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Encyclopedia > Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. Petersburg, Russia. The fort contains a number of buildings including the Peter and Paul Cathedral, where all Russian tsars from Peter I to Alexander III are interred; the remains of the Imperial martyrs, Nicholas II and his family and entourage, were also interred there more recently. Other structures include the Mint building (active), the Trubetskoy bastion, and the City Museum. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Пётр I Алексеевич in Russian, or Pyotr I Alexeevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725] O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Painting of Tsar Alexander III (1886), by Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887), original, 41 x 36 in. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia Nicholas II of Russia ( 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918 ) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ...

View of the fortress in 1905
View of the fortress in 1905

The fort was established by Peter the Great on May 16 (by the Julian Calendar, May 27 by the Gregorian Calendar) 1703 on a small island, Zayachii (hare) (or Vesiolii - cheerful) ostrov, on the Neva River. Built during the Northern War, the fort was never actually needed. The fort was completed with six bastions in earth and timber within a year, it was rebuilt with stone from 1706 to 1740. From around 1720 the fort served as a base for the city garrison and also as a prison for high ranking or political prisoners. The Trubetskoy bastion, built in the 1870s, became the main prison block. The Cathedral was built from 1712 to 1733, and has a 123.2 m bell-tower and a gilded angel-topped cupola. Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, 1905. ... Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, 1905. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy May 27 - Founding of St Petersburg in Russia May 26 - Portugal joins Grand Alliance July 29-31 - Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек - Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург - Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив - Finskii Zaliv). ... The Northern War can mean: Northern Wars (1655-1660) Great Northern War (1700-1721) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The point of a bastion on a reconstructed French fort in Illinois. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies November 5 - The Dublin Gazette publishes its first edition. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... PogoÅ„ Litewska Coat of Arms Troubetzkoy, or Trubetskoy, or Trubetsky, or Trubecki, is a typical Ruthenian Gedyminid gentry family of Black Ruthenian stock, like other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts. ... Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Lutheran or Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ...


During 1917, it was attacked by mutinous soldiers of the Pavlovskii regiment on February 27 (J) and the prisoners were freed. Under the Provisional Government hundreds of Tsarist officials were held in the Fortress, for their protection from the angry people. So many officials were held that the Fortress was filled and the rest had to be taken to the Mikhailovskii Manege. The Tsar was threatened with being incarcerated at the Fortress on his return from Mogilev to Tsarskoe Selo on March 8 (J), the threat was not followed through and he was placed under house arrest. 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Mahilyow, or Mahileu (Belarusian: Магілёў; Russian: Могилёв (Mogilev), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in the eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ...


On July 4 (J) when the Bolsheviks attempted a putsch the Fortress garrison of 8,000 men declared for the Bolsheviks. They surrendered to government forces without a struggle on July 6 (J) . July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ...


On October 25 (J), again, the Fortress quickly came into Bolshevik hands. Following the ultimatum from the Military-Revolutionary Committee to the Provisional Government ministers in the Winter Palace, after the blank salvo of the Cruiser Aurora at 21.00, the guns of the Fortress fired thirty or so shells at the Winter Palace. Only two actually hit, inflicting minor damage, and the defenders refused to surrender - at that time. At 02.10 on the morning of October 26 (J) the Winter Palace was taken by forces under Antonov-Ovseenko, the captured ministers were taken to the Fortress as prisoners. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... The Petrograd Soviet, or the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the citys workers. ... Located on the bank of the Neva River, the Winter Palace in St. ... The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ...


The Provisional Government ministers were the last prisoners at the Fortress. In 1924 most of the site was converted to a museum. In 1931 the Gas Dynamics Laboratory was added to the site. The structure suffered heavy damage during WW II, but was restored post-war. 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


External link


Fortresses of Western Russia Koporye Fortress.

Gdov | Ivangorod | Izborsk | Kirillov | Koporye | Korela | Kronstadt | Ladoga | Novgorod | Oreshek | Porkhov | Pskov |
Smolensk | Solovki | St Petersburg | Vyborg Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Photo courtesy of www. ... Gdov (Гдов) is a both a Russian district, found in the north of the Pskov Oblast, and a town within it, which stands on the river Gdovka. ... Ivangorod Fortress is a castle constructed near the town of Ivangorod, Russia. ... Izborsk (И́зборск) is an old Russian town to the west of Pskov and just to the east from the Estonian border. ... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Koporye (Russian: Копорье) is a historic village in Russia, about 100 km to the west of St Petersburg, which contains some of the most impressive medieval ruins in Russia. ... Korela Fortress, at the town of Priozersk, was founded by the Karelians who named the place Novogorodian chronicles refer to it as It was first mentioned in a Novgorodian chronicle of 1143 and archeological digs have revealed a layer belonging to the 12th century. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at 59° 59′ 30″ N 29° 46′ 30″ E. It lies 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg, of which it... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... Orechovets is an island with the fortress Oreshek (Nöteborg in Swedish, given the name Schlisselburg/Schlüsselburg after its re-conquest by Peter the Great in 1702). ... Porkhov (Порхов in Russian) is a town in the Pskov Oblast in Russia. ... 10-ruble Russian coin of 2003 in the Ancient cities of Russia series - commemorating Pskov Pskov (Псков, ancient spelling Пльсковъ, also Pihkva (Estonian), Pleskau (German) and Psków (Polish)) is an ancient Russian city, located in the north-west of Russia near the present-day border with Estonia, on the river... The view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск;, Belarusian: Смаленск) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dniepr river at 54. ... One of the monastery towers in 1915 Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... Vyborg from the tower of the castle Vyborg (transcription of Russian Выборг) is a town with 70,000 inhabitants at Russias border to Finland, on the Karelian Isthmus, close to Saint Petersburg. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Paul (10733 words)
Paul preached in the synagogue every Sabbath day, and when the violent opposition of the Jews denied him entrance there he withdrew to an adjoining house which was the property of a proselyte named Titus Justus.
According to them Paul was the creator of theology, the founder of the Church, the preacher of asceticism, the defender of the sacraments and of the ecclesiastical system, the opponent of the religion of love and liberty which Christ came to announce to the world.
Paul never answers this question directly, but he shows us the drama of Calvary under three aspects, which there is danger in separating and which are better understood when compared: (a) at one time the death of Christ is a sacrifice intended, like the sacrifice of the Old Law, to expiate sin and propitiate God.
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