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Encyclopedia > Peyote
Peyote
Peyote in the wild
Peyote in the wild
Conservation status

Apparently Secure (TNC) [1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Cactaceae
Genus: Lophophora
Species: L. williamsii
Binomial name
Lophophora williamsii
(Lem.) J. Coult.

Lophophora williamsii, (pronounced /loʊˈfɒfərə wɪlˈjæmsiaɪ/, lō-fof′ŏ-ră will-yăm′sē-ī), better known by its common name Peyote, but also sometimes called Mescal Button or the Divine Cactus, is a small, spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States, specifically in the southwestern part of Texas, through central Mexico. They are found primarily in the Chihuahuan desert and in the states of Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi amongst scrub, especially when limestone is present in the soil. The cactus is well known for its psychoactive alkaloids and among these mescaline in particular. It is currently used world wide mainly as a recreational drug, an entheogen, and a supplement to various transcendence practices including in meditation, psychonautics, and psychedelic psychotherapy. Peyote has a history of ritual religious and medicinal use among certain indigenous American tribes going back thousands of years. The plant's pink flowers emerge from March through May, and in exceptional cases as late as September. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x697, 151 KB)Fish and Wildlife Service, Title: Peyote Cactus Alternative Title: (none) Creator: Stolz, Gary M. Source: WO8088-004 Publisher: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contributor: DIVISION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS Language: EN - ENGLISH Rights: (public domain) Audience: (general) Subject... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The NatureServe conservation status system was developed by NatureServe, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the Natural Heritage Network as a ranking of the relative imperilment of species on global, national and/or regional levels. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text. ... This article is about the desert plant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Map of the Chihuahuan Desert. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... San Luis Potosí is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... Transcendence may refer to: Transcendence (mathematics) Transcendental number, a real number that is not the root of any polynomial with rational coefficients Transcendental element, an element of a field extension that is not the root of any polynomial with coefficients from the base field Transcendental function, a function which does... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For the trance band Psychonaut, see Psychonaut (band). ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

The cactus flowers occur sporadically, producing small pink fruit, which can be delectable and bitter-sweet-tasting when eaten. The seeds are small and black, requiring hot and humid conditions to germinate. Peyote contains a large spectrum of phenethylamine alkaloids, the principal of which is mescaline. The mescaline content of Lophophora williamsii is about 0.4% fresh[2] (undried) and 3-6% dried.[2] All Lophophora species are extremely slow growing, often taking three years to reach flowering age in the wild (about the size of a golf ball, not including its root). Human cultivated specimens grow considerably faster, usually taking less than three years to go from seedling to mature flowering adult. More rapid growth can be achieved by grafting Peyote onto mature San Pedro root stock to expedite the age at which the Peyote flowers. Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

A flowering peyote, in cultivation.
A flowering peyote, in cultivation.

The top of the cactus that grows above ground, also referred to as the crown, consists of disc-shaped buttons that are cut above the roots and sometimes dried. When done properly, the top of the root will callous over, and new buttons will eventually grow from the root left in the ground.[citation needed] The cut must be made at an angle, so as to not allow the Peyote root to rot.[citation needed] When poor harvesting techniques are used, however, the root is damaged and the entire plant dies. This is the current situation in South Texas where Peyote grows naturally, but has been over-harvested to the point of listing as endangered species.[citation needed]The buttons are generally chewed, or boiled in water to produce a psychoactive tea. The resulting infusion is extremely bitter to some people and, in most cases, the partaker experiences a high degree of nausea before the onset of the psychoactive effects. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ...


Distribution and habitat

L. williamsii is native in southern North America where it is only found in the extreme southwest of the US in the state of Texas, as well as much of northern Mexico. It is primarily found at elevations of 100 to 1500 m and exceptionally up to 1900 metres in the Chihuahuan desert, but is also present in the more mild climate of the state of Tamaulipas. Altogether, peyote can be found in the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in the north to San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas in the south. Its habitat is primarily in desert scrub, particularly thorn scrub in Tamaulipas, and it is most common on or near limestone hills.[3] North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Map of the Chihuahuan Desert. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in northeastern Mexico. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... San Luis Potosí is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ...


Uses

Dried Lophophora williamsii slices ("Peyote Buttons")
Dried Lophophora williamsii slices ("Peyote Buttons")
Chemical structure of mescaline, the primary psychoactive compound in peyote
Chemical structure of mescaline, the primary psychoactive compound in peyote

The effective dose for mescaline is about 300 to 500 mg (equivalent to roughly 5 grams of dried peyote) and the effects last about 10 to 12 hours. When combined with appropriate set and setting, peyote is reported to trigger states of deep introspection and insight that have been described as being of a metaphysical or spiritual nature. At times, these can be accompanied by rich visual or auditory effects (see synesthesia). Image File history File links Peyote_buttons_seized_by_Arcata_CA_Police. ... Image File history File links Peyote_buttons_seized_by_Arcata_CA_Police. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 750 pixel, file size: 3 KB, MIME type: image/png) High-resolution black/white PNG made with ChemDraw and IrfanView — see my Wikipedia user talk page for a detailed description. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1124 × 750 pixel, file size: 3 KB, MIME type: image/png) High-resolution black/white PNG made with ChemDraw and IrfanView — see my Wikipedia user talk page for a detailed description. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... For the Bardo Pond album, see Set and Setting (Album). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ...


In addition to psychoactive properties, Native Americans used the plant for its curative properties as well. They employed peyote for treating such varied ailments as toothache, pain in childbirth, fever, breast pain, skin diseases, rheumatism, diabetes, colds, and blindness. The U.S. Dispensatory lists peyote under the name Anhalonium and states it can be used in various preparations for neurasthenia, hysteria and asthma. Screening for antimicrobial activity of peyote extracts in various solvents showed positive microbial inhibition. The principle antibiotic agent, a water-soluble crystalline substance separated from an ethanol extract of the plant, was given the name peyocactin.[4] Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine) is a phenylethylamine alkaloid with antibacterial and antibiotic properties. ...


In the same study, mice were used for preliminary animal toxicity tests and protection studies to determine the degree of the inhibitory action of peyocactin against normally fatal infections with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. In every case, the mice that had been given a peyocactin extract survived, while those in the control group died within 60 hours after infection. It proved effective against 18 strains of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, several other bacteria, and a fungi.[4] Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ...


The flesh may also be applied topically to promote milk production (see galactogogue).[citation needed] A substance which may be synthetic, plant derived, or endogenous which is used to increase the production of milk in humans and other animals. ...


History

Two specimens of peyote buttons found in archaeological digs from a site called Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande in Texas were examined with radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis in 2005. The results dated the specimens to 3780 to 3660 BC, while alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of the alkaloids including mescaline in both samples. This indicates that native North Americans were likely to have used peyote since at least five and a half thousand years ago.[5] Specimens from a burial cave in west central Coahuila, Mexico have been similarly analysed and dated to 810 to 1070 AD.[6] For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ...


From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American Tribal Groups, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains States of Oklahoma and Texas. Its usage has also been recorded among various Southwestern Athabaskan tribal groups, with the Mescalero and Kiowa (or "Plains Apache") having the dubious honor of being named or identified as the source or initial practitioners of the Peyote religion in the regions north of present-day Mexico. They are also the principle group that introduced peyote to newly arrived Northern Plains migrants, the Comanche and Kiowa. The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The Huichol are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico that live in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in the states of Nayarit and Jalisco. ...


Peyote and its associated religion, however, are fairly recent in terms of usage and practice among the Navajo in the Southwestern United States. Their acquisition of the peyote religion and use of peyote can be firmly dated to the early 20th Century.[citation needed] There is no mention of peyote in traditional Navajo belief or ceremonial practice prior to its introduction by the neighboring Utes. To date, however, The Navajo Nation holds the largest membership within the confines of the Native American Church. As a result of such a large percentage, some estimate as much as 20% or higher of the Navajo populace are practitioners, and there is a very real detrimental influx and change taking place with regard to the traditional ceremonial practices and beliefs of the Navajo in the 21st Century.[citation needed]


There is documented evidence of the religious, ceremonial, and healing uses of peyote dating back over 20,000 years.[citation needed] The tradition began to spread northward as part of a revival of native spirituality under the auspices of what came to be known as the Native American Church, whose members refer to peyote as "the sacred medicine", and use it to combat alcoholism and spiritual, physical, and other social ills. Between the 1880s and 1930s, U.S. authorities attempted to ban Native American religious rituals involving peyote, including the Ghost Dance. The Native American Church is one among several religious organizations that use peyote as part of their religious practice. Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ...


A resurgence of interest in the use of peyote was spawned in the 1970s by very detailed accounts of its use, properties, and effects in the early works of writer Carlos Castaneda. Don Juan Matus, the name of Castaneda's teacher in the use of peyote, used the name "Mescalito" to refer to an entity that purportedly can be sensed by those using peyote to gain insight in how to live one's life well, but only if Mescalito accepted the user. Later works of Castaneda asserted that the use of such psychotropic substances was not necessary to achieve heightened awareness, although his teacher advised that its use was beneficial in helping to free some people's minds. Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925/31? – April 27, 1998) was a Peruvian- or Brazilian-born American author. ... Don Juan Matus is a major character in the series of books by Carlos Castaneda (Don is a common, polite, term of deference in Spanish). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...


Popular culture

Many authors, especially those of the Beat Generation, wrote about their experiences with peyote, or were otherwise influenced by the plant. Ken Kesey, for example, while working as a night watchman at a psychiatric ward, was inspired to write his novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. One night while he was on the job under the influence of peyote he thought up Chief Bromden, who would turn out to be the central character in the novel, described by Tom Wolfe as "a full-blown Indian -- Chief Broom -- the solution, the whole mothering key, to the novel".[7] Another example is from William S. Burroughs' semi-autobiographical novel Queer. The protagonist and his unrequited lover are setting out to search the Amazon jungle for yage, another psychedelic drug, prompting the protagonist to recount his idiosyncratic struggles with the peyote experience.[8] Also, an image of the plant, and by extension its possible usage, can be seen in the gonzo fist symbol attributed to Hunter S. Thompson. Beats redirects here. ... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a counter-cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest (1962) is a novel written by Ken Kesey. ... Tom Wolfe gives a speech at the White House. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... 1987 Penguin Books paperback edition. ... Ayahuasca is an entheogenic drink prepared from segments of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gonzo journalism. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (18 July 1937 – 20 February 2005) was an American journalist and author, famous for his novel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. ...


The image of the peyote plant has made its way into other media as well. The Eagles song "Bitter Creek" contains the line, "Oh peyote/She tried to show me/You know there ain't no cause to weep/at Bitter Creek." In the movie, Zoolander, hippie model Hansel talks about his psychedelic experience with peyote, falling off a mountain, and later realizing he had never even been to such a place. In the movie "Young Guns" the band of outlaws led by Billy the Kid while hiding from a pursuing posse consumed a peyote drink prepared by their native companion. They then proceeded through a hostile Indian village under the influence. The Indians all looked at them a bit bemused and Billy asks "Why ain't they killing us?" The Eagles are an American rock music group that originally came together in Los Angeles, California in the early 1970s. ... Zoolander is a 2001 comedy film directed by Ben Stiller. ...


Legality

United States

United States federal law (and many state laws) protects the harvest, possession, consumption and cultivation of peyote as part of "bonafide religious ceremonies" (the federal statute is 42 USC §1996a, "Traditional Indian religious use of the peyote sacrament," exempting only Native American use, while most state laws exempt any general "bonafide religious activity"). American jurisdictions enacted these specific statutory exemptions in reaction to the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), which held that laws prohibiting the use of peyote that do not specifically exempt religious use nevertheless do not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. Although many American jurisdictions specifically allow religious use of peyote, religious or therapeutic use not under the aegis of the Native American Church has often been targeted by local law enforcement agencies, and non-natives attempting to establish spiritual centers based on the consumption of peyote as a sacrament or as medicine, such as the Peyote Foundation in Arizona, have been prosecuted. The Peyote Way Church of God [1] in Arizona, is a spiritual center that welcomes all races to Peyotism. Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a nation. ... State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with consumption (economics). ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Neutral laws of general applicability do not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. ... The Bill of Rights, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed in 1789 includes the Free Exercise Clause which guarantees the freedom of religion: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...


Canada

Mescaline is listed as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, but peyote is specifically exempt. [2] Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ...

Baby Peyote cactus which has been growing for roughly one year.
Baby Peyote cactus which has been growing for roughly one year.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Adam Timberlake I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Adam Timberlake I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ...

International

Article 32 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances allows nations to exempt certain traditional uses of peyote from prohibition: Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ...

A State on whose territory there are plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites, may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, make reservations concerning these plants, in respect of the provisions of article 7, except for the provisions relating to international trade.

See also

This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ...

References

  1. ^ Lophophora williamsii. NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved on 2007-06-17.
  2. ^ a b . Erowid.org
  3. ^ Zimmerman & Bruce D., Allan D.; Parfitt, Bruce D. (2006), "Lophophora williamsii", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+, Flora of North America, vol. 4, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 242
  4. ^ a b McCleary, J.A.; Sypherd, P.S.; Walkington, D.L. (1960), "Antibiotic Activity of an Extract Of Peyote [Lophophora williamsii (Lemaire) Coulter]", Economic Botany 14: 247-249
  5. ^ El-Seedi, HR; De Smet, PA; Beck, O; Possnert, G; Bruhn, JG (2005), "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas", Jounral of Ethnopharmacology 101 (1-3): 238-42, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15990261?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum>
  6. ^ Bruhn, JG; Lindgren, JE; Holmstedt, B; Adovasio, JM (1978), "Peyote Alkaloids: Identification in a Prehistoric Specimen of Lophophora from Coahuila, Mexico.", Science 199 (4336): 1437-1438, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796678?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum>
  7. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (2001), "Ken Kesey, Author of 'Cuckoo's Nest,' Who Defined the Psychedelic Era, Dies at 66", The New York Times, <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02EFDC1238F932A25752C1A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2>
  8. ^ Burroughs, William S. (1985), Queer, New York: Penguin Books, p. 94-95, ISBN 0-14-00-8389-8
  • Shaman Golden Eagle Red Hawk, Choctaw Nation Mississippi River Clan

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Calabrese, Joseph D. "The Therapeutic Use of Peyote in the Native American Church" Chapter 3 in Vol. 1 of Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments Michael J. Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors) (2007). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.


Feeney, Kevin. "The Legal Basis for Religious Peyote Use." Chapter 13 in Vol 1 of Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments Michael J. Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors) (2007). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.


External links

The Alcohol and Drugs History Society is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peyote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (890 words)
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States (including the states of Texas and New Mexico) through central Mexico.
Peyote contains a large spectrum of phenethylamine alkaloids, the principal of which is mescaline.
A resurgence of interest in the use of peyote was spawned in the 1970s by accounts of its use in the early works of writer Carlos Castaneda.
Ethnobotanical Leaflets (1180 words)
Peyote was originally described in 1560, however it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that botanists were able to conduct field research and correctly classify the cactus (Anderson, 1980).
The contrasting peyote ceremony consists of a prayer meeting in which peyote is ingested under the leadership of the leader or road man while utilizing singing, drumming, and prayers in the time from of dusk to dawn.
Peyote religion is what saved the Osage tribe from moral corruption, "Peyote induced a beautiful state and behavior of adherents was as different from that of whisky drinkers on a spree as that of peaceful sheep and rampant lions" (Stewart, 1987).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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