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Encyclopedia > Petrushka (ballet)

Petrouchka or Petrushka (French: Pétrouchka; Russian: Петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky. For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Igor Stravinsky. ...


It is a story of a Russian traditional puppet, Petrushka, who is made of straw and with a bag of sawdust as his body, but who comes to life and has the capacity to love, a story superficially resembling that of Pinocchio. A puppet is a representational object manipulated by a puppeteer. ... Pétrouchka (English: Petrushka; Russian: петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ... For other uses, see Pinocchio (disambiguation). ...


According to Andrew Wachtel, Petrushka is a work that fuses music, ballet, choreography and history in perfect balance. It resembles Richard Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork), but with a Russian approach.[1] Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Look up Gesamtkunstwerk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Composition

Stravinsky composed the music during the winter of 1910-1911 for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. It was premiered at the Paris Théâtre du Chatelet on June 13, 1911 in Paris under conductor Pierre Monteux. While the production was generally a success, more than a few observers were taken aback by music that was brittle, caustic, and at times even grotesque. One critic approached Diaghilev after a dress rehearsal and said, "And it was to hear this that you invited us?" Diaghilev succinctly replied, "Exactly". When Diaghilev and his company traveled to Vienna in 1913, the Vienna Philharmonic initially refused to play the score, deriding Petrushka as schmutzige Musik ("dirty music"). Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Pierre Monteux (April 4, 1875 – July 1, 1964) was an orchestra conductor. ...


The work is characterized by the so-called Petrushka chord (consisting of C major and F major triads played together), a polytonic device heralding the appearance of the main character. The Petrushka chord is a recurring polytonic device used in Igor Stravinskys ballet Petrushka and in later music. ... The musical use of more than one key simultaneously is polytonality. ...


Instrumentation

1911 original version

The original 1911 version of Petrushka is scored for 4 flutes (3rd and 4th doubling piccolo), 4 oboes (4th doubling English horn), 3 clarinets in B flat, bass clarinet in B flat (doubling clarinet 4), 3 bassoons, contrabassoon (doubling bassoon 4), 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in B flat (often doubling piccolo trumpet), 2 cornets in B flat and A, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, 2 snare drums (one offstage), 2 tambourines (one offstage), triangle, tam-tam, glockenspiel, xylophone, piano, celesta, 2 harps and strings. This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... French horn redirects here. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... B♭ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... A tam tam is also a kind of Gong A tam is also kind of Jamaican hat, probably from the Irish tam-o-shanter. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...


1947 revised version

Stravinsky's 1947 revised version is scored for the following smaller orchestra: 3 flutes (3rd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, English horn, 3 clarinets in B flat (3rd doubling bass clarinet in B flat), 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns in F, 3 trumpets in B flat and C, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, snare drum, tambourine, triangle, tam-tam, xylophone, piano, celesta, harp and strings. This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... French horn redirects here. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... A tam tam is also a kind of Gong A tam is also kind of Jamaican hat, probably from the Irish tam-o-shanter. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...


Story

Sets and costumes for Petrushka's original production were designed by Alexandre Benois.

The libretto was written by Alexandre Benois and Igor Stravinsky. Image File history File links Alexandre Benoiss set for Stravinskys Petrushka (1911). ... Image File history File links Alexandre Benoiss set for Stravinskys Petrushka (1911). ... Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (May 4, 1870, St Petersburg - February 9, 1960, Paris) was probably the most important member of the artistic Benois family. ... Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (May 4, 1870, St Petersburg - February 9, 1960, Paris) was probably the most important member of the artistic Benois family. ... Igor Stravinsky. ...


The play opens at a Shrovetide fair in Saint Petersburg: Maslenitsa, a Russian carnival before Lent that is analogous to Mardi Gras. The people rejoice before the privations of the long fast. The Pre-Lenten Season (see also Septuagesima) is the liturgical season of the Roman Catholic Church lasting from Septuagesima Sunday until Shrove Tuesday. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Boris Kustodiev Maslenitsa tuesday Maslenitsa or Pancake week (Russian: , also called Pancake week) is a Russian folk holiday that dates back to the pagan times. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ...


Stravinsky's orchestration and rapidly changing rhythms depict the hustle and bustle of the fair. An organ grinder and dancing girl entertain the crowd. Drummers announce the appearance of the Old Wizard, who charms the captivated audience. Suddenly, the curtain rises on a tiny theater, as the Wizard introduces the inert, lifeless puppet figures of Petrushka, the Ballerina and the Moor (the brute). Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds over time. ... An Austrian organ grinder (locally called Werklmann) with his paper-roll driven Berlin style barrel organ in Vienna The organ grinder was a musical novelty street performer of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, and refers to the operator of a street organ. ... Look up wizard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed...


The Old Wizard casts a magic spell with his flute. The puppets come to life, leap from their little stage, and perform a vigorous Russian dance among the astounded carnival-goers. For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ...


The second scene, after the performance, is set in the Petrushka's room. The walls are painted in dark colors and decorated with black stars and a half-moon. With a resounding crash, the Wizard kicks Petrushka into his barren cell. We see that Petrushka leads a dismal "life" behind the show curtains. Although Petrushka is a puppet, he feels human emotions, including bitterness toward the Old Wizard for his imprisonment, as well as love for the beautiful Ballerina. A frowning portrait of the Wizard hangs above, as if to remind Petrushka that he is a mere puppet. This infuriates Petrushka, and he shakes his fists at the Wizard's glare. Petrushka tries to escape from his cell, but fails. STARS can mean: Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society Special Tactics And Rescue Service, a fictional task force that appears in Capcoms Resident Evil video game franchise. ...


The Ballerina enters the room. Petrushka tries to profess his love, but the Ballerina rejects his pathetic advances. As the Wizard treats Petrushka cruelly, the Ballerina engages in wanton affairs with the Moor. This snaps poor Petrushka's sensibilities.


In the third scene, the audience learns that the Moor leads a much more comfortable "life" than Petrushka. The Moor’s room is much more spacious and lavishly decorated, painted in bright reds, greens and blues. Rabbits, palm trees and exotic flowers decorate the walls and floor. The Moor reclines on a lounging couch and plays with a coconut, attempting to cut it with his scimitar. When he fails, he believes that the coconut must be a God. Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...


The Wizard places the Ballerina in the Moor’s room. The Ballerina is attracted to the Moor’s handsome appearance. She plays a saucy tune on a toy trumpet (represented by a cornet in the original 1911 orchestration) and begins to dance with the Moor. Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ...


Petrushka finally breaks free from his cell. The Wizard brings him into the Moor's room to interrupt the Ballerina’s seduction. Petrushka attacks the Moor, but soon realizes he is too small and weak. The Moor beats Petrushka. Petrushka runs for his life, with the Moor chasing him, and escapes from the room.


The fourth and final scene, that evening, returns to the carnival. The orchestra introduces a chain of colorful dances as a series of unrelated characters come and go about the stage. The first and most prominent is the Wet-Nurses’ Dance, to the tune of the folk song "Down the Petersky Road". Then comes a peasant with his dancing bear, followed in turn by a group of a gypsies, coachmen and grooms and masqueraders.


As the merrymaking reaches its peak, a cry is heard from the puppet-theater. Petrushka suddenly runs across the scene, followed by the Moor in hot pursuit with an axe. The crowd is horrified when the Moor catches up with Petrushka and hacks him to death.


The police question the Old Wizard. The Wizard seeks to restore calm by shaking sawdust from the "corpse," to remind everyone that Petrushka is but a puppet.


As night falls and the crowd disperses, the Wizard leaves, carrying Petrushka’s limp body. Petrushka’s ghost appears on the roof of the little theater, his cry now in the form of an angry protest. Petrushka’s death only enlivens his spirit, which thumbs its nose at his tormentor from beyond the wood and straw of his carcass.


Now completely alone, the Old Wizard is terrified to see the leering ghost of Petrushka. The wizard scampers off, with a single frightened glance over his shoulder, and the scene is hushed, leaving the audience to wonder who is "real" and who is not.


Sections

The work is divided into four parts (tableaux) with the following scenes:


Part I: The Shrovetide Fair

  • Introduction (at the Shrovetide Fair)
  • The Charlatan's Booth
  • Russian Dance

Part II: Petrushka's Cell

  • Petrushka's Cell

Part III: The Moor's Room

  • The Moor's Room
  • Dance of the Ballerina
  • Waltz - The Ballerina & the Moor

Part IV: The Shrovetide Fair (Evening)

  • Dance of the Wet Nurses
  • Peasant With Bear
  • The Jovial Merchant with Two Gypsy Girls
  • Dance of the Coachmen and Grooms
  • The Masqueraders
  • The Fight - The Moor and Petrushka
  • Death of Petrushka
  • Apparition of Petrushka's Double.

Other versions

In 1921, Stravinsky created a piano arrangement for Arthur Rubinstein entitled Trois mouvements de Petrouchka, which the composer admittedly could not play himself for lack of adequate left hand technique. For the 19th century Russian pianist and composer, see Anton Rubinstein Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a Polish pianist who is widely considered as one of the greatest piano virtuosos of the 20th Century. ... Igor Stravinsky, wrote two pieces for Arthur Rubinstein. ...


In 1947, Stravinsky penned a revised version of Petrushka for a smaller orchestra, in part because the original version was not covered by copyright and Stravinsky wanted to profit from the work's popularity. The drumrolls linking each scene, optional in the 1911 original, are compulsory in the 1947 edition. The ballerina's tune is assigned to a trumpet in the 1947 version instead of a cornet as in the original. The 1947 version also provides an optional fff (fortissimo) near the piano conclusion of the original. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Maya Plisetskaya, prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Ballet from 1943 to 1960 and prima ballerina assoluta from 1960 to 1990. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... In music, dynamics refers to the volume or loudness of the sound or note, in particular to the range from soft (quiet) to loud. ...


He also created a suite for concert performance that cut the last three sections: The Fight - The Moor and Petrushka, Death of Petrushka and Apparition of Petrushka. In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ...


In 1956, an animated version of the ballet appeared as part of NBC's Sol Hurok Music Hour. It was personally conducted by Stravinsky himself and was the first such collaboration. Directed by animator John David Wilson with Fine Arts Films, it has been noted as the first animated special ever to air on television. This article is about the television network. ... John David Wilson (born August 8, 1919 in Wimbledon, England) is an English artist, animator and producer. ... Fine Arts Films, Inc. ...


Notable recordings

Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall]] The NBC Symphony Orchestra was an orchestra established by David Sarnoff of the National Broadcasting Company as a vehicle for conductor Arturo Toscanini. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... Ferenc Fricsay (1914 - 20 February 1963) was a Hungarian conductor. ... The Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin is an orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... Ernest Alexandre Ansermet (November 11, 1883 – February 20, 1969) was a Swiss conductor. ... The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (Orchestra of French-speaking Switzerland, OSR) was founded in 1918 by Ernest Ansermet. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Pierre Monteux (April 4, 1875 – July 1, 1964) was an orchestra conductor. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds premiere orchestras. ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... The Columbia Symphony Orchestra is, (or was) an orchestra formed by the recording company Columbia, and provided a vehicle for some of their better known recording artists, with perhaps the most important contributions made by the conductor Bruno Walter, who made recordings of Beethoven and Mozart symphonies, amongst others, with... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Photograph of Karel Ančerl. ... Czech Philharmonic Orchestra at Rudolfinum Hall in Prague The Czech Philharmonic Orchestra (ÄŒeská filharmonie in Czech language) is based in Prague and is probably the most famous and most internationally respected Czech orchestra. ... Supraphon Music Publishing is the most significant Czech record label, and has a distinguished history. ... Antal Doráti (April 9, 1906 – November 13, 1988) was a conductor and composer. ... The Minnesota Orchestra is an American orchestra. ... Mercury Records is a record label currently headquartered in the UK, and is a subsidiary of Universal Music Group. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... Sony Classical is the successor to the Columbia and CBS Masterworks labels, assuming its new identity after the purchase of CBS Records by Sony Corporation. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Kiril Petrovich Kondrashin (March 6, 1914 – March 7, 1981) was a conductor. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest in Dutch) is the best known and most respected orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sir Colin Rex Davis (born September 25, 1927) is a noted British conductor. ... The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest in Dutch) is the best known and most respected orchestra in the Netherlands, and is generally considered to be among the worlds finest. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Wachtel, Andrew Baruch; Scholl, Tim, Kennedy, Janet, Taruskin, Richard (1998-05-13). in Andrew Baruch Wachtel: Petrushka: Sources and Contexts (in English). Northwestern University Press, p?. ISBN 0810115662. [citation needed]

Ricardo Chailly conducting the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (1995)


External links

  • Book review on Wachtel's book
  • Book review on Wachtel's book (subscription required)
  • Book review on Wachtel's book (subscription required)
  • Public Domain Scores of Petrushka were available at the International Music Score Library Project
  • Recordings of Stravinsky's Three Movements of Petrushka -piano version- by Alberto Cobo
The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ...

 
 

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