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Encyclopedia > Petrus Ramus
Petrus Ramus.
Petrus Ramus.

Petrus Ramus, or Pierre de la Ramée (1515August 24, 1572), French humanist, logician, and educational reformer, was born at the village of Cuth in Picardy, a member of a noble but impoverished family: his father was a charcoal-burner. Download high resolution version (1000x1193, 408 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1193, 408 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. ... A logician is a philosopher, mathematician, or other whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... Coat of arms of Picardy Picardy (French: Picardie) is an historical province of France, in the north of France. ...

Having gained admission, in a menial capacity, to the Collège de Navarre, he worked with his hands by day and carried on his studies at night. The reaction against scholasticism was still in full tide; it was the transition time between the old and the new, when the eager and forward-looking spirits had first of all to do battle with scholastic Aristotelianism. Ramus outdid his predecessors in the impetuosity of his revolt. On the occasion of taking his degree (1536) he allegedly took as his thesis Quaecumque ab Aristotele dicta essent, commentitia esse, which Walter J. Ong paraphrases as follows: "All the things that Aristotle has said are inconsistent because they are poorly systematized and can be called to mind only by the use of arbitrary mnemonic devices" (see Ong's Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason, 1958: 46-47). According to Ong (36-37), this kind of spectacular thesis was extremely routine at the time. Even so, Ong raises serious questions as to whether Ramus actually ever delivered this thesis (36-41). But Ramus subsequently published in 1543 the Aristotelicae Animadversiones and Dialecticae Partitiones, the former a criticism on the old logic and the latter a new textbook of the science. What are substantially fresh editions of the Partitiones appeared in 1547 as Institutiones Dialecticae, and in 1548 as Scholae Dialecticae; his Dialectique (1555), a French version of his system, is the earliest work on the subject in the French language. The College of Navarre (French: Collège de Navarre) was founded by Johanna, queen of Navarre in 1304, who provided for 3 departments, the arts with 20 students, philosophy with 30 and theology with 20 students. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Walter Ong Father Walter Jackson Ong, Ph. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

Meanwhile Ramus, as graduate of the university, had opened courses of lectures; but his audacities drew upon him the hostility of the conservative party in philosophy and theology. He was accused of undermining the foundations of philosophy and religion, and the matter was brought before the parlement of Paris, and finally before Francis I. By him it was referred to a commission of five, who found Ramus guilty of having "acted rashly, arrogantly and impudently," and interdicted his lectures (1544). He withdrew from Paris, but soon afterwards returned, the decree against him being cancelled through the influence of the cardinal of Lorraine. These five broad types of question are not the only subjects of philosophical inquiry, and there are many overlaps between the categories which are subsumed within the discipline under the four major headings of Logic, Ontology, Epistemology, and Axiology. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Lorraine coat of arms Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...

In 1551 Henry II appointed him professor of philosophy and eloquence at the Collège de France, where for a considerable time he lectured before audiences numbering as many as 2,000. He published fifty works in his lifetime and nine appeared after his death. In 1561, however, the enmity against him was fanned into flame by his adoption of Protestantism. He had to flee from Paris; and, though he found an asylum in the palace of Fontainebleau, his house was pillaged and his library burned in his absence. He resumed his chair after this for a time, but in 1568 the position of affairs was again so threatening that he found it advisable to ask permission to travel. Returning to France he fell a victim to his opponents in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572). Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from July 31, 1547 until his death. ... Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking in public. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a splitting away from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Location within France Fontainebleau is a town and commune in France. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... The St. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...

The logic of Ramus enjoyed a great celebrity for a time, and there existed a school of Ramists boasting numerous adherents in France, Germany, and the Netherlands. As late as 1626 Francis Burgersdyk divides the logicians of his day into the Aristotelians, the Ramists and the Semi-Ramists, who endeavoured, like Rudolf Goclenius (the Older) of Marburg, to mediate between the contending parties. Ramus's works appear among the logical textbooks of the Scottish universities, and he was not without his followers in England in the 17th century. There is even a little treatise from the hand of John Milton, published two years before his death, called Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio ad Petri Rami Methodum concinnata. Milton's Logic has been ably translated by Walter J. Ong and Charles J. Ermatinger in Yale's Complete Prose Works of John Milton (1982, 8: 206-408), with a magnificent introduction by Ong (144-205). Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Francis Burgersdyk or Burgersdicius (1590-1629), Dutch logician, was born at Lier, near Delft, and died at Leiden. ... Rudolph Goclenius Rudolph Göckel or Rudolf Goclenius [the Older] (1 March 1547 - 8 June 1628) was a German scholastic philosopher, credited with the inventions of the terms psychology (1590), and ontology (1613). ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... See John Milton (disambiguation) for other uses John Milton, English poet John Milton (December 9, 1608 – November 8, 1674) was an English poet, best-known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. ... Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. ...

It cannot be said, however, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history of logic. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of logic as the ars disserendi; he maintains that the rules of logic may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon. The distinction between natural and artificial logic, i.e., between the implicit logic of daily speech and the same logic made explicit in a system, passed over into the logical handbooks. Logic falls, according to Ramus, into two parts--invention (treating of the notion and definition) and judgment (comprising the judgment proper, syllogism and method). This division gave rise to the jocular designation of judgment or mother-wit as the "secunda Petri." He is, perhaps, most suggestive in his emendations of the syllogism. He admits only the first three figures, as in the original Aristotelian scheme, and in his later works he also attacks the validity of the third figure, following in this the precedent of Laurentius Valla. Ramus also set the modern fashion of deducing the figures from the position of the middle term in the premises, instead of basing them, as Aristotle does, upon the different relation of the middle to the so-called major and minor term. On the whole, however, there is little ground for his pretentious claim to supersede Aristotle by a new and independent system. After studying Ramus's work extensively, Ong concluded that his "methodizing" of the arts "are the amateurish works of a desperate man who is not a thinker but merely an erudite pedagogue" (The Barbarian Within, 1962: 79-80). Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar) in Western culture. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (standard English pronunciation ; Classical Latin pronunciation ) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... In traditional logic, a syllogism is an inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows of necessity from two others (known as premises). ... Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (c. ...

See Waddington-Kastus, De Petri Kami vita, scriptis, philosophia (Paris, 1848); Charles Desmaze, Petrus Ramus, professeur au Collège de France, sa vie, ses ecrits, sa mort (Paris, 1864); P. Lobstein, P. Ramus als Theolog (Strassburg, 1878); Émile Saisset, Les précurseurs de Descartes (Paris, 1862); J. Owen, French Skeptics of the Renaissance (London, 1893); K. Pranti, "Uber P. Ramus" in Munchener Sitzungs berichte (1878); Harald Høffding, Hist. of Mod. Phil. (Eng. trans., 1900), vol. i. 185; Voigt, Uber den Ramismus der Universität Leipzig (Leipzig, 1888); Perry Miller, The New England Mind (Harvard University Press, 1939); Walter J. Ong, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason (Harvard University Press, 1958; reissued with a new foreword by Adrian Johns, University of Chicago Press, 2004); Walter J. Ong, Ramus and Talon Inventory (Harvard University Press, 1958); Peter Sharratt, "The Present State of Studies on Ramus," Studi francesi 47-48 (1972) 201-13; Peter Sharratt, "Recent Work on Peter Ramus (1970-1986)," Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric 5 (1987): 7-58; Peter Sharratt, "Ramus 2000," Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric 18 (2000): 399-455; Joseph S. Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts in Central Europe, 1500-1700: Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities (Ashgate, 1999). Émile Edmond Saisset (September 16, 1814 - December 17, 1863) was a French philosopher. ... Harald Høffding (March 11, 1843 - July 2, 1931) was a Danish philosopher. ... Cover of Millers Errand into the Wilderness Perry Miller (1905-1963) was an American intellectual historian and Harvard University professor. ...


  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

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Petrus Ramus Summary (1614 words)
Petrus Ramus was born Pierre de La Ramée in the village of Cuth in Picardy.
Ramus was a considerable influence in the humanist development of anti-Aristotelian, antischolastic, antimedieval thinking; he was a major contributor to the "new philosophy" then challenging the assumptions of the Middle Ages.
Petrus Ramus, or Pierre de la Ramée (1515 – August 24, 1572), French humanist, logician, and educational reformer, was born at the village of Cuts in Picardy, a member of a noble but impoverished family: his father was a charcoal-burner.
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