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Encyclopedia > Petrochemical

Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


The two main classes of raw materials are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene and xylene isomers), both of which are produced in very large quantities, mainly by the steam cracking and catalytic reforming of refinery hydrocarbons. From these basic building blocks are made a very wide range of raw materials used in industry - plastics, resins, fibres, solvents, detergents, etc. A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of four hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a double bond. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ... A catalytic reforming process converts a feed stream containing paraffins and naphthenes into aromatics to be used either as a motor fuel, such as gasoline or as a source for specific aromatic compounds for use in petrochemicals production. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... Resin of a pine Insect trapped in resin. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


World production of ethylene is around 110 million tonnes per annum, of propylene 65 million tonnes and of aromatic raw materials 70 million tonnes. The largest petrochemical industries are to be found in the USA and Western Europe, though the major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia. There is a substantial inter-regional trade in petrochemicals of all kinds.


The following is a partial list of the major commercial petrochemicals and their derivatives:

Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of four hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a double bond. ... POLYETHYLENE [[In the polymer industry the name is sometimes shortened to PE, . The ethylene molecule connected by a double bond, thus: Polyethylene is created through polymerization of ethylene. ... The chemical compound ethylene oxide is an important industrial chemical used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, and as a sterilant for foodstuffs and medical supplies. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Antifreeze is a water-based liquid coolant used in gasoline and diesel engines. ... Cellosolve is a trade name for a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol, now widely used also as its generic name. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Flash point  ? °C R/S statement R: ? S: ? RTECS number  ? Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely-used plastic. ... Chemical Structure of Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is an organic chemical compound which is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C8H10. ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially-made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Cumene is the trivial name for isopropylbenzene, an organic chemical compound that is an aromatic hydrocarbon. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C≡N), is a pungent smelling, extremely flammable organic liquid. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, textiles, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. ... Propylene oxide is a highly toxic flammable chemical compound. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... Cellosolve is a trade name for a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol, now widely used also as its generic name. ... Acrylic acid or prop-2-enoic acid is a chemical compound with the formula C3H4O2 and structure (which is sometimes abbreviated as CH2=CHCOOH). ... allyl chloride Allyl chloride, or 3-chloropropene, is a very toxic and highly flammable clear liquid with chemical formula CH2CHCH2Cl, insoluble in water, used as an alkylating agent. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially-made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Chemical Structure of Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is an organic chemical compound which is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C8H10. ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Polystyrene is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially-made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... Cumene is the trivial name for isopropylbenzene, an organic chemical compound that is an aromatic hydrocarbon. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12. ... Adipic acid is the common name of 1,6-hexanedioic acid, a chemical compound of the class of carboxylic acids. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, first produced on 28 February, 1935 by Dr. Wallace Carothers and his research group at DuPont. ... Caprolactam (C6H11ON) is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. ... Pantyhose (known as Tights in the UK) are tight fitting coverings of the body from the waist to the feet, normally worn by women. ... Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene (C6H5NH2) is an organic chemical compound which is a primary aromatic amine consisting of a benzene ring and an amino group. ... Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, reminiscent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, is a colourless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Caprolactam (C6H11ON) is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. ... Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, first produced on 28 February, 1935 by Dr. Wallace Carothers and his research group at DuPont. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 152 °C RTECS number TI3150000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... Dimethyl terephthalate is an organic chemical used in the production of polyesters, including polyethylene terephthalate. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Terephthalic acid is one isomer of the three phthalic acids. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Petrochemical Accidents | Texas Refinery Explosion Injury Attorney | Oil Gas Accidents Lawyer (431 words)
We have witnessed the devastating consequences these injures have on individuals and their families, as well as the tragedy brought on by deaths related to petrochemical and refinery accidents.
Many of the injuries associated with petrochemical and refinery accidents (including burns from explosions and scalding liquid, and spinal cord and head injuries from falls) often result in serious injuries that prevent the injured worker from ever returning to the job.
Our petrochemical and refinery accidents attorneys have extensive knowledge of the federal and state regulations that govern the manufacture and storage of petrochemicals, liquid petroleum, oil, industrial chemicals, and natural gas.
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