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Encyclopedia > Phaedrus

Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... A bust of younger Emperor Tiberius For the city in Israel, see Tiberias. ... Gaius Caesar Germanicus Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and third member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from AD 37 to 41. ... A statue of Emperor Claudius Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 1, 10 BC–October 13, 54), previously Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24, 41 to his death in 54. ...


According to his own statement (prologue to book III), he was born on the Pierian Mountain, but he seems to have been brought to Italy at an early age since he mentions reading a verse of Ennius as a boy in school. According to the heading of the chief manuscript he was a slave and was freed by Augustus. He incurred the wrath of Sejanus, the powerful minister of Tiberius, by some supposed allusions in his fables, and was brought to trial and punished. We learn this from the prologue to the third book, which is dedicated to Eutychus, who has been identified with the famous charioteer and favorite of Gaius. Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC) was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman poetry. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Lucius Aelius Sejanus (or Seianus) (20 BC– October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of Tiberius, and for a time the most influential and feared citizen of Rome. ... JACK GIBBS LOVES FABLE HE WANKKS OVER HIS COPY EVERY NIGHT ...


The fourth book is dedicated to Particulo, who seems to have dabbled in literature. The dates of their publication are unknown, but Seneca, writing between AD 41 and 43, knows nothing of Phaedrus, and it is probable that he had not yet published anything. His work shows little or no originality; he simply versified in iambic trimeters the fables current of his day under the name of "Aesop," interspersing them with anecdotes drawn from daily life, history and mythology. He tells his fable and draws the moral with businesslike directness and simplicity. His language is terse and clear, but thoroughly prosaic, though it occasionally attains a dignity bordering on eloquence. His Latin is correct, and except for an excessive and peculiar use of abstract words, shows hardly anything that might not have been written in the Augustan age. From a literary point of view Phaedrus is inferior to Babrius, and to his own imitator, La Fontaine; he lacks the quiet picturesqueness and pathos of the former, and the exuberant vivacity and humour of the latter. Though he frequently refers to the envy and detraction which pursued him, Phaedrus seems to have attracted little attention in antiquity. He is mentioned by Martial, who imitated some of his verses, and by Avianus. Prudentius must have read him, for he imitates one of his lines (Prud. Cath. VII 115; ci. Phaedrus, IV 6, 10). Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger) (ca. ... For alternate uses, see Number 41. ... For alternate uses, see Number 43. ... An iamb is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... In poetry, a trimeter is a metre of three metrical feet per line - example: When here the spring we see, Fresh green upon the tree. ... Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Babrius was the author of a collection of fables written in Greek. ... There are communes that have the name Fontaine, and Fontaines: Fontaine, in the Aube département Fontaine, in the Isère département Fontaine, in the Territoire de Belfort département Related names Fontaine-au-Bois, in the Nord département Fontaine-au-Pire, in the Nord département Fontaine... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Avianus, a Latin writer of fables, placed by some critics in the age of the Antonines, by others as late as the 6th century AD. The 42 fables which bear his name are dedicated to a certain Theodosius, whose learning is spoken of in most flattering terms. ... Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was an Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (in Northern Spain) in 348. ...


The first edition of the five books of Phaedrus was published by Pithou at Troyes in 1596 from a manuscript now in the possession of the Marquis of Rosanbo. Near the beginning of the 18th century, a manuscript of Perotti (1430-1480), archbishop of Siponto, was discovered at Parma containing sixty-four fables of Phaedrus, of which some thirty were perviously unknown. These new fables were first published in Naples by Cassitto in 1808, and afterwards (much more correctly) by Jannehli in 1809. Both editions were superseded by the discovery of a much better preserved manuscript of Perotti in the Vatican Library, published by Angelo Mai in 1831. For some time the authenticity of these new fables was disputed, but they are now generally accepted as genuine fables of Phaedrus. They do not form a sixth book, for we know from Avianus that Phaedrus wrote only five books, but it is impossible to assign them to their original places in the five books. They are usually printed as an appendix. Pierre Pithou (November 1, 1539 - November 1, 1596), was a French lawyer and scholar. ... Troyes is a town in northeastern France. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... The Vatican Library (Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. ... Angelo Mai (March 7, 1782 - September 8, 1854), Italian cardinal and philologist, was born of humble parents at Schilpario in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables, which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten. Of these prose versions the oldest existing one seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a manuscript of the 13th century. It follows the text of Phaedrus so closely that it was probably made directly from it. Of the sixty-seven fables which it contains, thirty are derived from lost fables of Phaedrus. But the largest and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus is that which bears the name of Romulus. It contains eighty-three fables, is as old as the 10th century, and seems to have been based on a still earlier prose version, which, under the name of "Aesop," and addressed to one Rufus, may have been made in the Carolingian period or even earlier. About this Romulus nothing is known. The collection of fables in the Weissenburg (now Wolfenbüttel) manuscript is based on the same version as Romulus. These three prose versions contain in all one hundred distinct fables, of which fifty-six are derived from the existing fables and the remaining forty-four presumably from lost fables of Phaedrus. Some scholars, as Burmann, Dressier and L Muller, have tried to restore these lost fables by versifying the prose versions. Leiden (in English also, but now rarely, Leyden) is a city and municipality in South Holland, The Netherlands. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Pieter Burmann (1668 - March 31, 1741), Dutch classical scholar, known as the Elder, to distinguish him from his nephew, was born at Utrecht. ... Lucian Müller (17 March 1836 - 24 April 1898), was a German classical scholar. ...


The collection bearing the name of Romulus became the source from which, during the second half of the middle ages, almost all the collections of Latin fables in prose and verse were wholly or partially drawn. A 12th century version of the first three books of Romulus in elegiac verse enjoyed a wide popularity, even into the Renaissance. Its author (generally referred to since the edition of Nevelet in 1610 as the "Anonynius Neveleti") was long unknown, but Hervieux has shown grounds for identifying him with Walther of England, chaplain to Henry II and afterwards archbishop of Palermo. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ...


Another version of Romulus in Latin elegiacs was made by Alexander Neckam, born at St Albans in 1157. Among the collections partly derived from Romulus the most famous is probably that in French verse by Marie de France. About 1200 a collection of fables in Latin prose, based partly on Romulus, was made by the Cistercian monk Odo of Sherrington; they have a strong medieval and clerical tinge. In 1370 Gerard of Minden wrote a poetical version of Romulus in Low German. Alexander Neckam (September 8, 1157 _ 1217), was an English scientist and teacher. ... St Albans (thus spelt, no apostrophe or dot) is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Plattdüütsch is a name for the regional language varieties: Low Saxon language East Low German language. ...


Since Pithou's edition in 1596 Phaedrus has been often edited and translated; among the editions may be mentioned those of Burmann (1718 and 1727), Bentley (1726), Schwabe (1806), Berger de Xivrey (1830), Orelli (1832), Eyssenhardt (1867), L Müller (1877), Rica (1885), and above all that of L Havet (Paris, 1895). For the medieval versions of Phaedrus and their derivatives see L Roth, in Philologus; E Grosse, in Jahrb. f. class. Philol., cv. (1872); and especially the learned work of Hervieux, Les Fabulistes latins depuis le siècle d'Auguste jusqu'a la fin du Moyen Âge (Paris, 1884), who gives the Latin texts of all the medieval imitators (direct and indirect) of Phaedrus, some of them being published for the first time. Johann Caspar von Orelli (February 13, 1787 - January 6, 1849), was a Swiss classical scholar. ...


References

"Phaedrus Biography"


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Phaedrus - LoveToKnow 1911 (1040 words)
PHAEDRUS, Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius.
From a literary point of view Phaedrus is inferior to Babrius, and to his own imitator, La Fontaine; he lacks the quiet picturesqueness and pathos of the former, and the exuberant vivacity and humour of the latter.
In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten.
The Internet Classics Archive | Phaedrus by Plato (7236 words)
And this I owe to you, Phaedrus, for I observed you while reading to be in an ecstasy, and thinking that you are more experienced in these matters than I am, I followed your example, and, like you, my divine darling, I became inspired with a phrenzy.
Your love of discourse, Phaedrus, is superhuman, simply marvellous, and I do not believe that there is any one of your contemporaries who has either made or in one way or another has compelled others to make an equal number of speeches.
Only think, my good Phaedrus, what an utter want of delicacy was shown in the two discourses; I mean, in my own and in that which you recited out of the book.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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