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Encyclopedia > Petroleum
Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas
Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas
Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil.
Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil.
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Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Greek πέτρα (Latin petra) - rock + έλαιον (Latin oleum) - oil) or crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid found in formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of various lengths. The approximate length range is C5H12 to C18H38. Any shorter hydrocarbons are considered natural gas or natural gas liquids, while long-chain hydrocarbons are more viscous, and the longest chains are paraffin wax. In its naturally occurring form, it may contain other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] It is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish or even greenish) but varies greatly in appearance, depending on its composition. Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand, as in the Athabasca oil sands in Canada, where it may be referred to as crude bitumen. Petro is a naturally occurring liquid. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A colourful nodding donkey in the United States A nodding donkey or pump jack is the overground drive for a submersible pump in a borehole. ... “Lubbock” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ignacy_Lukasiewicz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ignacy_Lukasiewicz. ... Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822 - 1882) was a Polish pharmacist and inventor of the first method of distilling kerosene from seep oil. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Natural gas liquids are the liquids that, combined with methane, form natural gas. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ...


Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources. [2] 84% by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including gasoline, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas. [3] An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ...


Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative abundance, it has become the world's most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics; the 16% not used for energy production is converted into these other materials. Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass, depending on the context. ... An oil well in Canada. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...


Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. There is also petroleum in oil sands (tar sands). Known reserves of petroleum are typically estimated at around 140 km³ (1.2 trillion barrels) without oil sands [4], or 440 km³ (3.74 trillion barrels) with oil sands [5]. However, oil production from oil sands is currently severely limited. Consumption is currently around 84 million barrels per day, or 3.6 km³ per year. Because of reservoir engineering difficulties, recoverable oil reserves are significantly less than total oil-in-place. At current consumption levels, and assuming that oil will be consumed only from reservoirs, known reserves would be gone around 2039, potentially leading to a global energy crisis. However, this ignores any new discoveries, rapidly increasing consumption in China and India, using oil sands, using synthetic petroleum, and other factors which may extend or reduce this estimate. Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... Rock formations as used in this article refers to isolated, scenic, or spectacular surface rock outcrops. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands is a common name of what are more properly called bituminous sands, but also commonly referred to as oil sands or (in Venezuela) extra-heavy oil. ... An oil well in Canada. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum engineering, typically concerned with recovering the maximum amount of hydrocarbons with the minimum cost incurred. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ...

Contents

Formation

Chemistry

Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum, lines are single bonds, black spheres are carbon, white spheres are hydrogen
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum, lines are single bonds, black spheres are carbon, white spheres are hydrogen

The chemical structure of petroleum is composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. These different hydrocarbon chemicals are separated by fractional distillation at an oil refinery to produce gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, and other hydrocarbons. The general formula for these alkanes is CnH2n+2. For example 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), widely used in gasoline, has a chemical formula of C8H18 and it reacts with oxygen exothermically:[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1240x491, 82 KB) 3D-model of an octane molecule. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1240x491, 82 KB) 3D-model of an octane molecule. ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... For the popular Korean Anime, please visit Spheres (anime) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spheres (anime). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Look up Chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A chain can be any of the following: a flexible connection through multiple rigid links; applications include: pulling (it cannot be used for pushing) power transmission, as in roller chains (e. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point 4. ... Petrol redirects here. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ...

2mathrm{C}_8 mathrm{H}_{18(l)} + 25mathrm{O}_{2(g)} rightarrow ; 16mathrm{CO}_{2(g)} + 18mathrm{H}_2 mathrm{O}_{(l)} + 10.86  mathrm{MJ}

Incomplete combustion of petroleum or gasoline results in production of potentially toxic byproducts. Too little oxygen results in carbon monoxide. Combustion in air (which contains mostly nitrogen) results in nitric oxides. For example: Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of...

mathrm{C}_8 mathrm{H}_{18(l)} + 12.5mathrm{O}_{2(g)} + mathrm{N}_{2(g)} rightarrow ; 6mathrm{CO}_{2(g)} + 2mathrm{CO}_{(g)} +2mathrm{NO}_{(g)} + 9mathrm{H}_2 mathrm{O}_{(l)} + text{heat}

Formation of petroleum occurs in a variety of mostly endothermic reactions in high temperature and/or pressure. For example, a kerogen may break down into hydrocarbons of different lengths. [7] In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... Kerogens are chemical compounds that make up a portion of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


Biogenic theory

Most geologists view crude oil and natural gas as the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials over geological time. Oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae which have been settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions. Terrestrial plants, on the other hand, tend to form coal. Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under heavy layers of sediment. The resulting high levels of heat and pressure cause the organic matter to chemically change during diagenesis, first into a waxy material known as kerogen which is found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Anoxic sea water refers to water depleted of oxygen. ... A terrestrial plant is one that grows on land. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ... Kerogens are chemical compounds that make up a portion of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Catagenesis is a term used in petroleum geology to describe the cracking process which results in the conversion of organic kerogens into hydrocarbons. ...


Geologists often refer to an "oil window" which is the temperature range that oil forms in—below the minimum temperature oil remains trapped in the form of kerogen, and above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking. Though this happens at different depths in different locations around the world, a 'typical' depth for the oil window might be 4–6 km. Note that even if oil is formed at extreme depths, it may be trapped at much shallower depths, even if it is not formed there (the Athabasca Oil Sands is one example). For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... The process of heating under pressure the longer-chained byproducts from crude oil which has had hydrocarbons with chains in the gasoline range (6 to 10 carbons) distilled from them so that the longer chains will break into more desirable shorter chains ultimately yielding a higher proportion of gasoline in... The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada. ...

Hydrocarbon trap.
Hydrocarbon trap.

Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, these often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until they either reach the surface or become trapped beneath impermeable rocks, within porous rocks called reservoirs. However, the process is not straightforward since it is influenced by underground water flows, and oil may migrate hundreds of kilometres horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir. Concentration of hydrocarbons in a trap forms an oil field, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. Image File history File links Structural_Trap_(Anticlinal). ... Image File history File links Structural_Trap_(Anticlinal). ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... An oil reservoir, petroleum system or petroleum reservoir is often thought of as being an underground lake of oil, but it is actually composed of hydrocarbons contained in porous rock formations. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ...


Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: first, a source rock rich in organic material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil; second, a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in; and last a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface. Within these reservoirs fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it, although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs. A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ...


The vast majority of oil that has been produced by the earth has long ago escaped to the surface and been biodegraded by oil-eating bacteria. Oil companies are looking for the small fraction that has been trapped by this rare combination of circumstances. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping, but contain so much migrating oil that, although most of it has escaped, vast amounts are still present - more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs. On the other hand, oil shales are source rocks that have never been buried deep enough to convert their trapped kerogen into oil. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ...


The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where kerogen is broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions. The first set was originally patented in 1694 under British Crown Patent No. 330 covering,

"a way to extract and make great quantityes of pitch, tarr, and oyle out of a sort of stone."

The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ...


Abiogenic theory

The idea of abiogenic petroleum origin was championed in the Western world by astronomer Thomas Gold based on thoughts from Russia, mainly on studies of Nikolai Kudryavtsev. The idea proposes that hydrocarbons of purely geological origin exist in the planet. Hydrocarbons are less dense than aqueous pore fluids, and are proposed to migrate upward through deep fracture networks. Thermophilic, rock-dwelling microbial life-forms are proposed to be in part responsible for the biomarkers found in petroleum. The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... Occident redirects here. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... Nikolai Alexandrovich Kudryavtsev Russian: (Opochka, October 21, 1893 - Leningrad, December 12, 1971) was a Russian petroleum geologist. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Biomarker is an occasionally used synonym for biosignature, which is a term used in astrobiology to indicate a measurable phenomenon that indicates the presence of life. ...


This theory is a minority opinion, especially amongst Western geologists; no Western oil companies are currently known to explore for oil based on this theory, although Russia is known to have applied this theory with some success.[citation needed]


Classification

See also: Benchmark (crude oil)

The oil industry classifies "crude" by the location of its origin (e.g., "West Texas Intermediate, WTI" or "Brent") and often by its relative weight or viscosity ("light", "intermediate" or "heavy"); refiners may also refer to it as "sweet," which means it contains relatively little sulfur, or as "sour," which means it contains substantial amounts of sulfur and requires more refining in order to meet current product specifications. Each crude oil has unique molecular characteristics which are understood by the use of crude oil assay analysis in petroleum laboratories. [1] Crude oil price Benchamrks were first introduced in the mid 1980s. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Light crude oil as opposed to heavy crude oil contains a low content of wax. ... Heavy crude oil is the type of crude oil which is characterised by the presence of high amount of wax in it, as compared to light crude oil which contains a lesser amount of wax. ... Sweet crude oil is crude oil containing small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Sour crude oil contains the impurities hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide,or mercaptans. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Barrels from an area in which the crude oil's molecular characteristics have been determined and the oil has been classified are used as pricing references throughout the world. These references are known as Crude oil benchmarks: “bbl” redirects here. ... [1] Crude oil price Benchamrks were first introduced in the mid 1980s. ...

Brent Crude is one of the major classifications of oil consisting of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg and Forties. ... The Brent oilfield is one of the most productive parts of Scotlands offshore oil assets, although now in steady decline. ... == Headline text == Ninian refers to a variety of different people and locations: Saint Ninian (c. ... The East Shetland Basin is a major oil-producing area of the North Sea between Scotland and Norway. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Sullom Voe is an inlet between North Mainland and Northmavine on Shetland in Scotland, and an oil terminal sited on its shore. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... A benchmark is a point of reference for a measurement. ... West Texas Intermediate (WTI), also known as Texas Light Sweet, is a type of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing and the underlying commodity of New York Mercantile Exchanges oil futures contracts. ... Dubai Crude is an oil price benchmark. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The OPEC Reference Basket (ORB), also referred to as the OPEC Basket is a weighted average of prices for petroleum blends produced by OPEC countries. ... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The...

Means of production

Main article: Petroleum Industry

The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ...

Extraction

The most common method of obtaining petroleum is extracting it from oil wells found in oil fields. With improved technologies and higher demand for hydrocarbons various methods are applied in petroleum exploration and development to optimize the recovery of oil and gas. Primary recovery methods are used to extract oil that is brought to the surface by underground pressure, and can generally recover about 20% of the oil present. The natural pressure can come from several different sources; where it is provided by an underlying water layer it is called a water drive reservoir and where it is from the gas cap above it is called gas drive. After the reservoir pressure has depleted to the point that the oil is no longer brought to the surface, secondary recovery methods draw another 5 to 10% of the oil in the well to the surface. In a water drive oil field, water can be injected into the water layer below the oil, and in a gas drive field it can be injected into the gas cap above to repressurize the reservoir. Finally, when secondary oil recovery methods are no longer viable, tertiary recovery methods reduce the viscosity of the oil in order to bring more to the surface. These generally involve the injection of heat and/or solvents. The Extraction of Petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is extracted and removed from the earth. ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ...


Alternative methods

During the oil price increases of 2004-2007, alternatives methods of producing oil gained importance. The most widely known alternatives involve extracting oil from sources such as oil shale or tar sands. These resources exist in large quantities; however, extracting the oil at low cost without excessively harming the environment remains a challenge. Crude oil prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) U.S. Retail Gasoline prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day (black) and 2006 dollars (orange). ...


It is also possible to chemically transform methane or coal into the various hydrocarbons found in oil. The best-known such method is the Fischer-Tropsch process. It was a concept pioneered in Nazi Germany when imports of petroleum were restricted due to war and Germany found a method to extract oil from coal. It was known as Ersatz (English:"substitute") oil, and accounted for nearly half the total oil used in WWII by Germany. However, the process was used only as a last resort as naturally occurring oil was much cheaper. As crude oil prices increase, the cost of coal to oil conversion becomes comparatively cheaper. The method involves converting high ash coal into synthetic oil in a multi-stage process. Ideally, a ton of coal produces nearly 200 liters (1.25 bbl, 52 US gallons) of crude, with by-products ranging from tar to rare chemicals.[citation needed] For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mobil 1 oil Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... The abundance of a chemical element measures how relatively common the element is, or how much of the element there is by comparison to all other elements. ...


Currently, two companies have commercialised their Fischer-Tropsch technology. Shell in Bintulu, Malaysia, uses natural gas as a feedstock, and produces primarily low-sulfur diesel fuels. [8] Sasol [9] in South Africa uses coal as a feedstock, and produces a variety of synthetic petroleum products. Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Sasol (originally South African Steenkolen en Olie) is a South African company involved in mining, energy, chemicals and synfuels. ...


The process is today used in South Africa to produce most of the country's diesel fuel from coal by the company Sasol. The process was used in South Africa to meet its energy needs during its isolation under Apartheid. This process has received renewed attention in the quest to produce low sulfur diesel fuel in order to minimize the environmental impact from the use of diesel engines. This article is about the fuel. ... Sasol (originally South African Steenkolen en Olie) is a South African company involved in mining, energy, chemicals and synfuels. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the fuel. ... In politics and other non-technical contexts, nature or (the) (natural) environment often refers to that part of the natural world that people deem important or valuable, for any reason — economic, aesthetic, philosophical, hedonistic, sentimental, etc. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ...


An alternative method of converting coal into petroleum is the Karrick process, which was pioneered in the 1930s in the United States. It uses high temperatures in the absence of ambient air, to distill the short-chain hydrocarbons of petroleum out of coal. Karrick Process, from U.S. Patent #1,958,918. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ...


More recently explored is thermal depolymerization (TDP), a process for the reduction of complex organic materials into light crude oil. Using pressure and heat, long chain polymers of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon decompose into short-chain petroleum hydrocarbons. This mimics the natural geological processes thought to be involved in the production of fossil fuels. In theory, TDP can convert any organic waste into petroleum. Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ...


History

Petroleum, in some form or other, is not a substance new in the world's history. More than four thousand years ago, according to Herodotus and confirmed by Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was employed in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring on Zacynthus.[10] Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Zakýnthos (Ζάκυνθος, also known as Zante), the third largest of the Ionian Islands, covers an area of 410 square kilometers and its coastline is roughly 123 kilometers in length. ... Issus, a river in Cilicia, Asia Minor, where Alexander the Great defeated Darius in 333 B.C. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopaedia Categories: | ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Persia redirects here. ...


The earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 CE or earlier. They had depths of up to about 800 feet (244 m) and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles.[11] The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating. Petroleum was known as burning water in Japan in the 7th century. [10] An oil well is seen in Texas. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


The Middle East petroleum industry was established by the 8th century, when the streets of the newly constructed Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from easily accessible petroleum from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce naphtha. These fields were described by the geographer Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Petroleum was distilled by Persian chemist al-Razi in the 9th century, producing chemicals such as kerosene in the al-ambiq (alembic). [12] (See also: Alchemy (Islam), Islamic science, and Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world.) A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Naphtha (CAS No. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ...


The earliest mention of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad Pitch Lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada. A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America published in 1748 showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania. [10] Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... The Pitch Lake The Pitch Lake is a lake of natural asphalt located at La Brea in southwest Trinidad. ...


In 1711 the Greek physician Eyrini d’Eyrinis discovered asphalt at Val-de-Travers, (Neuchâtel). He established a bitumen mine de la Presta there in 1719 that operated until 1986. [13][14] Val-de-Travers The Val-de-Travers is a district in the canton of Neuchâtel, in Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland Neuchâtel 47. ...


Oil sands were mined from 1745 in Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, Alsace under the direction of Louis Pierre Ancillon de la Sablonnière, by special appointement of Louis XV.[15] The Pechelbronn oil field was active until 1970, and was the birth place of companies like Antar and Schlumberger. The first modern refinery was built there in 1857.[15] Merkwiller-Pechelbronn is a community in Alsace, noted as the original home of oil sands mining. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... In 1745 Louis Pierre Ancillon de la Sablonnière established the Pechelbronn bitumen mine at Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, Bas-Rhin, Alsace. ... The term Antar can refer to several articles: Antar, a 6th century pre-Islamic Arab chief of half African descent, was a subject of romance and distinguished as a warrior and poet. ... Schlumberger Limited is the worlds largest oilfield services corporation operating in approximately 80 countries, with about 70,000 people of 140 nationalities. ...


The modern history of petroleum began in 1846 with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Nova Scotian Abraham Pineo Gesner. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Abraham Pineo Gesner, born May 2, 1797 in Cornwallis Township, Nova Scotia, Canada – died April 29, 1864 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, was a physician and geologist who became one of the primary founders of the petroleum industry . ...


Ignacy Łukasiewicz improved Gesner's method to develop a means of refining kerosene from the more readily available "rock oil" ("petr-oleum") seeps in 1852 and the first rock oil mine was built in Bóbrka, near Krosno in Galicia in the following year. These discoveries rapidly spread around the world, and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in 1861. At that time Baku produced about 90% of the world's oil. Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822 - 1882) was a Polish pharmacist and inventor of the first method of distilling kerosene from seep oil. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ... Bóbrka is the name of several communities in the historic region of Galicia, now didvided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Coat of Arms Krosno (in full The Royal Free City of Krosno, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Krosno) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 48. ... There are two well-known places called Galicia: Galicia, one of Spains autonomous communities. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ...

Oil field in California, 1938.
Oil field in California, 1938.

The first commercial oil well drilled in North America was in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada in 1858, dug by James Miller Williams. The US petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake's drilling of a 69-foot (21 m) oil well in 1859, on Oil Creek near Titusville, Pennsylvania, for the Seneca Oil Company (originally yielding 25 barrels a day, by the end of the year output was at the rate of 15 barrels). [10] The industry grew slowly in the 1800s, driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century; the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day. Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly outpaced by demand, leading to "oil booms" in Texas, Oklahoma, and California. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Oil Springs, Ontario is a village located along Former Kings Highway 21 in Lambton County, Ontario, south of Oil City. ... James Miller Williams Source: Library and Archives Canada James Miller Williams (September 14, 1818 – November 25, 1890) was a businessman and political figure in Ontario, Canada. ... Edwin L. Drake Edwin Laurentine Drake (1819-1880), also known as Colonel Drake, was an American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil. ... Oil Creek is a river that flows through both Pennsylvania and New York. ... Titusville is a city located in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Early production of crude petroleum in the United States: [10]

  • 1859: 2,000 barrels (~340 t)
  • 1869: 4,215,000 barrels (~721,000 t)
  • 1879: 19,914,146 barrels (~3,410,000 t)
  • 1889: 35,163,513 barrels (~6,020,000 t)
  • 1899: 57,084,428 barrels (~9,770,000 t)
  • 1906: 126,493,936 barrels (~21,600,000 t)

By 1910, significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada (specifically, in the province of Ontario), the Dutch East Indies (1885, in Sumatra), Iran (1908, in Masjed Soleiman), Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico, and were being developed at an industrial level. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ...


Even until the mid-1950s, coal was still the world's foremost fuel, but oil quickly took over. Following the 1973 energy crisis and the 1979 energy crisis, there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels. This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out, at least as an economically viable energy source. At the time, the most common and popular predictions were always quite dire, and when they did not come true, many dismissed all such discussion. The future of petroleum as a fuel remains somewhat controversial. USA Today news (2004) reports that there are 40 years of petroleum left in the ground. Some[citation needed] argue that because the total amount of petroleum is finite, the dire predictions of the 1970s have merely been postponed. Others [citation needed] claim that technology will continue to allow for the production of cheap hydrocarbons and that the earth has vast sources of unconventional petroleum reserves in the form of tar sands, bitumen fields and oil shale that will allow for petroleum use to continue in the future, with both the Canadian tar sands and United States shale oil deposits representing potential reserves matching existing liquid petroleum deposits worldwide. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...


Today, about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States, but is responsible for only 2% of electricity generation. Petroleum's worth as a portable, dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world's most important commodities. Access to it was a major factor in several military conflicts including World War II and the Persian Gulf Wars of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The top three oil producing countries are Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States. About 80% of the world's readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East, with 62.5% coming from the Arab 5: Saudi Arabia (12.5%), UAE, Iraq, Qatar and Kuwait. However, with today's oil prices, Venezuela has larger reserves than Saudi Arabia due to crude reserves derived from bitumen. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ...


Uses

The chemical structure of petroleum is composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. Because of this, petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes. See Petroleum products. Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. ... A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland. ...


Fuels

Further information: alternative fuel

Generally used in transportation, power plants and heating. The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... This article is about the fuel. ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Petroleum vehicles are internal combustion engine vehicles. A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


Other derivatives

Certain types of resultant hydrocarbons may be mixed with other non-hydrocarbons, to create other end products:

An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... Grease is a lubricant of higher initial viscosity than oil, consisting originally of a calcium, sodium or lithium soap jelly emulsified with mineral oil. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ... Hydrodesulfurization is one means of lowering the sulfur content of liquids from oil/coal. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Petroleum coke (often abbreviated petcoke) is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...

Consumption statistics

Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, for 1800-2000. Total is black. Oil is in blue.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, for 1800-2000. Total is black. Oil is in blue.

Environmental effects

Diesel fuel spill on a road

The presence of oil has significant social and environmental impacts, from accidents and routine activities such as seismic exploration, drilling, and generation of polluting wastes not produced by other alternative energies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 871 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken and donated by User:Guinnog File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 871 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken and donated by User:Guinnog File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... For drilling in the earth, see Borehole. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


Extraction

Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural leaks. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment. [16] But at the same time, offshore oil platforms also form micro-habitats for marine creatures. Extraction may involve dredging, which stirs up the seabed, killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to survive. John M. Hunt (1918 – 2005) was a geologist, chemist, and oceanographer. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ... An Internet leak occurs when a partys confidential intellectual property is released to the public on the Internet. ... Offshore has three principal meanings: Physical - in the sea away from the shore; not on the shoreline but out to sea. ... The Hibernia platform is the worlds largest oil platform. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... Look up kill, killing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Oil spills

Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill
Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill

Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands, France and many other places and times in Spain (i.e. Ibiza). Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe Photo by user Viajero, March 3, 2003, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe Photo by user Viajero, March 3, 2003, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ... This is a list of oil spills throughout the world. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ...


The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz...). Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill The Atlantic Empress was a ship was involved in the two large oil spills. ... The Amoco Cadiz was a supertanker, owned by Amoco, that split in two after running aground on Portsall Rocks, three miles off the coast of Brittany, in March 16, 1978, resulting in the 5th-largest oil spill in history. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, which occurred on March 24, 1989, is considered one of the most devastating man-made environmental disasters ever to occur at sea. ...


Global warming

Main article: Global warming

Burning oil releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming. Per energy unit, oil produces less CO2 than coal, but more than natural gas. However, oil's unique role as a transportation fuel makes reducing its CO2 emissions a particularly thorny problem; amelioration strategies such as carbon sequestering are generally geared for large power plants, not individual vehicles. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


Whales

It has been argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved the great cetaceans from extinction by providing a cheap substitute for whale oil, thus eliminating the economic imperative for whaling.[17]


Alternatives to petroleum

Main article: Renewable energy

Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...

Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuels

The term alternative propulsion or "alternative methods of propulsion" includes both: Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ...

Nowadays, cars can be classified between the next main groups: The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... The air car is a car being developed and manufactured by Moteur Développement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...

This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Bold text Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ...

The future of petroleum production

Hubbert peak theory

Main articles: Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory

The Hubbert peak theory (also known as peak oil) is a proposition which predicts that future world petroleum production must inevitably reach a peak and then decline at a similar rate to the rate of increase before the peak as these reserves are exhausted. It also suggests a method to calculate mathematically the timing of this peak, based on past production rates, past discovery rates, and proven oil reserves. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


Controversy surrounds the theory for numerous reasons. Past predictions regarding the timing of the global peak have failed, causing a number of observers to disregard the theory. Further, predictions regarding the timing of the peak are highly dependent on the past production and discovery data used in the calculation.


Proponents of peak oil theory also refer as an example of their theory, that when any given oil well produces oil in similar volumes to the amount of water used to obtain the oil, it tends to produce less oil afterwards, leading to the relatively quick exhaustion and/or commercial inviability of the well in question. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


The issue can be considered from the point of view of individual regions or of the world as a whole. Hubbert's prediction for when US oil production would peak turned out to be correct, and after this occurred in 1971 - causing the US to lose its excess production capacity - OPEC was finally able to manipulate oil prices, which led to the 1973 oil crisis. Since then, most other countries have also peaked: the United Kingdom's North Sea, for example in the late 1990s. China has confirmed that two of its largest producing regions are in decline, and Mexico's national oil company, Pemex, has announced that Cantarell Field, one of the world's largest offshore fields, was expected to peak in 2006, and then decline 14% per annum. Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was a Geologist by education and a geophysicist by profession who worked at the Shell research lab in Houston, Texas. ... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... A Pemex gas station in Puerto Vallarta Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is Mexicos state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. ... Cantarell Field or Cantarell Complex is the largest oil field in Mexico and one of the largest in the world. ...


It is difficult to predict the oil peak in any given region (due to the lack of transparency in accounting of global oil reserves [18]) . Based on available production data, proponents have previously (and incorrectly) predicted the peak for the world to be in years 1989, 1995, or 1995-2000. Some of these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980s, and the consequent reduction in global consumption, the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. A new prediction by Goldman Sachs picks 2007 for oil and some time later for natural gas. [citation needed] Just as the 1971 U.S. peak in oil production was only clearly recognized after the fact, a peak in world production will be difficult to discern until production clearly drops off. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ...


Many proponents of the Hubbert peak theory expound the belief that the production peak is imminent, for various reasons. The year 2005 saw a dramatic fall in announced new oil projects coming to production from 2008 onwards - in order to avoid the peak, these new projects would have to not only make up for the depletion of current fields, but increase total production annually to meet increasing demand. It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory, accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The year 2005 also saw substantial increases in oil prices due to a number of circumstances, including war and political instability. Oil prices rose to new highs. Analysts such as Kenneth Deffeyes [19] argue that these price increases indicate a general lack of spare capacity, and the price fluctuations can be interpreted as a sign that peak oil is imminent. Petro redirects here. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


Pricing

Main articles: Price of petroleum and Oil price increases of 2004-2007

Short-Term Oil Prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation). ... Crude oil prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) U.S. Retail Gasoline prices, 2005-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) Oil prices from 1861-2006 in dollars of the day (black) and 2006 dollars (orange). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png)Ten-day moving average of prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, taken from data at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png)Ten-day moving average of prices of NYMEX Light Sweet Crude, taken from data at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. ...

International market

Main article: Petroleum Industry
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption).
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption).

The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Source Map taken from Image:BlankMap-World-v6. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 48 KB) Source Map taken from Image:BlankMap-World-v6. ...

Petroleum efficiency among countries

There are two main ways to measure the petroleum efficiency of countries: by population or by GDP (gross domestic product). This metric is important in the global debate over oil consumption/energy consumption/climate change because it takes social and economic considerations into account when scoring countries on their oil consumption/energy consumption/climate change goals. Nations such as China and India with large populations tend to promote the use of population based metrics, while nations with large economies such as the United States would tend to promote the GDP based metric.[citation needed] This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ...

Selected Nations Oil Efficiency (US dollar/barrel/day)
Switzerland 3.75
United Kingdom 3.34
Norway 3.31
Austria 2.96
France 2.65
Germany 2.89
Sweden 2.71
Italy 2.57
European Union 2.52
DRC 2.4
Japan 2.34
Australia 2.21
Spain 1.96
Bangladesh 1.93
Poland 1.87
United States 1.65
Belgium 1.59
World 1.47
Turkey 1.39
Canada 1.35
Mexico 1.07
Ethiopia 1.04
South Korea 1.00
Philippines 1.00
Brazil 0.99
Taiwan 0.98
China 0.94
Nigeria 0.94
Pakistan 0.93
Myanmar 0.89
India 0.86
Russia 0.84
Indonesia 0.71
Vietnam 0.61
Thailand 0.53
Saudi Arabia 0.46
Egypt 0.41
Singapore 0.40
Iran 0.35
Selected Nations Oil Efficiency (barrel/person/year)
DRC 0.13
Ethiopia 0.37
Bangladesh 0.57
Myanmar 0.73
Pakistan 1.95
Nigeria 2.17
India 2.18
Vietnam 2.70
Philippines 3.77
Indonesia 4.63
China 4.96
Egypt 7.48
Turkey 9.85
Brazil 11.67
Poland 11.67
World 12.55
Thailand 13.86
Russia 17.66
Mexico 18.07
Iran 21.56
European Union 29.70
United Kingdom 30.18
Germany 32.31
France 32.43
Italy 32.43
Austria 34.01
Spain 35.18
Switzerland 34.64
Sweden 34.68
Taiwan 41.68
Japan 42.01
Australia 42.22
South Korea 43.84
Norway 52.06
Belgium 61.52
United States 68.81
Canada 69.85
Saudi Arabia 75.08
Singapore 178.45

(Note: The figure for Singapore is skewed because of its small
population compared with its large oil refining capacity.
Most of this oil is sent to other countries.) DRC may stand for: Democratic Republic of the Congo Dancing Robot Contest Danish Refugee Council (drc. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... DRC may stand for: Democratic Republic of the Congo Dancing Robot Contest Danish Refugee Council (drc. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...

Top petroleum-producing countries

Source: Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government.


For oil reserves by country, see Oil reserves by country. An oil well in Canada. ...

Oil producing countries
Oil producing countries

In order of amount produced in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand /d: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x720, 56 KB) Summary Map of oil producing countries as listed on wikipedia:List of oil-producing states , also shows US states and canadian provinces producing oil & OPEC members Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum List... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x720, 56 KB) Summary Map of oil producing countries as listed on wikipedia:List of oil-producing states , also shows US states and canadian provinces producing oil & OPEC members Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum List... Countries producing oil This is a list of states that extract crude oil from oil wells. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...

# Producing Nation (2006) (103bbl/d) (103m3/d)
1 Saudi Arabia (OPEC) 10,719 1,704
2 Russia 1 9,668 1,537
3 United States 1 8,367 1,330
4 Iran (OPEC) 4,146 659
5 China 3,836 610
6 Mexico 1 3,706 589
7 Canada 2 3,289 523
8 United Arab Emirates (OPEC) 2,938 467
9 Venezuela (OPEC) 1 2,803 446
10 Norway 1 2,785 443
11 Kuwait (OPEC) 2,674 425
12 Nigeria (OPEC) 2,443 388
13 Brazil 2,163 344
14 Algeria (OPEC) 2,122 337
15 Iraq (OPEC) 3 2,008 319

Source: US Energy Information Administration Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The...


1 peak production of conventional oil already passed in this state An oil well in Canada. ...


2 Although Canadian conventional oil production is declining, total oil production is increasing as oil sands production grows. If oil sands are included, it has the world's second largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia.


3 Though still a member, Iraq has not been included in production figures since 1998


Top petroleum-exporting countries

Oil exports by country
Oil exports by country

In order of net exports in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand /d: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x628, 56 KB) Summary oil exports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x628, 56 KB) Summary oil exports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...

# Exporting Nation (2006) (103bbl/d) (103m3/d)
1 Saudi Arabia (OPEC) 8,651 1,376
2 Russia 1 6,565 1,044
3 Norway 1 2,542 404
4 Iran (OPEC) 2,519 401
5 United Arab Emirates (OPEC) 2,515 400
6 Venezuela (OPEC) 1 2,203 350
7 Kuwait (OPEC) 2,150 342
8 Nigeria (OPEC) 2,146 341
9 Algeria (OPEC) 1 1,847 297
10 Mexico 1 1,676 266
11 Libya (OPEC) 1 1,525 242
12 Iraq (OPEC) 1,438 229
13 Angola (OPEC) 1,363 217
14 Kazakhstan 1,114 177
15 Canada 2 1,071 170

Source: US Energy Information Administration Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The...


1 peak production already passed in this state An oil well in Canada. ...


2 Canadian statistics are complicated by the fact it is both an importer and exporter of crude oil, and refines large amounts of oil for the U.S. market. It is the leading source of U.S. imports of oil and products, averaging 2.5 MMbbl/d in August 2007. [2].


Total world production/consumption (as of 2005) is approximately 84 million barrels per day.


See also: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ...


Top petroleum-consuming countries

In order of amount consumed in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand /d: “bbl” redirects here. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...

# Consuming Nation 2006 (103bbl/day) (103m3/day)
1 United States 1 20,588 3,273
2 China 7,274 1,157
3 Japan 2 5,222 830
4 Russia 1 3,103 493
5 Germany 2 2,630 418
6 India 2 2,534 403
7 Canada 2,218 353
8 Brazil 2,183 347
9 South Korea 2 2,157 343
10 Saudi Arabia (OPEC) 2,068 329
11 Mexico 1 2,030 323
12 France 2 1,972 314
13 United Kingdom 1 1,816 289
14 Italy 2 1,709 272
15 Iran (OPEC) 1,627 259

Source: US Energy Information Administration Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The...


1 peak production of oil already passed in this state An oil well in Canada. ...


2 This country is not a major oil producer


Top petroleum-importing countries

Oil imports by country
Oil imports by country

In order of net imports in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand /d: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x628, 53 KB) Summary oil imports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x628, 53 KB) Summary oil imports in bbl/day, as listed on the CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Petroleum ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...

# Importing Nation (2006) (103bbl/day) (103m3/day)
1 United States 1 12,220 1,943
2 Japan 5,097 810
3 China 2 3,438 547
4 Germany 2,483 395
5 South Korea 2,150 342
6 France 1,893 301
7 India 1,687 268
8 Italy 1,558 248
9 Spain 1,555 247
10 Taiwan 942 150
11 Netherlands 936 149
12 Singapore 787 125
13 Thailand 606 96
14 Turkey 576 92
15 Belgium 546 87

Source: US Energy Information Administration


1 peak production of oil already passed in this state An oil well in Canada. ...


2 Major oil producer whose production is still increasing


Top petroleum non-producing and consuming countries

# Consuming Nation (bbl/day) (m³/day)
1 Japan 5,578,000 886,831
2 Germany 2,677,000 425,609
3 India 2,320,000 368,851
4 South Korea 2,061,000 327,673
5 France 2,060,000 327,514
6 Italy 1,874,000 297,942
7 Spain 1,537,000 244,363
8 Netherlands 946,700 150,513

Source : CIA World Factbook


Writers covering the petroleum industry

Brian Black is a professor of history and environmental studies at Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, Pennsylvania. ... Colin J. Campbell, Ph. ... Kenneth S. Deffeyes is a geologist who worked with M. King Hubbert of Hubberts peak fame, at the Shell Oil Company research laboratory in Houston, Texas. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... David L. Goodstein (born 1939) is a U.S. physicist and educator. ... Daniel H. Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author and economic researcher. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

See also

This list of oil fields includes major fields of the past and present. ... Countries producing oil This is a list of states that extract crude oil from oil wells. ... Countries in decreasing order of oil consumption. ... An oil well in Canada. ... This is a list of petroleum companies. ... The 1990 (or third) energy crisis was the mildest and most brief of them all. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Map The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge covers about 19,600,000 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ... Due to its toxicity, lead has been phased out of petroleum used in many countries. ... The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Eugene Island is a submerged mountain 70-85 miles off the Louisiana coast in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Non-conventional oil is oil extracted using techniques other than the traditional oil well method. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... This article or section contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Crude oil is a finite resource. ... An oil well is seen in Texas. ... The Olduvai theory states that industrial civilization (as defined by per capita energy consumption) will have a lifetime of less than or equal to 100 years (1930-2030). ... Platts is a major provider of energy information around the world that has been in business for more than a century and is now a division of McGraw-Hill. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Peak Oil. ... Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill An oil spill is the release of oil (generally, petroleum) into the natural environment, usually the ocean. ... Petroleum geology is a term used to refer to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration). ... A petrodollar is a dollar earned by a country through the sale of oil. ... Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... Fuel Stations are points at which vehicles operating on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or hydrogen can stop at in order to refuel. ... Political sidewalk graffiti Petroleum politics have been an increasingly important aspect of international diplomacy since the discovery of oil in the Middle East in the early 1900s. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... Subsea is a general term frequently used to refer to equipment, technology, and methods employed to explore, drill, and develop oil and gas fields that exist below the ocean floors. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ...

References

  1. ^ Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), by the American Petroleum Institute
  2. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics
  3. ^ "Crude oil is made into different fuels"
  4. ^ EIA reserves estimates
  5. ^ CERA report on total world oil
  6. ^ Heat of Combustion of Fuels
  7. ^ Petroleum Study
  8. ^ Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis Malaysia
  9. ^ Sasol corporate website
  10. ^ a b c d e This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Petroleum", a publication now in the public domain.
  11. ^ ASTM timeline of Oil
  12. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). The Miracle of Islam Science, 2nd Edition, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Le bitume et la mine de la Presta (Suisse), Jacques Lapaire, Mineraux et Fossiles No 315
  15. ^ a b History of Pechelbronn oil
  16. ^ Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity by Stanislave Patin
  17. ^ How Capitalism Saved the Whales by James S. Robbins, The Freeman, August, 1992.
  18. ^ New study raises doubts about Saudi oil reserves
  19. ^ Deffeyes, Kenneth (2005). Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert;s Peak, 1st Edition, Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-2957-X. 
  20. ^ Kenney, J., Shnyukov, A., Krayushkin, V., Karpov, I., Kutcherov, V. and Plotnikova, I. (2001). "Dismissal of the claims of a biological connection for natural petroleum". Energia 22 (3): 26-34. 
  21. ^ Brad Lemley (2003). "Anything Into Oil". Discover 24 (5). 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikinews has related news:
  • OTS Heavy Oil Science Centre (includes overview of all phases of the oil industry)
  • US Energy Information Administration - Part of the informative website of the US Government's Energy Information Administration.
  • [3] - Environmental effects of oil extraction
  • Black Gold Beneath the Bayous: Oil Formation - online textbook giving a non-technical of the biogenic theory of the origin of petroleum
  • Interactive Oil Well Map of Mississippi Mississippi Oil Journal
  • Oil, petroleum: Development, production, consumption and reserves
  • Drilling sites in Western South Dakota Drilling sites in South Dakota
  • Oil and Gas Industry Learning Center Information on the processes, products and people in the oil and gas industry

Analysis

  • How derivatives drive oil prices up, despite ample supply in physical oil market (9-Jun-06)
  • The real problems with $50 oil, An analysis by Henry C.K. Liu in Asia Times Online, details the economic impact of high oil prices.
  • Oil in troubled waters - Economist article on investor approaches to oil markets, supply, and future

Articles

  • Discovery of oil in South East Asia - History of an oil town.
  • The End of the Age of Oil - article adapted from a talk by Caltech vice provost and professor of physics David Goodstein
  • The Politics of Oil - A report on the oil industry's influence of lawmakers and public policy by the Center for Public Integrity.
  • BBC: Stability fears rise as oil reliance grows
  • House Votes to Reverse Ban on Offshore Drilling
  • Lee Raymond of Exxon Mobile believes oil supplies will rise
  • Known Saudi Arabian Oil Reserves Tripled
  • Pemex's oil estimates double: Mexican Oil company's estimate of reserves doubled.
  • Petroleum in a Nutshell - About.com:Geology
  • Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum[20]
  • An introduction to the modern petroleum science, and to the Russian-Ukrainian theory of deep, abiotic petroleum origins.
  • Abiogenic Gas Debate
  • Anything Into Oil: Technological savvy could turn 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas crude each year[21]
  • MSN Encarta article on petroleum
  • Where Does My Gasoline Come From ? Energy Information Administration (DoE).
  • One Case of an Oil and Gas Field being 'Renewed'

Data

  • Department of Energy EIA - World supply and consumption
  • Department of Energy EIA - Crude Oil and Total Petroleum Imports to USA
  • US petroleum prices - from US Department of Energy EIA
  • European Brent prices since 1987
  • Price data (deflated and non-deflated) since 1861
  • International Fuel Prices 2007 with diesel and gasoline prices of more than 170 countries
  • BP Statistical Review of World Energy
  • World oil consumption World oil consumption

Industry

  • American Petroleum Institute - the trade association of the US oil industry.
  • Petroleum directory Industry news service
  • Oil prices and industry news
  • Oil Marketer - oil news and market information
  • Global Oil Watch - Real-time oil and gas news and resources
  • Petroleum Club Online Community for the Petroleum Industry
  • Pennwell Petroluem Group Industry information on petroleum/oil and gas

Opinion

  • Andy Xie, MorganStanley economist for Asia, thinks oil is financial bubble (16-Jun-2005)
  • The Oil Drum - A Community Discussion about Peak Oil and the Oil Industry.
  • Oil Rocks
  • PetroTalk Portal for petro related Articles, Discussion, Links and more

Pricing

  • Nymex - oil trading center of the US
  • Explanation of pricing mechanism in oil markets
  • Bloomberg Energy Prices - current prices on world mercantile exchanges

The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the main U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry, representing about 400 corporate members involved in all aspects of the industry. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... David L. Goodstein (born 1939) is a U.S. physicist and educator. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit news organization dedicated to producing investigative reporting on public officials, government policy and its effects[1]. // Located in Washington, DC, USA, the Center for Public Integrity produces reports aimed to provide transparent and insightful reporting. ... Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World Petroleum Council (590 words)
The WPC is a not for profit organisation so the intention of organising the World Petroleum Congress is not only to promote the progress of the global energy industry but to leave a positive affect on the local community of the host country and a long lasting legacy by initiating social and environment projects
The WPC is dedicated to the application of scientific advances in the oil and gas industries, to technology transfer and to the use of the world's petroleum resources for the benefit of mankind
The objective of the WPC Excellence Awards (WPCEA) is to distinguish companies, institutions or any public or private organisation (not individuals) engaged in the oil and gas industry for promoting or operating with high excellence standards in two categories, social and technical excellence.
Petroleum - MSN Encarta (1155 words)
In addition, petroleum and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of medicines and fertilizers, foodstuffs, plastics, building materials, paints, and cloth and to generate electricity.
The chemical composition of all petroleum is principally hydrocarbons, although a few sulfur-containing and oxygen-containing compounds are usually present; the sulfur content varies from about 0.1 to 5 percent.
The remains of tiny organisms that live in the sea—and, to a lesser extent, those of land organisms that are carried down to the sea in rivers and of plants that grow on the ocean bottoms—are enmeshed with the fine sands and silts that settle to the bottom in quiet sea basins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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