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Categories: Disambiguation | Abbreviations Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Rurouni Kenshin manga, volume 1 (English version) Manga (æ¼«ç») is the Japanese word for comics; outside of Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. ...
In some countries, a Ph.D. candidate is required to present an oral defense of his thesis, known in the UK as a viva (short for viva voce, Latin for "by live voice") before a committee.
The Ph.D. is often the topic of scholarly debate and criticism, given its almost exclusive concern with research and publication to the alleged neglect of numerous other faculty responsibilities that include teaching, collegial evaluation, collective and individual curricular planning, etc. Solutions have met with varying degrees of success.
In the words of the University Calendar, a PhD thesis "demonstrates the candidate's ability to carry out independent research" and must also be "a significant contribution to the knowledge or understanding of a field of study." As well as intelligence and research aptitude, the degree requires considerable dedication and tenacity on the candidate's part.
PhD candidates pursue a course of full-time study for a minimum of two calendar years and, usually, a maximum of four calendar years.
PhD students may also be advised to include relevant courses (for example, in a historical period or a foreign language) as part of their course of study.
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