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Encyclopedia > Phagocyte

A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. There are two main categories: [1] Image File history File links Acap. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ...

Contents

A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Functions

Phagocyte can also induce apoptosis of normal and tumor cells, produce cationic proteins, complement components and clotting factors, arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, cytokines, proteases and hydrolases, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... In chemistry, a cationic species is one that contains a full positive charge. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme that can break a chemical bond by hydrolysis. ...


These phagocytes are extremely useful as an initial immune system response to infection; neutrophils will be the first type of phagocyte to migrate to sites of injury and fight bacteria by releasing cytotoxic granules and by phagocytosis. Phagocytes contain a large number of lysosomes that enable them to ingest this foreign material. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Phagocytes engulf not only pathogens but also debris, dead or dying cells and extracellular matrix. Phagocytosis is an active process in wound healing. After engulfment into a phagosome, a lysosome which is filled with digestive enzymes (proteases and oxygen radicals) will join it to form the phagolysosome to digest phagocytosed material. In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... In cell biology, a vacuole formed around a particle absorbed by phagocytosis. ... Organelles. ... A phagolysosome is a membrane-bound organelle which is formed from the fusing of a lysosome and a phagosome. ...


In the case of pathogen phagocytosis, professional antigen-presenting cells (i.e.: dendritic cells and macrophage) will translocate to MHC class II small peptide that resulted from the digestion. Helper T cells (CD4+) later recognize these antigens presented through MHC class II complemented with a second signal and they will further supplement the cell mediated immune response. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. ... A T helpered cell (or TH) cell, is a T cell (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class II MHC molecules found on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ...


The most common type of phagocytic cell in the blood is the neutrophil, which can be distinguished from other white blood cells by their lobed nuclei and granular cytoplasm. It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ...


Resistance to phagocytes

Many pathogens can delay or prevent the creation of the phagolysosome such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhi and Legionella. Others, such as the parasites of the genus Leishmania, are capable of resisting or circumventing being digested in the phagolysosome. Binomial name Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis[1]. It was first described on March 24, 1882 by Robert Koch, who subsequently received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for this discovery in 1905. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... Species Legionella adelaidensis Legionella anisa Legionella beliardensis Legionella birminghamensis Legionella bozemanii Legionella brunensis Legionella busanensis Legionella cherrii Legionella cincinnatiensis Legionella donaldsonii Legionella drancourtii Legionella drozanskii Legionella erythra Legionella fairfieldensis Legionella fallonii Legionella feeleii Legionella geestiana Legionella gratiana Legionella gresilensis Legionella hackeliae Legionella israelensis Legionella jamestowniensis Legionella jordanis Legionella lansingensis Legionella... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


One function of T-helper cells is to activate phagocytes to digest intracellular pathogens.


Etymology

The word 'phagocyte' literally means "cell that eats", originating from the Greek words 'phagein', meaning 'eat', and 'kytos', meaning 'hollow'.


References

  1. ^ Phagocyte at eMedicine Dictionary

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Phagocyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (201 words)
A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by a process analogous to cellular digestion, usually using lysosomes which carry potent enzymes that digests cell components such as other lipids or proteins.
These phagocytes are extremely useful as an initial immune system response to tissue damage.
They are also involved in cell death, usually programmed cell death through apoptosis, in which the phagocytes are responsible for cleaning up the debris and effectively "recycling" the dead cell parts.
Immune system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5202 words)
To phagocytose a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the membrane around the particle until the entire particle is enveloped (i.e.
Phagocytes generally patrol the body searching for pathogens, but are also able to react to a group of highly specialized molecular signals, called cytokines, produced by other cells.
Dendritic cells (DC) are phagocytic cells that are present in tissues that are in contact with the external environment, mainly the skin (where they are often called Langerhans cells) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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