mainly used as a phonetic gloss for Mongolians learning Chinese characters. Scholars such as Gary Ledyard believe that in the meantime it was the source of the Korean Hangul alphabet. Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ...


Unicode

For the purpose of encoding in digital media, Phagspa characters are allocated a block of 56 characters from U+A840 to U+A87F, and they will be available in Unicode 5.0, scheduled to be published in Summer of 2006. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The Mongolian language historically has four writing systems that have been used over the centuries. ... Soyombo script - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

External Links

  • BabelStone : 'Phags-pa Script
  • Comparison of Phagspa characters and traditional Chinese vowels, a summary of documentations during the era.
  • Omniglot: Phagspa Alphabet

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m