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Encyclopedia > Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens

Birth name Peter Paul Rubens
Born June 28, 1577
Siegen, Westphalia
Died May 30, 1640
Antwerp, Flanders
Nationality Flemish
Field Painting
Movement Baroque

Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically-educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, king of Spain, and Charles I, king of England. Public domain image from http://www. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... Siegen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Annunciation Triptych is an altarpiece, ca. ... Self-portrait by Vincent Van Gogh A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: Art stubs | Painting ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...

Contents

Biography

"Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower", 1609-10. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
"Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower", 1609-10. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2673, 512 KB) Description: Title: de: Selbstporträt des Malers mit seiner Frau Isabella Brant in der Geißblattlaube Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 178 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Flandern) Current location (city): de: M... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2673, 512 KB) Description: Title: de: Selbstporträt des Malers mit seiner Frau Isabella Brant in der Geißblattlaube Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 178 × 136,5 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Flandern) Current location (city): de: M... The Honeysuckle Bower (ca. ... The Alte Pinakothek (Old Pinakothek) is an art museum situated in the Kunstareal in Munich, Germany. ...

Early life

Rubens was born in Siegen, Westphalia, to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the legal advisor (and lover) to Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange, and settled at her court in Siegen in 1570. Following imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother to Antwerp, where he was raised Catholic. Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting.[1] Siegen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. ... Anna of Saxony (December 23, 1544-December 18, 1577) was the only child and heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes of Hesse. ... William I (William the Silent). ...


In Antwerp Rubens received a humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late mannerists Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen.[2] Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio Raimondi's engravings after Raphael. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master.[3] Tobias Verhaecht (Antwerp, 1561–1631) was a painter and draughtsman active in Antwerp, Florence and Rome. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Adam van Noort (1561–1641) was a successful Antwerp painter and draughtsman in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Otto van Veen, Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, c. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Marcantonio Raimondi (c. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ...

Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma, 1603, Museo del Prado, Madrid. Painted during Rubens's first trip to Spain in 1603.
Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma, 1603, Museo del Prado, Madrid. Painted during Rubens's first trip to Spain in 1603.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (559 × 800 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma, 1603, Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (559 × 800 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Lerma, 1603, Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this...

Italy (1600–1608)

In 1600, Rubens traveled to Italy. He stopped first in Venice, where he experienced first-hand paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of duke Vincenzo I of Gonzaga. The coloring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an immediate effect on Rubens's painting, and his later, mature style was profoundly influenced by Titian.[4] With financial support from the duke, Rubens traveled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. There, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters. The Hellenistic sculpture Laocoön and his Sons was especially influential on him, as was the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci.[5] He was also influenced by the recent, highly naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio. He later made a copy of that artist's Entombment of Christ, recommended that his patron, the duke of Mantua, purchase The Death of the Virgin (Louvre),[6] and was instrumental in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) for the Dominican church in Antwerp. During this first stay in Rome, Rubens completed his first altarpiece commission, St. Helena with the True Cross for the Roman church, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Veronese means either of the following things: the painter Paolo Veronese someone or something from Verona, Italy. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ... Vincenzo I of Gonzaga (1562-1612), son of Guglielmo I, was ruler of the Duchy of Mantua from 1587 to 1612. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental marble sculpture, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... The Entombment of Christ or Deposition from the Cross (1602-1603) is a masterwork completed by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, and originally located in [Santa Maria in Vallicella], a church buit for St Phillip Neri, and adjacent to his Oratory building. ... The Death of the Virgin (1606) is a masterwork completed by Caravaggio. ... This article is about the museum. ... The Madonna of the Rosary is a painting finished in 1607 by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. ... Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna. ... Facade of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. ...


Rubens traveled to Spain on a diplomatic mission in 1603, delivering gifts from the Gonzagas to the court of Philip III. While there, he viewed the extensive collections of Raphael and Titian that had been collected by Philip II.[7] He also painted an equestrian portrait of the Duke of Lerma during his stay (Prado, Madrid) that demonstrates the influence of works like Titian's Charles V at Mühlberg (1548; Prado, Madrid). This journey marks the first of many during his career that would combine art and diplomacy. Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma, Spanish statesman Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), the Spanish favorite of Philip III of Spain and minister, was the first of the validos or strongmen through whom the later Spanish... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3017, 416 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Titian ...

The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels, 1608. Oil on slate and copper. Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome. This is the central panel depicting The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels at the high altar.
The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels, 1608. Oil on slate and copper. Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome. This is the central panel depicting The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels at the high altar.

He returned to Italy in 1604, where he remained for the next four years—first in Mantua, and then in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, Rubens painted numerous portraits, such as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), in a style that would influence later paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Gainsborough.[8] He also began a book illustrating the palaces in the city. From 1606 to 1608, he was largely in Rome. During this period Rubens received his most important commission to date for the high altar of the city's most fashionable new church, Santa Maria in Vallicella (or, Chiesa Nuova). The subject was to be St. Gregory the Great and important local saints adoring an icon of the Virgin and Child. The first version, a single canvas (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble), was immediately replaced by a second version on three slate panels that permits the actual miraculous holy image of the "Santa Maria in Vallicella" to be revealed on important feast days by a removable copper cover, also painted by the artist.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 800 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Painting The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels Date: 1608 Size: 425 cm x 250 cm Source: Personal photograph Painter: Peter Paul Rubens Location: Santa... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 800 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Painting The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels Date: 1608 Size: 425 cm x 250 cm Source: Personal photograph Painter: Peter Paul Rubens Location: Santa... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Chiesa Nuova after restoration (2006). ... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The impact of Italy on Rubens was great. Besides the artistic influences, he continued to write many of his letters and correspondences in Italian for the rest of his life, signed his name as "Pietro Paolo Rubens", and spoke longingly of returning to the peninsula—a hope that never materialized.[10]

Infante Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566-1633), 1615. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Antwerp (1609–1621)

Upon hearing of his mother's illness in 1608, Rubens planned his departure from Italy for Antwerp. Unfortunately, she died before he made it home. His return coincided with a period of renewed prosperity in the city with the signing of Treaty of Antwerp in April 1609, which initiated the Twelve Years' Truce. In September of that year Rubens was appointed court painter by Albert and Isabella, the governors of the Low Countries. He received special permission to base his studio in Antwerp, instead of at their court in Brussels, and to also work for other clients. He remained close to the Archduchess Isabella until her death in 1633, and was called upon not only as a painter but also as an ambassador and diplomat. Rubens further cemented his ties to the city when, on October 3, 1609, he married Isabella Brant, the daughter of a leading Antwerp citizen and humanist Jan Brant. Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... The Treaty of Antwerp (or the Twelve Years Truce) was signed on April 9, 1609 between Spain and the Netherlands. ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... Albert and his wife Isabella Archduke Albert Ernst of Austria, Duke of Luxembourg etc (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was appointed for the Spanish monarchy as Governor of the Low Countries in 1595, and from 1598 became joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces with his wife, Infanta Isabella Clara... Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ...

Peter Paul Rubens and Frans Snyders, Prometheus Bound, 1611-12. Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Peter Paul Rubens and Frans Snyders, Prometheus Bound, 1611-12. Philadelphia Museum of Art.

In 1610, he moved into a new house and studio that he designed. Now the Rubenshuis museum, the Italian-influenced villa in the center of Antwerp contained his workshop, where he and his apprentices made most of the paintings, and his personal art collection and library, both among the most extensive in Antwerp. During this time he built up a studio with numerous students and assistants. His most famous pupil was the young Anthony van Dyck, who soon became the leading Flemish portraitist and collaborated frequently with Rubens. He also frequently collaborated with the many specialists active in the city, including the animal painter Frans Snyders, who contributed to the eagle to Prometheus Bound (illustrated left), and his good friend the flower-painter Jan Brueghel the Elder. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2348 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens Philadelphia Museum of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2348 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens Philadelphia Museum of... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Franz Snyders (1579 - 1657 ) Flemish painter of animals and still life, was born and died at Antwerp. ... Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568-1625) was a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and father of Jan Brueghel the Younger. ...

Altarpieces such as The Raising of the Cross (1610) and The Descent from the Cross (1611–1614) for the Cathedral of Our Lady were particularly important in establishing Rubens as Flanders' leading painter shortly after his return. The Raising of the Cross, for example, demonstrates the artist's synthesis of Tintoretto's Crucifixion for the Scuola di San Rocco in Venice, Michelangelo's dynamic figures, and Rubens's own personal style. This painting has been held as a prime example of Baroque religious art.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2174 pixel, file size: 424 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens The Elevation of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2174 pixel, file size: 424 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens The Elevation of... Peter Paul Rubens. ... Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, was started in 1351 and completed in 1521. ... Peter Paul Rubens. ... Peter Paul Rubens. ... Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, was started in 1351 and completed in 1521. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 343 pixelsFull resolution (4096 × 1755 pixel, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links No pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file. ...


Rubens used the production of prints and book title-pages, especially for his friend Balthasar Moretus—owner of the large Plantin-Moretus publishing house— to further extend his fame throughout Europe during this part of his career. With the exception of a couple of brilliant etchings, he only produced drawings for these himself, leaving the printmaking to specialists, such as Lucas Vorsterman.[12] He recruited a number of engravers trained by Goltzius, who he carefully schooled in the more vigorous style he wanted. He also designed the last significant woodcuts before the 19th century revival in the technique. [13] The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... Christophe Plantin by Peter Paul Rubens Christoffel Plantijn (in French Christophe Plantin) (ca. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Lucas Vorsterman (Zaltbommel, 1595–Antwerp, 1675) was a Baroque engraver. ... Icarus by Goltzius Hendrik Goltzius (1558 - January 1, 1617), Dutch printmaker, draftsman and painter, was born at Millebrecht, in the duchy of Julich. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface...

The Exchange of Princesses, from the Marie de' Medici Cycle. Louvre, Paris.
The Exchange of Princesses, from the Marie de' Medici Cycle. Louvre, Paris.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2707 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2707 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens ...

The Marie de' Medici Cycle and diplomatic missions (1621–1630)

In 1621, the queen-mother of France, Marie de' Medici, commissioned Rubens to paint two large allegorical cycles celebrating her life and the life of her late husband, Henry IV, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The Marie de' Medici cycle (now in the Louvre) was installed in 1625, and although he began work on the second series it was never completed.[14] Marie was exiled from France in 1630 by her son, Louis XIII, and died in 1642 in the same house in Cologne where Rubens had lived as a child.[15] Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Luxembourg Palace The Luxembourg Palace in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by the wife of King Henri IV of France, Queen Marie de Medici, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After the end of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621, the Spanish Habsburg rulers entrusted Rubens with a number of diplomatic missions.[16] Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens's diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. He also made several trips to the Northern Netherlands as both an artist and a diplomat. At the courts he sometimes encountered the attitude that courtiers should not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was also received as a gentleman by many. It was during this period that Rubens was twice knighted, first by Philip IV of Spain in 1624, and then by Charles I of England in 1630. He was also awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in 1629.[17] Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to denote senior status within the university, not for further study or research. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...

The Fall of Man (after Titian), 1628–29. Prado, Madrid.
The Fall of Man ( after Titian), 1628–29. Prado, Madrid.

Rubens was in Madrid for eight months in 1628–1629. In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he executed several important works for Philip IV and private patrons. He also began a renewed study of Titian's paintings, copying numerous works including the Madrid Fall of Man (1628–29; illustrated right).[18] During this stay, he befriended the court painter Diego Velázquez. The two planned to travel to Italy together the following year. Rubens, however, returned to Antwerp and Velázquez made the journey without him.[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (655 × 896 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (655 × 896 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (757 × 1000 pixel, file size: 514 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Another version of this image can be found here. ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ...


His stay in Antwerp was brief, and he soon traveled on to London. Rubens stayed there until April, 1630. An important work from this period is the Allegory of Peace and War (1629; National Gallery, London).[1]. It illustrates the artist's strong concern for peace, and was given to Charles I as a gift. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ...


While Rubens's international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, he and his workshop also continued to paint monumental paintings for local patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1625-6) for the Cathedral of Antwerp is one prominent example. Studio of Sir Peter Paul Rubens. ...

Portrait of Hélène Fourment (Het Pelsken), c. 1630s. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Portrait of Hélène Fourment (Het Pelsken), c. 1630s. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

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Last decade (1630–1640)

Rubens's last decade was spent in and around Antwerp. Major works for foreign patrons still occupied him, such as the ceiling paintings for the Banqueting House at Inigo Jones's Palace of Whitehall, but he also explored more personal artistic directions. Banqueting House, Whitehall, London The Banqueting House at Whitehall is a famous London building, formerly part of the Palace of Whitehall, designed by architect Inigo Jones in 1619, and completed in 1622, with assistance from John Webb. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ...


In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife, the 53-year-old painter married 16-year-old Hélène Fourment. Hélène inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), The Three Graces (Prado, Madrid) and The Judgment of Paris (Prado, Madrid). In the latter painting, which was made for the Spanish court, the artist's young wife was recognized by viewers in the figure of Venus. In an intimate portrait of her, Hélène Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also known as Het Pelsken (illustrated left), Rubens's wife is even partially modeled after classical sculptures of the Venus Pudica, such as the Medici Venus. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixel Image in higher resolution (3200 × 1982 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Putto ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2497 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links No pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 406 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 1622 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links No pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The Ludovisi Cnidian Aphrodite, Roman marble copy (torso and thighs) with restored head, arms, legs and drapery support The Aphrodite of Cnidus was one of the most famous works of the Attic sculptor Praxiteles (4th century BC). ... The Venus de Medici The Venus de Medici or Medici Venus is a lifesize (1. ...

The Château de Steen with Hunter, ca. 1635-8 (National Gallery, London)
The Château de Steen with Hunter, ca. 1635-8 (National Gallery, London)

In 1635, Rubens bought an estate outside of Antwerp, the Château de Steen (Het Steen), where he spent much of his time. Landscapes, such as his Château de Steen with Hunter (National Gallery, London; illustrated right) and Farmers Returning from the Fields (Pitti Gallery, Florence), reflect the more personal nature of many of his later works. He also drew upon the Netherlandish traditions of Pieter Bruegel the Elder for inspiration in later works like Flemish Kermis (c. 1630; Louvre, Paris). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 442 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1415 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens User:Rl/Images... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 442 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1415 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter Paul Rubens User:Rl/Images... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1607 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Rl/Images ... Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 463 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1481 pixel, file size: 429 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): User:Rl/Images ...


On May 30, 1640, Rubens died at age 63 of gout, and was interred in Saint Jacob's church, Antwerp. Between his two marriages the artist had eight children, three with Isabella and five with Hélène; his youngest child was born eight months after his death. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...

Rubens is known for the frenetic energy and lusty ebullience of his paintings, as typified by the Hippopotamus Hunt (1616).
Rubens is known for the frenetic energy and lusty ebullience of his paintings, as typified by the Hippopotamus Hunt (1616).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2486, 796 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hippopotamus Peter Paul Rubens User:Rl/Images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2486, 796 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hippopotamus Peter Paul Rubens User:Rl/Images ...

Art

Rubens was a prolific artist. His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. For the kind of film, see ephemeral film. ... The Joyous Entry (Blijde Inkomst in Dutch, Joyeuse Entrée in French), implying the peaceable entry of the Duke of Brabant into his city of Brussels—is the charter of liberties granted to the Duchy of Brabant following the death in 1355 of its Duke, Jan III; the document is... Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/16101 in Escorial near Madrid, Spain - 9 November 1641 in Brussels) (also known as Fernando and as Ferdinand von Österreich), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Cardinal, Infante of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo (1619-41), and commander during the Thirty Years War...


His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not detailed; he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Oil sketch modello by Tiepolo, 69 x 55 cm, for this five metre high altarpiece An Oil sketch is an artwork made primarily in oil paints, and which is more abbreviated in handling than a fully finished painting. ... The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, interior view, 1432. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Annunciation Triptych is an altarpiece, ca. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ...


Workshop

Paintings can be divided into three categories: those painted by Rubens himself, those which he painted in part (mainly hands and faces), and those he only supervised. He had, as was usual at the time, a large workshop with many apprentices and students, some of whom, such as Anthony Van Dyck, became famous in their own right. He also often sub-contracted elements such as animals or still-life in large compositions to specialists such as Frans Snyders, or other artists such as Jacob Jordaens. Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Transparent bowl of fruit and vases. ... Franz Snyders (1579 - 1657 ) Flemish painter of animals and still life, was born and died at Antwerp. ... Jacob Jordaens, Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. ...

The Massacre of the Innocents, c. 1611. Art Gallery of Ontario, on loan to the National Gallery, London.

The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... The main entrance to the AGO The Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) is an art museum on the eastern edge of Torontos downtown Chinatown district, on Dundas Street West between McCaul Street and Beverley Street. ...

Value of his works

At a Sotheby's auction on July 10, 2002, Rubens' newly discovered painting Massacre of the Innocents (illustrated right) sold for £49.5million ($76.2 million) to Lord Thomson. It is a current record for an Old Master painting. Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Peter Paul Rubens. ... USD redirects here. ... Kenneth Roy Thomson, born September 1, 1923 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is the 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet and a businessman and art collector. ... An Old Master (or old master) is one of the great European painters who lived 1500 through 1800, or a painting by one of these painters. ...


Recently in 2006, however, another lost masterpiece by Rubens, The Calydonian Boar Hunt, dating to 1611 or 1612, was sold to the Getty Collection in Paris for an unknown amount. It had been mistakenly attributed to a follower of Rubens for centuries until art experts authenticated it.[2]


Rubens in popular culture

As many of his paintings feature full-figured, voluptuous women, the word "Rubenesque" (meaning plump or fleshy, yet not "fat," and used exclusively to describe women) is derived from his last name.[3] Rubens Venus at the Mirror Big Beautiful Woman (commonly abbreviated as BBW) is a neologism most frequently used in the context of affirmation of or sexual attraction to women who are overweight or obese, whose bodies have excessive adipose tissue. ...


Notes

Rubens' "Venus at the Mirror"
Rubens' "Venus at the Mirror"
  1. ^ Belkin (1998): 11–18.
  2. ^ Held (1983): 14-35.
  3. ^ Belkin (1998): 22–38.
  4. ^ Belkin (1998): 42; 57.
  5. ^ Belkin (1998): 52–57
  6. ^ Belkin (1998): 59.
  7. ^ Belkin (1998): 71–73
  8. ^ Belkin (1998): 75.
  9. ^ Jaffé (1977): 85–99; Belting (1994): 484–90, 554–56.
  10. ^ Belkin (1998): 95.
  11. ^ Martin (1977): 109.
  12. ^ Pauw-De Veen (1977): 243-251.
  13. ^ A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, no.427-32, ISBN 0691003262
  14. ^ Belkin (1998): 175; 192; Held (1975): 218–233, esp. pp. 222–225.
  15. ^ Belkin (1998): 173-175.
  16. ^ Belkin (1998): 199–228.
  17. ^ Belkin (1998): 339–340
  18. ^ Belkin (1998): 210–218.
  19. ^ Belkin (1998): 217–218.

Image File history File links Scaled-down example of a Rubens full-figured work of art from http://www. ... Image File history File links Scaled-down example of a Rubens full-figured work of art from http://www. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...

Bibliography

  • Belkin, Kristin Lohse (1998). Rubens. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-7148-3412-2. 
  • Belting, Hans (1994). Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226042154. 
  • Held, Julius S. (1975) "On the Date and Function of Some Allegorical Sketches by Rubens." In: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Vol. 38: 218–233.
  • Held, Julius S. (1983) "Thoughts on Rubens' Beginnings." In: Ringling Museum of Art Journal: 14–35. ISBN 0-916758-12-5.
  • Jaffé, Michael (1977). Rubens and Italy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801410649. 
  • Martin, John Rupert (1977). Baroque. HarperCollins. ISBN 0064300773. 
  • Mayor, A. Hyatt (1971). Prints and People. Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton. ISBN 0691003262. 
  • Pauw-De Veen, Lydia de. "Rubens and the graphic arts." In: Connoisseur CXCV/786 (Aug 1977): 243–251.

The Phaidon Press is one of the leading publishers of books on the visual arts, including art, architecture, photography, and design worldwide. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Cornell University Press, established in 1869, was the first university publishing enterprise in the United States and is one of the countrys largest university presses. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

Further reading

  • Alpers, Svetlana. The Making of Rubens. New Haven 1995.
  • Heinen, Ulrich, "Rubens zwischen Predigt und Kunst." Weimar 1996.
  • Büttner, Nils, Herr P. P. Rubens. Göttingen 2006.
  • Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard. An Illustrated Catalogue Raisonne of the Work of Peter Paul Rubens Based on the Material Assembled by the Late Dr. Ludwig Burchard in Twenty-Seven Parts, Edited by the Nationaal Centrum Voor de Plastische Kunsten Van de XVI en de XVII EEUW.
  • Lilar, Suzanne, Le Couple (1963), Paris, Grasset; Reedited 1970, Bernard Grasset Coll. Diamant, 1972, Livre de Poche; 1982, Brussels, Les Éperonniers, ISBN 2-8713-2193-0; Translated as Aspects of Love in Western Society in 1965, by and with a foreword by Jonathan Griffin, New York, McGraw-Hill, LC 65-19851.
  • Vlieghe, Hans, Flemish Art and Architecture 1585-1700, Yale University Press, Pelican History of Art, New Haven and London, 1998.

Suzanne Lilar in the 1980 Suzanne Lilar (born Suzanne Verbist) (b. ...

See also

This is an incomplete list of Flemish painters, with place and date of birth and death and painting style. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ...

External links

  • National Gallery: Rubens
  • The Guardian: Rubens
  • At the exhibition Drawings by Peter Paul Rubens in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MET) of New-York 115 drawings of Pieter-Paul Rubens were on display in April 2005. http://www.metmuseum.org/
  • The Allegory of Peace and War
  • The Virgin and Child with St Elizabeth and the Child Baptist 1630-35
  • Rubenshuis in Antwerp, Belgium is the former house of Rubens, now converted into a museum.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Peter Paul Rubens
Persondata
NAME Rubens, Peter Paul
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rubens, Peter Paul
SHORT DESCRIPTION seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter
DATE OF BIRTH June 28, 1577
PLACE OF BIRTH Siegen, Westphalia
DATE OF DEATH May 30, 1640
PLACE OF DEATH Antwerp, Flanders

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peter Paul Rubens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (923 words)
"Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower" Alte Pinakothek
Rubens was a good friend and occasional collaborator of the family Moretus, owners of the large Plantin-Moretus publishing house.
Rubens died of gout at age 63 and was interred in Saint Jacob's church, Antwerp.
Peter Paul Rubens - MSN Encarta (789 words)
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Flemish painter, considered the most important of the 17th century, whose style came to define the animated, exuberantly sensuous aspects of baroque painting (see Baroque Art and Architecture).
Rubens created a vibrant style that combined the bold brushwork, luminous color, and shimmering light of the Venetian school (represented by Titian and Paulo Veronese) with the vigor of the art of Michelangelo and the formal dynamism of ancient Greek sculpture from the Hellenistic Age.
Peter Paul was born in exile in Siegen, Westphalia (now in Germany), also the birthplace of his brother Philip and his sister Baldina.
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